History of Europe from the commencement of the French revolution to the restoration of the Bourbons (2023)

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{{Template}} History of Europe from the commencement of the French revolution to the restoration of the Bourbons () is a multi-volume book by Sir Archibald Alison, 1st Baronet

It is considered to be the first scholarly English-language study of the French Revolution.


Full text of volume 4



PRINTED BY CRAPELET, 9, RUE DE VAUGIRARD.tHISTORY OF EUROPEFROM THE COMMENCEMENTOF THEFRENCH REVOLUTIONIN M.DCC.LXXXIX.TO THE RESTORATION OF THE BOURBONSIN M.DCCC.XV.BY ARCHIBALD ALISON, F.R.S.E.ADVOCATE.BELLUM maxime omnium memorabile quæ unquam gesta sint me scripturum;quod Hannibale duce Carthaginienses cum populo Romano gessere . Nam neque validiores opibus ullæ inter se civitates gentesque contulerunt arma, neque his ipsis tantum unquam virium aut roboris fuit: et haud ignotas belli artes inter se,sed expertas primo Punico conserebant bello; odiis etiam prope majoribus certarunt quam viribus; et adeo varia belli fortuna, ancepsqueMars fuit, ut propius periculum fuerint qui vicerunt."-TIT. Liv. lib. 21.VOL. IV.PARIS,BAUDRY'S EUROPEAN LIBRARY,3, QUAI MALAQUAIS, NEAR THE PONT DES ARTS;AND STASSIN ET XAVIER, 9, RUE DU COQ.SOLD ALSO BY AMYOT, RUE DE LA PAIX; TRUCHY, BOULEVARD DES ITALIENS;BROCKHAUS AND AVENARIUS, RUE RICHELIEU; LEOPOLD MICHELSEN, LEIPZIG;AND BY ALL THE PRINCIPAL BOOKSELLERS ON THE CONTINENT.1841.Fr1327.6.2HARVARD COLLEGE R. YFROM THE LIBRARY PMRS. ELLEN HAVEN ROSSJUNE 28, 19381CONTENTS OF VOLUME IV.CHAPTER XXVIII.FROM THE RENEWAL OF THE WAR, TO THE BATTLE OF THE TREBBIA.Preparations for the Alliance of England, Austria, and Russia against France -Internal Stateand Measures of England- Forces of the opposing Parties on the Continent-Commencement of Hostilities-Defeat of the Austrians in the Grisons-Battle of Stockach, and Defeatof the French in Germany-Dissolution of the Congress of Rastadt-Operations in ItalyDefeat of the French on the Mincio-Retreat of the French in the Grisons, and of Massénato Zurich-Expulsion of the Republicans from the St.-Gothard , and of Masséna fromZurich-Arrival of Suwarrow and the Russians in Italy-Their rapid Successes-Passage of the Adda and Conquest of Lombardy and Piedmont-Retreat of Macdonald from Naples toTuscany-Battle of the Trebbia, between his Army and Suwarrow-Further Successes ofthe Allies in Piedmont-Counter-Revolution and Massacres at Naples. -P. 1-46.CHAPTER XXIX .FROM THE BATTLE OF THE TREBBIA TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE CAMPAIGN.Preparations of both Parties for a continuance of the Contest-Siege and Fall of Mantua, andof the Piedmontese Fortresses-Commencement of the Siege of Genoa-Battle of Novi, andsubsequent Successes of the Allies -March of Suwarrow into Switzerland- His Advance tothe St. -Gothard-Separation of the Austrian and Russian forces in front of Zurich-TotalDefeat of the latter by Masséna- Bloody Combats on the St. -Gothard, and in Glarus, anddisastrous Retreat of Suwarrow into the Grisons-Concluding Operations on the UpperRhine-Anglo-Russian expedition to Holland-Its early Success, and ultimate FailureOperations in Piedmont-Battle of Genoa, and Siege and Fall of Coni-Rupture between the Austrians and Russians-Reflections on the Campaign.-47-92.CHAPTER XXX.FROM THE ACCESSION OF NAPOLÉON TO THE OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO.Proposals of Peace by the First Consul to the British Government-Correspondence consequent thereon between the two States-Debates on the subject in Parliament-Domesticaffairs of Great Britain at this period -Union with Ireland- Scarcity of Provisions, and efforts of Government to assuage it-Able measures of Napoléon for the Pacification ofFrance-Extinction of the Liberty of the Press-Establishment of the Court at the Tuileries -Establishment of the Secret Police-Correspondence with Louis XVIII. - 93—122.vi CONTENTS.CHAPTER XXXI.CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO.Relative Situation of both Parties at the Campaign -Advance of Moreau across the BlackForest-Victories of Engen, Moeskirch, and Biberach-Able Conduct of Kray in the Intrenched Camp at Ulm-Measures of Moreau to dislodge him, which at length are successful -Operations in the Grisons-Armistice of Parsdorf-Operations in the Maritime Alps after Masséna assumed the command-Severe Actions round Genoa-Blockade and Surrender of that place -Retreat of Suchet to the Var-Passage of the St. - Bernard by Napoléonwith the Army of Reserve-Capture of Milan and Battle of Montebello-Disastrous Retreatof Elnitz from the Var-Battle of Marengo-Armistice of Alexandria, and Cession of the Piedmontese Fortresses -Reflections on this Campaign . - 123-178.CHAPTER XXXII.CAMPAIGN OF HOHENLINDEN.Negotiations of France with Austria and England for a general Peace, which fail-AbortiveEnglish Expedition to the Coast of Spain-Operations in Italy and Switzerland-Advance ofthe Austrians from the Inn into Bavaria, and their total Defeat at Hohenlinden -DisastrousRetreat to Salzburg-Action there, and conclusion of an Armistice -Movements of Macdonald's army in the Grisons-Passage of the Splugen , and subsequent Operations in theItalian Tyrol-Conflicts between Brune and the Imperialists on the Mincio-Retreat of Bellegarde, and Armistice of Treviso-Peace with Naples under the Intercession of Russia Operations in Tuscany-Peace of Lunéville-Reflections on the first general Pacificationof the Continent.--179-222.CHAPTER XXXIII.FROM THE PEACE OF LUNÉVILLE TO THE DISSOLUTION OF THE NORTHERN MARITIMECONFEDERACY.Origin ofthe Maritime and Neutral Question-Principles of the Law of Nations on the subject,and Invasion of them by the Armed Neutrality in 1780-Subsequent Abandonment of thesePretensions by the Northern Powers-Revival of the Question in 1800 --Violent Proceed ings of Paul against the English Commerce-Formation of the Maritime Confederacy of the Baltic Powers - Expedition to Copenhagen-Victory of Nelson there-Death of Paul-Ac cession, Character, and early Measures of Alexander-Dissolution of the Maritime Confederacy, and Peace with the Baltic Powers. -223-263.CHAPTER XXXIV.EXPEDITION TO EGYPT-CONCLUSION OF THE WAR.State of the French Army in Egypt when it was abandoned by Napoléon-Convention of ElArish-Battle of Heliopolis -Assassination of Kléber-Arrival of Sir Ralph Abercromby's Expedition on the coast-Landing of the troops, and battle of Alexandria-Advance to andSurrender of Cairo-Arrival of Sir D. Baird from India by the Red Sea -Siege and surrenderof Alexandria -Naval Operations-Successive Battles in Algesirazi bay-Invasion of Por tugal by France and Spain -Preparations for an invasion and attack on Boulogne-Treaty of Amiens, and Peace between France and Russia -Debates on the subject in the BritishParliament-Statistical details on the comparative progress of France and England during the war, and the relative situation of both countries at its termination . -264-313.CONTENTS. viiCHAPTER XXXV.RECONSTRUCTION OF SOCIETY IN FRANCE BY NAPOLÉON.Measures of the First Consul to restore order in France-Explosion of the Infernal Machine,and consequent measures of severity against the Jacobins -Debates on that subject in theCouncil of State-On the Legion of Honour, which is carried after a warm opposition- Onthe re-establishment of Religion, in which Napoléon is also successful-Relaxation of themeasures of severity towards the Emigrants -Measures for Public and Military Instruction-Cadastre, and attempts to correct its inequalities -Creation of the Consulship for life , andgreat change on the constitution- Flattering aspect of Paris during the peace-Rapid increase of the Executive Power-Renewed Correspondence with Louis XVIII -Formationof the Code Napoléon -Revolutionary Law of Succession-Its prodigious Effects - Law of Divorce-Great Public Works set on foot in France. - 314-361.CHAPTER XXXVI.NAPOLÉON'S ASSUMPTION OF THE IMPERIAL CROWN.Origin of the conspiracy of Georges, Pichegru , and the Royalists-Measures of Fouché toform a union between them and Moreau, with a view to betray both to the First ConsulProgress of the plot-Arrest of all the leaders, and of Moreau-Seizure , Trial, and Murderof the duke d'Enghien-Trial of Moreau , Georges, and others -Death of Pichegru and Captain Wright in prison-Preparatory Measures of Napoléon for the assumption of the imperial crown-Debates on the subject in the Tribunate-Its adoption by the SenateHereditary succession vested in Napoléon's family-Creation of the Marshals ofthe Empire-Total slavery of the Press, and general prostration of the whole public liberties Reflections on the causes of these events . - 362-390.1HISTORY OF EUROPEFROM THE COMMENCEMENTOF THEFRENCH REVOLUTION.CHAPTER XXVIII.CAMPAIGN OF 1799.FROM THE RENEWAL OF THE WAR, TO THE BATTLE OF THE TREBBIA.ARGUMENT.Revival of the Spirit of Europe by the Battle of the Nile-Preparations of Austria-and Russia -Treaty of Alliance, offensive and defensive, between England and Russia-Preparationsof the British Government-Income-Tax-Observations on the expedience of this taxLand and Sea Forces voted by Parliament-Universal discontent at the French Government-State of the Military Forces of France-Their disposition over the Theatre of approachingWar-Forces of the Imperialists, and their positions - Ruinous effects of the Invasion ofSwitzerland and Italy to the French military power-The French commence hostilitiesOperations in the Grisons - The Republicans are at first successful-The Austrians aredriven back with great loss into the Tyrol- But Masséna is defeated in repeated attacks on Feldkirch-Jourdan receives a check from the Archduke Charles-Importance of this success-Position of the French at Stockach-Battle of Stockach-Defeat of the French-They Retreat across the Rhine-Congress of Rastadt-Its dissolution- Assassination of the FrenchDeputies-General horror which it excites in France, and throughout Europe-Commencement of Hostilities in Italy-Imprudent dispersion ofthe French Forces there-Position ofthe Imperialists on the Adige -French Plan of Operations-Preliminary Movements ofboth Parties-First Successes of the French on the Adige-Lead to no decisive resultScherer experiences a check in endeavouring to cross that river-Countermarches of bothparties -Decisive Battle at Magnano-Brilliant attack of Kray with the Reserve gives the Austrians the Victory-Its decisive Results-Disorderly Retreat of the French- Corfu surrenders to the Russian and Turkish Fleets-Operations in Germany-Masséna fallsback in the Alps-Description of the Theatre of War-General Attack upon Masséna's Linein the Grisons - Insurrection of the Swiss in his rear, being unsupported, is crushedMasséna draws back his Right Wing in the Italian Alps-General Attack by the Austrianson the French in the Grisons-Luciensteg is carried-Retreat of Masséna behind the LakeofZurich-Part of the Austrian Left Wing is detached into Lombardy-French Centre isforced by the Archduke-Their Right Wing is driven from the St.-Gothard -Masséna'sposition at Zurich-He is there unsuccessfully attacked by the Archduke -Who prepares asecond and better arranged attack-Masséna prevents it by a Retreat-Dissolution of all the Swiss forces in the Service of France-Reflections on the magnitude of the preceding operations in the Alps-Arrival of the Russians under Suwarrow on the Mincio- Character ofthese Troops and their Commander-Moreau succeeds to the Command of the Italian Army-Its wretched condition- He retreats behind the Adda-The passage of that river is forcedwith immense loss to the French-Surrender of Serrurier with 7000 men- Suwarrow entersMilan in Triumph-Moreau retires to Alexandria and Turin--Whither he is tardily followedby Suwarrow-Check of the Russians under Rosenberg in endeavouring to cross the Po- IV.12 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP . XXVIII.Indecisive Action between Suwarrow and Moreau near Alexandria-Moreau at length Retreats to the crest of the Apeninnes and Turin -Suwarrow surprises Turin-and the Castle of Milan is taken-Moreau Retreats towards Genoa, retiring over the Apennines to that town, still occupying the crest of the mountains-Suwarrow spreads over the whole of Piedmont and Lombardy-Reflections on these rapid Successes of the Allies-Affairs of the Parthenopeian Republic at Naples -Revolt excited by the oppression of the French- Mac donald commences his Retreat-Though repeatedly assailed, he regains in safety the North of Tuscany-He there enters into communication with Moreau, and concerts measures with him-Position of the Allies at this juncture-Dangers arising from their great disper sion-Macdonald's Advance, and first combats with the Republicans -Able and energetic resolution immediately adopted by Suwarrow-The two Armies meet on the Trebbia-First and indecisive Actions there-Suwarrow's judicious Plan of Attack-Battle of the Trebbia,and Success of the Russians on the second day-Singular nocturnal Combat on the second night-Preparations of both Parties for Battle on the third day-Desperate Conflict on the same field-Decisive attack of Prince Lichtenstein on the French centre-Victory at length remains with the Russians-Excessive Loss on both sides-Disastrous Retreat of the French over the Apennines-Successful Operations during the battle , of Moreau against Bellegarde -Fall of the Citadel of Turin-Moreau Retreats on Suwarrow turning against him; while Macdonald by a painful circuit regains Genoa-Reorganization of both French Armies under Moreau -Reflections on Suwarrow's admirable conduct in the preceding Movements -Naval efforts of the Directory to get back the Army from Egypt-which come to nothing -Expulsion of the Republicans from the Kingdom of Naples -Bloody Revenge of the Royalist Party there-Violation of the Capitulation by the Neapolitan Court-Nelson concurs in these iniquitous proceedings -Deplorable Fate of Prince Carraccioli on board Nelson's own ship-Reflections on these Unpardonable Atrocities -And on the Inferences to be drawn from the preceding Campaign.Revival of the spirit ofthe the Nile.THE cannon of Nelson, which destroyed the French fleet atEurope by Aboukir, re- echoed from one end of Europe to the other, and everywhere revived the spirit of resistance to their ambition. That greatevent not only destroyed the charm of Republican invincibility, but relievedthe Allies of the dread arising from the military talents of Napoléon and histerrible Italian army, whom it seemed to sever for ever from the soil of Europe. The subjugation of Switzerland and the conquest of Italy were nolonger looked upon with mere secret apprehension; they were the subject ofloud and impassioned complaint over all Europe, and the allied sovereigns,upon this auspicious event, no longer hesitated to engage in open preparations for the resumption of hostilities (1) .Austria felt that the moment was approaching when she might reAustria. gain her lost provinces, restore her fallen influence, and oppose abarrier to the revolutionary torrent which was overwhelming Italy. She hadaccordingly been indefatigable in her exertions to recruit and remodel herarmies since the treaty of Leoben; and they were now, both in point of discipline, numbers, and equipment, on the most formidable footing. She hadtwo hundred and forty thousand men, supported by an immense artillery,ready to take the field , all admirably equipped and in the finest order, andto these were to be added sixty thousand Russians, who were advancingunder the renowned Suwarrow, flushed with the storming of Ismael andWarsaw, and anxious to measure their strength with the conquerors of sou And Russia. thern Europe. The Emperor of Russia, though he had been somewhat tardy in following out the designs of his illustrious predecessor, hadat length engaged warmly in the common cause; the outrage committed onthe Order of Malta, which had chosen him for their protector, filled himwith indignation, and he seemed desirous not only to send his armies tothe support of the Germanic states, but to guarantee the integrity of theirConfederation . Turkey had forgotten its ancient enmity to Russia, in animo(1) Th. x. 144, 145. Ann. Reg. 1799, 236. Jom. xi. 10, 11 .Prepara tion of11799.] HISTORY Of europe. 3sity against France for the unprovoked attack upon Egypt, and its fleets and armies threatened to enclose the conqueror of the Pyramids in the kingdomhe had won. Thus, while the ambition of the Directory in Switzerland andItaly roused against them the hostility of the centre of Europe, their impolitic and perilous expedition to the shores of Africa arrayed against France the fury of Mussulman zeal and the weight of Russian power (1) .Treaty of alliance, ofdefensive,On the 18th December, 1798, a treaty of alliance, offensive andfensive and defensive, was concluded between Great Britain and Russia, for the between purpose of putting a stop to the further encroachments of France.and Russia. By this treaty, Russia engaged to furnish an auxiliary force offorty-five thousand men, to act in conjunction with the British forces in thenorth of Germany; and England, besides an immediate advance of L.225,000,was to pay a monthly subsidy of L.75,000 . The Emperor Paul immediatelyentered, with all the vehemence of his character, into the prosecution of thewar; he gave an asylum to Louis XVIII in the capital of Courland; behavedwith munificence to the French emigrants who sought refuge in his dominions; accepted the office of Grand Master of the Knights of St. -John of Malta,and excited by every means in his power the spirit of resistance to the advances of republican ambition. All his efforts, however, failed in inducingthe Prussian cabinet to swerve from the cautious policy it had adopted eversince the retreat of the Duke of Brunswick, and the neutrality it had observedsince the treaty of Basle ( 2) . That power stood by in apparent indifference,and saw a desperate strife between the hostile powers, in which her own independence was at stake, when her army, now 220,000 strong, might haveinterfered with decisive effect in the struggle; and she was rewarded for herforbearance by the battle ofJena.Dec. 3, 1798. Great Britain made considerable exertions to improve the brilliant prospects thus unexpectedly opened to her view. Parliament met onthe 20th November, 1798, and shortly after entered on the arduous duty offinance. To meet the increased expenses which the treaty with Russia, andthe vigorous prosecution of the war in other countries, were likely to occasion, Mr. Pitt proposed a new tax, hitherto unknown in Great Britain, that Income-Tax. on property. No income under L.60 a-year was to pay any dutyat all; those under L.105 only a fortieth part, and above L.200 a tenth. Thetotal income of the nation was estimated at L.102,000,000, includingL.20,000,000 as the rent of lands; and the estimated produce of the tax onthis graduated scale was L.7,500,000. This tax proceeded on the principle ofraising as large a portion as possible of the supplies of the year by taxationwithin its limits, and compelling all persons to contribute, according to theirability, to the exigencies of the state; an admirable principle, if it could havebeen fully carried into effect, and which, if practicable and uniformly actedupon, would have prevented all the financial embarrassments consequent onthe war. But this was very far indeed from being the case. The expenses incurred so far exceeded the income, even in that very year, that a supplementary budget was brought forward on June 6th, 1799, which very muchaugmented the annual charges (3) .The principle of making the supplies of the year as nearly as possiblekeep pace with its expenditure, is the true system of public as well as(1 ) Arch. Ch. i . 40 , 41 , 47. Jom. xi . 96. Th. x.146. Ann. Reg. 1799, 238.(2) Hard. vii . 6, 7. Ann. Reg. 1799, 76, 78. Jom. xi. 9. 10.(3) Ann, Reg. 1799, 176 , 191. Parl, Hist. xxxi .174.Between the two budgets, loans were contracted to the amount of L. 15,000,000; and the total ex penditure, including L.13,653,000 for the army;L.8,840,000 for the navy; and a subsidy of L.825,000 to Russia; amounted, exclusive ofthe charges ofthe debt, to no less than L.31,000,000.4 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII.Observaexpedienceprivate finance; which has suffered , in every country, from no tions on the thing so much as the convenient but ruinous plan of borrowingof this tax for immediate exigencies, and laying the undying burden of interestupon the shoulders of posterity. But a greater error in finance never wascommitted than the introduction of the income-tax. In appearance the mostequal, it is in reality the most unequal of burdens; because it assesses at thesame rate many different classes whose resources are widely different. Thelanded proprietor, whose estate is worth thirty years' purchase of the rentalat which he is rated; the fundholder, whose stock is worth twenty ortwenty-five of the same annual payment; the merchant, whose profits oneyear may be swallowed up by losses the next season; the professional man,whose present income is not worth five years' purchase; the young annuitant, whose chance of life is as twenty, and the aged spinster, in whom it isnot two, are all rated at the same annual sum. The tax , in consequence, fallswith excessive and undue severity upon one class, and with unreasonablelightness upon others; it extinguishes the infant accumulations of capital,and puts an end to the savings of laborious industry; while it is comparatively unfelt by the great capitalist and the opulent landed proprietor. Unlikethe indirect taxes, which are paid without being felt, or forgotten in theenjoyments of the objects on which they are laid , it brings the bitternessof taxation, in undisguised nakedness, to every individual, and produces,in consequence, a degree of discontent and exasperation which nothing butthe excitement of continual warfare, or a sense of uncontrollable necessity,can induce a nation to bear.Land and sea forces voted byA considerable addition was made to the army this year. The landforces were raised to 158,000 men; the sea to 120,000 , includingParliament. 20,000 marines; and 104 ships of the line were put in commission.Besides this, 80,000 men were embodied in the militia of Great Britain alone,besides 40,000 in Ireland; an admirable force, which soon attained a veryhigh degree of discipline and efficiency, proved, through the whole remainder of the war, the best nursery for the troops of the line, and was inferior only in the quality and composition of its officers to the regulararmy (1).Universal discontent at the French goThe forces with which France was to resist this formidable confederacy were by no means commensurate either to the ambitionvernment. of the Directory , or the vast extent of territory that they had to defend. Both externally and internally the utmost discontent and dissatisfaction existed . The Republican armies, which in the outset divided so manystates by the delusive promises of liberty and equality, had excited universalhatred by the exactions which they had made, and the stern tyranny towhich they had every where subjected their new allies . Their most devotedadherents no longer attempted to palliate their conduct; from the frontier ofthe Jura to the extremity of Calabria, one universal cry had arisen against theselfish cupidity of the Directory, and the insatiable rapacity of its civil andmilitary officers. The Swiss democrats, who had called in the French to revolutionize their country, made the loudest lamentations at the unrelentingseverity with which the great contributions, to which they were so little accustomed, were exacted from the hard- earned fruits of their industry. TheCisalpine republic was a prey to the most vehement divisions; furious Jacobinism reigned in its legislative assemblies; the authorities imposed onthem by the French bayonets were in the highest degree unpopular; while in(1) Parl. His. xxxi . 231, 242. James' Naval, Hist. App. Vol. iii . Ann . Reg. 1799, 193. App. to Chron.113"1799.] HISTORY OF Europe.5Holland, the whole respectable class of citizens felt the utmost dissatisfactionat the violent changes made, both in their government and representativebody, by their imperious allies. From the affiliated republics, therefore, noefficient support could be expected; while the French government, nevertheless, was charged with the burden of their defence. From the Texel to Calabria, their forces were expanded over an immense surface, in great, butstill insufficient numbers; while the recent occupation of Switzerland hadopened up a new theatre of warfare hitherto untrod by the Republican soldiers (1).State of the military forces of France.During the two years which had elapsed since the termination ofhostilities, the military force of France had signally declined . Sickness and desertion had greatly diminished the ranks of the army;twelve thousand discharges had been granted to the soldiers, but more thanten times that number had deserted from their colours , and lived withoutdisguise at their homes, in such numbers as rendered it neither prudent norpracticable to attempt the enforcing their return . Five-and-thirty thousandof the best troops were exiled under Napoléon on a distant shore, and thoughthe addition of two hundred thousand conscripts had been ordered, the levyproceeded but slowly, and some months must yet elapse before they couldbe in a condition to take the field . The result of the whole was, that for theactual shock ofwar, from the Adige to the Maine, the Directory could onlycount on one hundred and seventy thousand men; the remainder of theirgreat forces were buried in the Italian peninsula, or too far removed fromthe theatre of hostilities, to be able to take an active part in the approachingcontest. The administration of the armies was on the most corrupted footing;the officers had become rapacious and insolent in the command of the conquered countries; and the civil agents either lived at free quarters on theinhabitants, or plundered without control the public money and stores whichpassed through their hands. Revolutionary energy had exhausted itself;regular and steady government was unknown, and the evils of a disorderedrule and an abandoned administration were beginning to recoil on those whohad produced them (2) .sition overof approachTheir dispo- The disposition of the Republican armies was as follows: Of onethe theatre hundred and ten thousand men, who were stationed in Italy,ing war. thirty thousand under Macdonald, were lost in the Neapolitan dominions, and the remainder so dispersed over the extensive provinces ofLombardy, Tuscany, and the Roman states, that only fifty thousand could becollected to bear the weight of the contest on the Adige. Forty- two thousand, under General Jourdan, were destined to carry the war from the UpperRhine, across the Black Forest, into the valley of the Danube. Masséna, atthe head of forty-five thousand, was stationed in Switzerland, and intendedto dislodge the Imperialists from the Tyrol and the upper valley of the Adige.Thirty thousand, under Bernadotte, were designed to form a corps of observation on the Lower Rhine from Dusseldorf to Manheim; while Brune at thehead of fifteen thousand French, and twenty thousand Dutch troops, wasintrusted with the defence ofthe Batavian republic. The design of the Directory was to turnthe position of the Imperialists on the Adige by getting possession of the mountains which enclosed the upper part of the stream, andthen drive the enemy before them, with the united armies of Switzerlandand Italy, across the mountains of Carinthia, while that of the Upper Rhine,( 1 ) Jom. xi. 88, 89. Th , ii , 161 , 173, 174, 207,208. Bot. iii, 94, 97.(2) Th. x. 182, 208, 209. Jom, xi, 89, 94. Dum.i. 33. Arch . Ch. Campagne de 1799, i , 48, 51.6 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII .descendingthe course ofthe Danube, was to unite with them under the wallsof Vienna ( 1 ) .Forces of the Impetheir dispoThe forces of the Austrians were both superior in point ofrialists , and number, better equipped, and stationed in more advantageous sition. situations. Their armies were collected behind the Lech, in theTyrol, and on the Adige. The first, under the command of the ArchdukeCharles, consisted of fifty-four thousand infantry and twenty-four thousandcavalry; in the Grisons and Tyrol, forty-four thousand infantry and two thousand five hundred horse were assembled under the banners of Bellegardeand Laudon; twenty-four thousand foot-soldiers and one thousand four hundred horse, under the command of Hotze, occupied the Vorarlberg; whilethe army on the Adige, seventy-two thousand strong, including eleven thousand cavalry, obeyed the orders of Kray; and twenty-four thousand on theMaine, or in garrison at Wurtzburg, observed the French forces of the LowerRhine. Thus two hundred and forty-six thousand men were concentratedbetween the Maine and the Po, and their centre rested on the mountains ofTyrol; a vast fortress, which had often afforded a sure refuge in case ofdisaster to the Imperial troops, and whose inhabitants were warmly attachedto the House of Austria. Above fifty thousand Russians were expected (2);but they could not arrive in time to enter into operations either on the Danube orthe Adige at the commencement of the campaign.These dispositions on both sides were made on the principle that the possession ofthe mountains ensures that of the plains, and that the key to the Austrian monarchy was to be found in the Tyrol Alps; a great error, andwhich has been since abundantly refuted by the campaigns of Napoléon, andthe reasoning of the Archduke Charles (3) . The true avenue to Vienna is thevalley of the Danube; it is there that a serious blow struck is at once decisive ,and that the gates of the monarchy are laid open by a single great defeat on the frontier. It was not in the valley of the Inn, nor in the mountains of theGrisons, but on the heights of Ulm and the plains of Bavaria, that Napoléonprostrated the strength of Austria in 1805 and 1809; and of all the numerousdefeats which that power had experienced, none was felt to be irretrievablebut that of Hohenlinden, on the banks ofthe Iser, in 1800. There is no analogybetween the descent of streams from the higher to the lower grounds, andthe invasion of civilized armies from mountains to the adjacent plains. Aridge of glaciers is an admirable fountain for the perennial supply of rivers,but the worst possible base for military operations (4) .fects oftheand Italy tomilitaryRuinous ef- By the invasion of Switzerland the French government had greatlyinvasion of weakened , instead of having strengthened, their military position.Switzerland Nothing was so advantageous to them as the neutrality of thatthe French republic, because it covered the only defenceless frontier of thepower. state, and gave them the advantage of carrying on the campaignsin Germany and Italy, for which the fortresses on the Rhine and in Piedmontafforded an advantageous base, without the fear of being turned by a reversein the mountains. But all these advantages were lost when the contest wasconducted in the higher Alps, and the line ofthe Rhine or the Adige was liableto be turned by a single reverse on the Aar or the St.-Gothard. The surfaceover which military operations were carried , was by this conquest immenselyextended, without any proportionate addition either to the means ofoffensive( 1) Dum. i . 32, 33. Jom. xi . 90, 91. Arch. Ch .i. 50, 51 .(2) Arch, Chi. 40, 41. Dum, i , 33, Jom. xi . 95.96. Th . x. 226.(3) Archduke, i . 117 , 162. Camp de 1796.Jom. x. 286, and xi. 96. Archduke, i . 53,Guerre de 1799.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 71or defensive warfare. The Tyrol was a great central fortress, in which theImperialists had often found shelter in moments of disaster, but no suchadvantage could be hoped for by the Republicans from their possession ofthe hostile or discontented cantons of Switzerland; while no avenue to theheart of Austria was so difficult as that which lay through the midst ofthebrave and indomitable inhabitants of that almost inaccessible province ( 1) .Nor had the invasion ofthe Roman and Neapolitan states, and the banishment of Napoléon to the sands of Egypt, contributed less to weaken theformidable powers with which two years before he had shattered the Austrianmonarchy. Now was seen the sagacity with which he had chosen the line ofthe Adige for tenacious defence , and the wisdom of the declaration, that if hehad listened to the suggestions of the Directory, and advanced to Rome, hewould have endangered the Republic. Though the forces in the Peninsulawere above one hundred and ten thousand, and were soon increased by thearrival of conscripts to one hundred and thirty thousand men, the Republicans were never able to meet the Imperialists in equal force on theAdige; and Italy was lost, and the retreat of the army from Naples all but cutoff, while yet an overwhelming force, if it could only have been assembledat the decisive point, existed in the Peninsula (2) .commence1,The French Notwithstanding the deficient state of their military preparations,hostilities, and the urgent representations of all their generals that the actual1799. force under their command was greatly inferior to the amountwhich the Directory had led them to expect, the French government, ledaway byill-founded audacity, resolved to commence hostilities. The Austriancabinet having returned no answer to the peremptory note, in which theDirectory required the sending back of the Russian troops, Jourdan receivedorders to cross the Rhine, which was immediately done at Kehl and Huningen,and the Republicans advanced in four columns towards the Black Forest. Afew days after, Bernadotte, with ten thousand men, took possession ofManheim, and advanced against Philipsburg, which refused to capitulate,notwithstanding an angry summons from the Republican general. Upon receiving this intelligence, the Archduke passed the Lech, and advanced inthree columns towards Biberach, Waldsee, and Ravensberg, at the head ofthirty-seven thousand infantry and fifteen thousand cavalry; while Starry,with thirteen thousand men, was moved upon Neumarckt, and six thousandmen were thrown into the fortifications of Ulm (3) .in the Gri sons.Operations While the hostile armies were thus approaching each other, in thespace between the Rhine and the Danube, the contest had commenced, onthe most extended scale, in the mountains of the Grisons. DurMarch 5 and 6. ing the night of the 5th March, Masséna marched upon Sargantz,and having summoned the Austrian general, Auffenberg, to evacuate the district, his troops advanced at all points to cross the Rhine. The left wing,under OUDINOT, afterwards, Duke of Reggio, " a general," said Napoléon," tried in a hundred battles," was destined to make a false attack on the postofFeldkirch, so as to hinder Hotze, who commanded at that important point,from sendingany succour to the centre atCoire , and the right at Reichenau; therightwing, under Dumont, was destined to cross at that place, and turn the position of Coire by the upper part of the stream, while Masséna himself, in thecentre, was to force the passage opposite to Luciensteg, and carry the intrenchments of that fort. Subordinate to these principal attacks, Loison, with(1) Th. x. 217. Arch. Ch . i . 56.( 2) Jom . xi . 95 , 96. Th . x . 218, 219, 226 .(3) Jom. xi . 95, 96. Th. x . 227, 229. Arch. Ch.i. 140.8 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.a brigade, was directed to déscend from the valley of Urseren upon Disentis, and support the attack of Dumont; while Lecourbe, who lay at Bellinzona,received orders to penetrate by Tusis, over the snowy summit of the Bern- hardin and down the stupendous defile of the Via- mala, into the Engadine,and open up a communication with the Italian army on the Adige (1) .March 6 ,are at firstThese attacks were almost all successful . The Rhine, yet chargedThe French with melting snows, was crossed under a murderous fire; after ansuccessful . obstinate resistance, the fort of Luciensteg was carried by the intrepidity of the French chasseurs, who scaled an almost inaccessible heightwhich commanded it, and eight hundred men, with five pieces of cannon ,were made prisoners . Meanwhile Dumont, having forced the pass of Kunkel,and made himself master of the central point and important bridge of Reichenau, situated at the junction of the two branches of the Rhine, not onlysucceeded in maintaining himself there, but made prisoners an Austriandetachment which had resisted Loison at Disentis . The result of this movement was, that Auffenberg, who fell back slowly, contesting every inch ofground, towards Coire, found his retreat cut off up the Rhine: and , beingsurrounded there by superior forces, he had no alternative but to lay downhis arms, with two thousand men and ten pieces of cannon, while a battalionhe had stationed at Embs underwent the same fate ( 2) .March 7. While these successes were gained on the centre and right, Oudinot advanced against Feldkirch. Hotze instantly collected his troops , and The Aus- trians are driven back with great loss into the Tyrol.advanced to meet him, in order to preserve his communicationwith Auffenberg; but, after maintaining his ground for a wholeday, he was at length driven back to the intrenchment of Feldkirch, with the loss ofa thousand men and several pieces of cannon .At the same time, Lecourbe, having broken up from Bellinzona, crossed theBernhardin, yet encumbered with snow, and arrived at Tusis by the terrible defile of the Via-mala, where he divided his forces into two columns, one ofwhich moved over the Julian Alps, towards the sources of the Inn, while theother, under Lecourbe in person, began to ascend the wild and rocky valleyof the Albula. The intention of the Republicans was to have supported thisirruption by Dessoles , who received orders to debouche from the Valtelineinto the valley ofthe Upper Adige; but the march of the latter column acrossthe mountains having been retarded by unavoidable accidents, General Bellegarde, who commanded the Austrian forces in that quarter, made preparations , by occupying all the passes in the neighbourhood , to envelope the in- vaders (3) .March 24.March 14. Martinsbruck in consequence was assailed by Lecourbe withoutsuccess; but although Laudon, in his turn , made an attack with his owntroops, combined with its garrison, in all fourteen thousand men, upon theFrench forces, he was unable to gain any decisive advantage; and the Republicans, awaiting their reinforcements, suspended their operations for tendays. At length Dessoles having come up, and other reinforcements arrived, Lecourbe commenced a general attack on Laudon's forces,leading his division against Martinsbruck, while Dessoles and Loison weredirected to cross the mountains into the Munsterthal and cut off their retreat.To arrive at that valley it was necessary for the division of the former tocross the highest ridges in Europe, amidst ice and snow, which might havedeterred the most intrepid chasseurs. With undaunted courage his soldiers(1 ) Arch, Ch. i. 141 , 142. Dum. i . 36, 37. Jom .xi. 100 , 101. Th . x. 230, 231 .(2) Jom. xi. 101 , 102. Dum. i . 38 , 39. Arch. Ch.i . 58, 62.(3) Arch. Ch. i . 98. Jom. xi. 114.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 9ascended the glaciers of the Wurmser Joch, which separates the sources ofthe Adda from one of those of the Adige. After having turned the fortifications on the summit, which the Imperialists occupied in perfect security, hedescended by the wild and rocky bed ofthe torrent of Rambach, amidst frightful precipices, where a handful of men might have arrested an army, sur- March 25. prised the post of Taufers, which Laudon had fortified with care,and totally routed its garrison , after a desperate resistance, with the loss offour thousand prisoners and all its artillery. The situation of the Austriangeneral was now altogether desperate; for while Dessoles was achieving thisdecisive success , Loison had seized upon Nauders, and Lecourbe forced thepost and passage of Martinsbruck, so that all the avenues by which his retreatcould be effected were cut off, and he had no resource but to throw himself,with three hundred men, into the glaciers of Gebatch, from whence, afterundergoing incredible hardships, he at length reached the valley of Venosta,and joined General Bellegarde, who was marching to his relief. After thisglorious victory, achieved with forces hardly half the number of the vanquished, and which cannot be appreciated but by those who have traversedthe rugged and inhospitable ridges among which it was effected , Dessoles advanced to Glurns ( 1); and the French found themselves masters of the upperextremity of the two great valleys of the Tyrol, the Inn and the Adige; buthere their advance was arrested by General Bellegarde, who had collectednearly forty thousand men to oppose their progress, and the intelligence ofevents in other quarters, which restored victory to the Imperial standards .But Mas- séna is de- feated in repeated attacks onMarch 11, 12,and 14.The intelligence of the first success in the Grisons reached Jourdanon the 11th, and induced him to move forward . On the 12th, hepassed the Danube, and advanced in four marches to PfullendorfFeldkirch. and Mengen, between that river and the lake of Constance . Judging, however, that he was not in sufficient strength to attempt any thing until the post ofFeldkirch was carried , he urged Masséna to renew his attacks inthat quarter. That important town, situated on a rocky eminencein the middle of the valley, and supported by intrenchments extending from the river Ill , which bathed its feet, to inaccessible cliffs on eitherside, was repeatedly attacked by Oudinot, at the head of the French grena- diers, with the utmost impetuosity; but all his efforts recoiled before thesteady courage of the Imperialists . Masséna, conceiving this post to be of theutmost importance, from its commanding the principal passage from the Vorarlberg into the Tyrol, united the whole division of Ménard to the troopsofOudinot, and advanced in person to the attack . But the great strength of March 23. the works, and the invincible tenacity of the Austrians, defeatedall his efforts. In vain the French sought to establish themselves on the rightof the position; the Tyrolese sharpshooters ascended the adjacent eminences,and assailed the Republicans with such a close and destructive fire, as rendered it impossible for them to maintain their ground ( 2); and Masséna, afterbeholding the flower of his army perish at the foot of the intrenchments, was obliged to draw off his forces, with the loss of three thousand men, to Luciensteg and Coire, while Oudinot recrossed the Rhine, and established him-- self at Reineck.Jourdan, to compensate the inferiority of his force, had taken up a strongposition between the lake of Constance and the Danube. Two torrents, the(1) Dum. i. 54, 56. Jom . x. 114, 116. Arch. Ch.i . 98, 136 .(2) Jom. xi. 110, 113. Dum. i . 47, 48. Arch. Ch.i. 112, 118.10 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII,ceives acheck from the Arch dukeJourdan re. Ostrach and the Aach, flowing in opposite directions, the one intothe Danube, the other into the lake, from a marsh in his centre,ran along the front of his position . St.-Cyr, with the left, was sta Charles. tioned at Mengen; Souham, with the centre, at Pfullendorf; Ferino,with the right, at Barnsdorf, while Lefebvre, with the advanced guard, occupied the heights behind the village of Ostrach . That point was the mostaccessible of the line: placed at the source of the two torrents, it was to bereached by a chaussée, which crossed the marshy ground from which theydescended. It was against this part of the line that the principal efforts ofthe Imperialists were directed , while subordinate attacks were simultaneouslycommenced on the right and left against St.-Cyr and Ferino. The force March 21. brought to bear against Ostrach , under the Archduke in person, waslong resisted , notwithstanding the great superiority of numbers in the attacking columns, by the Republicans, under Jourdan; but at length the left,March 23, under St.-Cyr, having been outflanked at Mengen , and the centrebeing on the point of sinking under the increasing masses of the assailants, ageneral retreat was ordered, and such was the danger of the left wing, thatit was continued, without intermission , on the day following, till they reachedthe position of STOCKACH (1) .of this suc cess.Importance This affair did not cost above two thousand men to the vanquishedparty, and the loss of the victors was nearly as great; but it had themost important effect upon the fate of the campaign. It broke the charm ofRepublican invincibility, compelled the French standards openly to retreatbefore the Imperial, and gave to the Austrians all the advantage of a first success. Now appeared the good use which they had made of their time during the short interval of peace. Their cannon, well served and formidable, weremuch more numerous in proportion to the troops engaged than they hadbeen in the former war, and the light artillery in particular, formed on theFrench model, had attained a degree of perfection which entirely deprivedthe Republicans of their advantage in that important weapon of modernwarfare (2).the French Position of Jourdan clearly saw the importance of the village of Stockach ,at Stockach . Where all the roads to Swabia, Switzerland, and the valley of the Neckar, unite, and beyond which he could not continue his retreat, withoutabandoning his communications with Masṣéna and the Grisons. Perceivingthat the Archduke was preparing an attack, he resolved to anticipate him,and obtain the advantage of the initiative, always an object of importance in the commencement of a campaign. The Austrians were by this time in great force on the Stockach, a small stream which flows in a winding channel before the village of the same name, and terminates its devious course in thelake of Constance; their centre occupied the plateau of Nellemberg in frontof the river, their right extended along the same plateau towards Liptingen,their left from Zollbruck to Wahlweis. Onthe side ofthe Republicans, Souhamcommanded the centre, Ferino the right, and St.-Cyr, whose vanguard was led by Soult, the left wing. This last body was destined to attack Liptingen,where Meerfeld was stationed; and it was in that quarter that the principal effort was to be made, with a view to turn the Austrians, and force them toretreat by the single chaussée of Stockach in their rear, where they ofnecessity must, in case of disaster, have lost all their artillery ( 3) .At five in the morning all the columns were in motion, and the advanced(1 ) Arch. Ch. i . 147, 151. Th. x. 233. Dum . i.43, 45. Jom. xi. 120, 124. St.- Cyr, i. 130 , 132.(2) Dum. i. 42, 43. Arch. Ch. i. 156, 165.(3) Jom. xi. 128. Dum. i . 49. St.- Cyr, i . 133,135. Arch. Ch. i. 171 , 175.B1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 11guard of Soult soon came in sight of the videttes of Meerfeld . He was soonattacked so vigorously by that general and St. -Cyr, that he was driven fromLiptingen, and thrown back in confusion into the woods which lay along theroad of Stockach. Speedily were they expelled from that stronghold; the infantry , in great disorder, retreated to Stockach, and the cavalry on the roadtowards Moskirch . Meanwhile the two armies were engaged along the whole March 26. line. Souham in the centre repulsed the light troops of the enemyas far as Wahlweis and Orsingen on the Stockach, and menaced the plateauofNellemberg, while Ferino was actively engaged on the right. A violent cannonade was heard along the whole front of the army; a decisive success hadbeen gained on one point, the Austrian right was turned, the victory seemedalready decided ( 1 ) .Battle of No sooner, however, did the Archduke perceive the impression Stockach. which the French had made on his right wing, than he set off atthe gallop forthat quarter of the field, followed by twelve squadrons of cuirassiers, after whom succeeded six battalions of grenadiers; while a powerful body of cavalry were stationed in the plateau of Nellemberg to protect theretreat of the army, in case of its becoming necessary to have recourse to thatextremity. These dispositions, rapidly adopted at the decisive moment,changed the fortunes of the day, and their effect was increased by a faultystep ofJourdan, who, instead of supporting the menaced point with all his disposable force, sent orders to St. -Cyr to advance to Moskirch, in the idea ofcutting off the retreat of the Imperialists . A violent struggle now ensued inthe woods of Liptingen, which Soult had gained in the first moment of suc cess . The Archduke attacked them with fresh troops, the Republicans defended them with heroic valour; and one of the most furious combats thatoccurred in the whole war, took place, without intermission, for several hours.Three times the French advanced out ofthe wood to meet their enemies, andthree times, notwithstanding the most vigorous efforts, they were repulsedby the obstinate perseverance of the Germans. At length the Imperialists became the assailants; the Archduke charged in person at the head of the Hungarian grenadiers. Prince Furstemburg and Prince Anhalt Bemburg werekilled while leading on their respective regiments, and the flower ofthe armyon both sides perished under the terrible fire which overspread the field ofbattle. St. -Cyr, who felt that he had gained what, if properly supported,might have become a decisive success, long and obstinately maintained his ground; but at length, finding that the principal effort of the Austrians wasdirected against his wing, and that their reserves were coming into action, heordered Soult to evacuate the wood, and retire into the plain of Liptingen.This perilous movement was performed by that able officer in presence of avictorious enemy, and when his rear-guard was almost enveloped by theircuirassiers, with admirable steadiness; but, when they reached the open country, they were charged by Kollowrath, at the head of the six battalionsof grenadiers and twelve squadrons of cuirassiers, which the Archduke hadbrought up from the reserve. This effort proved decisive. In vain Jourdancharged the Austrian cavalry with the French horse; they were broken anddriven back in disorder by the superior weight and energy of the cuirassiers,and the general-in - chief narrowly escaped being made prisoner in the flight.This overthrow constrained the infantry to a disastrous retreat, during whichtwo regiments were enveloped and made prisoners; and St. - Cyr, who wasnow entirely cut off from the centre of his army, alone escaped total destruc(1) Jom. xi, 130 Dum. i . 49, 50, St. -Cyr, i . 136 , 139. Arch , Ch. i . 175, 190 .12 AHISTORY OF EUROPE.' [ CHAP. XXVIII.tion by throwing himself across the Danube, the sole bridge over which he was fortunate enough to find unoccupied by the enemy (1) .Defeat of This great success, and the consequent separation of St. - Cyr from the French. the remainder of the army, was decisive of the victory. Souhamand Ferino, with the centre and right, had maintained their position, notwithstanding the superiority of force on the part of their opponents; but theyhad gained no advantage, and they were totally unequal, now that the leftwing of the army was separated , and unable to render any assistance, tomaintain their ground against the victorious troops of the Archduke.Although, therefore, the French had bravely withstood the superior forcesof the enemy, and the loss on both sides was nearly equal, amounting toabout five thousand men to each party, yet, by the separation of their leftwing, they had sustained all the consequences of a serious defeat; and itbecame necessary, renouncing all idea of co- operating with the Republicansin Helvetia, which could not be approached without the sacrifice of St. -Cyrand his wing (2) , to endeavour to reunite the scattered divisions of the armyby a retreat to the passes of the Black Forest.Jourdan was so much disconcerted with the result of this action , that, afterreaching the defiles of that forest, he surrendered the command of the armyto Ernouf, the chief of the staff, and set out for Paris, to lay in person hiscomplaints as to the state of the troops before the Directory (3) .Retreat of the French across the Rhine.With superior forces , and twenty thousand cavalry, in admirableorder, the Austrians had now an opportunity of overwhelming theFrench army in the course of its retreat to the Rhine, such asnever again occurred to them till the battle of Leipsic. The Archduke clearlyperceived that there was the important point of the campaign: and had hebeen the unfettered master of his actions, he would, in all probability, haveconstrained the French army to a retreat as disastrous as that from Wurtzburgin 1796; but the Aulic Council , influenced by the erroneous idea that the keyto ultimate success was to be found in the Alps , forbade him to advancetowards the Rhine till Switzerland was cleared of the enemy. He was compelled, in consequence, to put his army into cantonments between Engenand Wahlweis, while the Republicans leisurely effected their retreat through April 6. the Black Forest, by the valley of Kintzig and that of Hell , to theRhine, which stream they crossed at Old Brisach and Kehl a few days after,leaving only posts of observation on the right bank. This retreat compelledBernadotte, who, with his little army of eight thousand men, hadalready commenced the siege of Philipsburg, to abandon his works withprecipitation, and regain the left bank (4); so that, in a month after thecampaign had been commenced with so much presumption and so little consideration by the Directory, their armies on the German frontier were every where reduced to the defence of their own territory.April 7.The bad success of their armies at the opening of this campaign, to whichthe French had been so little accustomed since the brilliant era of Napoléon'svictories, might have proved fatal to the government of the Directory, had itnot been for an unexpected event which occurred at this time, and restoredto the people much of the enthusiasm and vigour of 1793 (5) . This was themassacre of the French plenipotentiaries at the Congress of Rastadt.( 1 ) St.-Cyr, i . 139, 150. Th . x. 238, 240. Jom. x.131 , 134. Dum. i . 50, 52. Arch. Ch . i, 190, 198.(2) Arch. Ch. i . 198, 202. Jom. xi . 136 , 137. Th.x. 241. St. Cyr, i . 150, 156. Dum, i . 51.(3) Th. x. 241, 242. Jom . xi. 138, 139. St. - Cyr,i. 160, 167.(4) Arch. Ch . i . 211 , 218. Jom. xi . 139, 140.Th. x. 242.(5) Jom. xi. 141.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 13Rastadt is Congress of Though at war with Austria, France was yet at peace with thestill sitting. German empire, and the Congress at Rastadt was still continuing,under the safeguard of neutrality, its interminable labours. When the victory of Stockach had placed that city in the power of the Imperialists, theCabinet of Vienna ordered the Count Lehbach, their minister plenipotentiary,to endeavour to obtain intelligence of the extent to which the princes of theempire had made secret advances to the Directory. The Count conceived themost effectual way would be to seize the papers of the French embassy at themoment of their leaving the city, and for this purpose he solicited and obtained from his court authority to require an armed force from the ArchdukeCharles. That gallant officer refused, in the first instance, to comply withthe request, alleging that his soldiers had nothing to do with the concerns ofdiplomacy; but fresh orders from Vienna obliged him to submit, and a detachment of the hussars of Szeckler was in consequence placed at the disposal oftheImperial plenipotentiary (1 ). ·Its dissolution oftheTowards the end of April, the communications of the ministers at tion. Rastadt having been interrupted by the Austrian patrols, the Republicans addressed an energetic note on the subject to the Austrian authorities, and the remonstrance having been disregarded , the Congress declareditself dissolved . The departure of the diplomatic body was fixed for the28th April, but the Austrian colonel gave them orders to set out on the19th, as the town was to be occupied on the following day by the Imperialtroops, and refused to grant the escort which they demanded, upon the pleathat it was wholly unnecessary. The French plenipotentiaries in conse Assassina- quence, Jean Debry, Bonnier, and Roberjot, set out on the sameFrench pleni- evening for Strasburg, but they had scarcely left the gates ofpotentiaries. Rastadt when they were attacked by some drunken hussars of theregiment of Szeckler, who seized them, dragged them out of their carriages,slew Bonnier and Roberjot, notwithstanding the heroic efforts of the wife ofthe latter to save her husband, and struck down Jean Debry, bysabre blows, into a ditch, where he escaped destruction only by having thepresence of mind to feign that he was already dead. The assassins seized andcarried off the papers of the legation, but committed no other spoliation; andleaving two of their victims lifeless, and one desperately wounded, on theground, disappeared in the obscurity of the night. Jean Debry, whosewounds were not mortal, contrived to make his way, after their departure,into Rastadt, and presented himself, bleeding and exhausted, at the hotel ofM. Goertz, the Prussian envoy (2) .April 19.horror which it excites inthroughoutGeneral This atrocious violation of the law of nations excited the utmostindignation and horror throughout Europe. The honour of theFrance, and Germans felt itself seriously wounded by the calamitous event, andEurope. the members of the deputation who remained at the Congressunanimously signed a declaration expressive of detestation at its authors . Itis, perhaps, the strongest proof of the high character and unstained honourof the Emperor Francis and the Archduke Charles, that although the crimewas committed by persons in the Austrian uniform , and the hussars ofSzeckler had been detached from the army of the Archduke to the environsof Rastadt, no suspicion fell upon either of these exalted persons as havingbeen accessary to the nefarious proceeding. That it was committed for political purposes, and not by common robbers, is evident from their having( 1 ) Jom . xi . 142. Lạc . xiv . 318. Th, x.255.(2) Hard. vii . 236, 238. Jom. xi. 142, 143. Lac.xiv. 318, 328. Th. x . 256, 275. Procès-Verbal desMinistres Plénipotent, à Rastadt. Lac. xiv. 435.Arch . Ch. i , 224.14 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [ CHAP. XXVIII.taken nothing but state papers; and although the Directory has not escapedthe suspicion of having been the secret authors of the crime ( 1 ) , in order toinflame the national spirit of the French, there seems no ground for imputingto them so atrocious a proceeding, or ascribing it to any other cause than anunauthorized excess by drunken or brutal soldiers of a duty committed tothem by their government, requiring more than ordinary discretion andforbearance. But though Austria has escaped the imputation of having beenaccessary to the guilt of murder, she cannot escape from the disgrace ofhavingbeen remotely the cause of its perpetration; of having authorized an attackupon the sacred persons of ambassadors, which , though not intended to havebeen followed by assassination, was at best a violation of the law of nationsand a breach of the slender links which unite humanity together during therude conflicts of war, and of having taken guilt to herself by adopting nojudicial steps for the discovery of the perpetrators of the offence (2) . As such,it is deserving of the severest reprobation, and, like all other unjustifiableactions, its consequences speedily recoiled upon the head of its authors. Themilitary spirit of the French, languid since the commencement of hostilities,was immediately roused to the highest pitch by this outrage upon their ambassadors. No difficulty was any longer experienced in completing the leviesof the conscription (3); and to this burst of national feeling is, in a greatmeasure, to be ascribed the rapid augmentation of Masséna's army, and thesubsequent disasters which overwhelmed the Imperialists at the conclusionof the campaign.Commencetilitics inImprudentthe FrenchWhile an implacable war was thus breaking out to the north ofment ofhos- the Alps, reverses of a most serious character attended the first Italy. commencement of hostilities in the Italian plains. The approachof the Russians, under Suwarrow, who, it was expected , would reach theAdige bythe middle of April, rendered it an object of the last importance forthe Republicans to force their opponents from the important line formed bythat stream before the arrival of so powerful a reinforcement; but by thesenseless dispersion of their vast armies through the whole peninsula, theywere unable to collect a sufficient force in the plains of the Mincio, in thecommencement of the campaign, to effect that object . The total dispersion of force commanded by Schérer on the Adige was now raised, by theforces there. arrival of conscripts, to fifty-seven thousand men; Macdonald wasat the head of thirty-four thousand at Rome and Naples; ten thousand werein the Cisalpine republic, the like number in Piedmont, five thousand inLiguria; but these latter forces were too far removed to be able to render anyassistance at the decisive point; while, on the other hand , the Imperial forcesconsisted offifty- eight thousand combatants, including six thousand cavalry ,cantoned between the Tagliamento and the Adige, besides a reserve of twentythousand infantry and five thousand horse in Carinthia and Croatia . Theirfield-artillery amounted to 180 pieces; the park of the army to 170 more;and a heavy train of eighty battering guns, admirably provided with horsesand ammunition, was ready at Palma Nuova, for the siege of any of the fortresses that might be attacked . This summary is sufficient to demonstratethe erroneous principles on which the Directory proceeded in their plan of(1 ) Nap. in Month. vi . 40.(2) The Queen of Naples was the real instigator of this atrocious act, though the catastrophe in which it terminated was as little intended by her as the single- hearted general who detached from hisarmy the hussars by whom it was committed. D'ABRANTES, ii . 304.( 3 ) Th . x . 257, 250. Jom. xi.143, 144. Lạc. xiv.324. Hard, vii . 244, 245.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 15the campaign, and their total oblivion of the lessons taught by Napoléon asto the importance of the line of the Adige to the fate of the Peninsula; whilethe Imperialists were collecting all their force for a decisive blow in thatquarter, half the French troops lay inactive and scattered along the wholeextent of its surface, from Piedmont to Calabria (1) .rialistsPosition of The Austrians had, with great foresight , strengthened their posithe Impetion on the Adige during the cessation ofhostilities. Legnago, comthe Adige. manding a bridge over that river, had become a formidable fortress;the castles of Verona were amply supplied with the means of defence; abridge of boats at Polo enabled them to communicate with the intrenchedcamp of Pastrengo, on the eastern slope of the Montebaldo; Venice, placedbeyond the reach of attack, contained their great magazines and reserves ofartillery stores; all the avenues by which it could be approached were carefully fortified; a flotilla of forty boats, carrying three hundred pieces of cannon (2) , was prepared, either to defend the Lagunæ of that capital , or carrythe supplies of the army up the Po; while bridges , established over the Piaveand the Tagliamento, secured the communication of the army in the fieldwith the reserves by which it was to be supported.Schérer had obtained the command ofthe French army; an officer who hadserved with distinction in the Pyrenees and the Alps during the campaignof1795, but being unknown to the Italian army, he possessed the confidenceneither of the officers nor soldiers; while Moreau, the glorious commanderof the retreat through the Black Forest in 1796, occupied the unworthysituation of inspector of infantry. On the side of the Austrians, Melas hadobtained, upon the death of the Prince of Orange, the supreme command;an officer of considerable experience and ability, but whose age, aboveseventy years, rendered him little competent to cope with the enterprisinggenerals ofthe Republic. Until his arrival, however, the troops were under theorders of General Kray, a Hungarian by birth, and one of the most distinguished officers of the empire. Active, intrepid, and indefatigable; giftedwith a cool head and an admirable coup-d'œil in danger, he was one of themost illustrious generals of the Imperial army, and, after the ArchdukeCharles, has left the most brilliant reputation in its military archives of the last century (3).of operaMarch 21.French plan The plan of the Directory was for Schérer to pass the Adige,tions . near Verona, drive the Austrians over the Piave and the Brenta,while the right wing of Masséna's army, commanded by Lecourbe, was to forma junction with a corps detached from the Italian army into the Valteline,and fall, by Brixen and Botzen, on the right flank of the Imperial army. Butat the very time that they meditated these extensive operations, they detachedGeneral Gauthier, with five thousand men, to occupy Tuscany; a conquestwhich was indeed easily effected , but was as unjustifiable as it wasinexpedient, both by weakening the effective force on the Adige, and affording an additional example of that insatiable desire for conquest which theallied powers so loudly complained of in the Republican government. Meanwhile Schérer, having collected his forces, established himself on the rightbank of the Adige, opposite to the Austrian army, the right at Sanguinetto,the left at Peschiera; and immediately made preparations for crossing theriver. At the same time Kray threw eight thousand men into the intrenchedcamp ofPastrengo, under Generals Gottesheim and Elnitz , while the divisions(1 ) Jom. xi. 147, 148. Dum. i . 58. Th. x. 243,244. St.-Cyr, i. 172, 173. Arch. Ch, i . 225.(2) Jom. xi. 149. St. -Cyr, i. 173, 175.(3) Jom, xi, 149, 153.16 HISTORY OF EUROPE [CHAP. XXVIII..March 25. Kaim and Hohenzollern, twenty thousand strong, were establishedaround Verona , with detachments at Arcola; Frœlich and Mercantin , with anequal force, were encamped near Bevilacqua; and Klenau, with four thousand, was stationed near Acqua; and the reserves, under Ott and Zoph, received orders to draw near to the Brenta (1 ) .of both parPreliminary The French general having been led to imagine that the bulk ofmovements the Austrian forces were encamped at Pastrengo, between Veronaties. and the lake of Guarda, resolved to make his principal effort inthat quarter. With this view, the three divisions of the left wing, commanded while by Serrurier, Delmas, and Grenier, were moved in that direction;Moreau, with the divisions of Hatry and Victor, received orders to make afalse attack near Verona, and , on the extreme right, Montrichard was to advance against Legnago . Kray, on his part, being led to believe that theirprincipal force was directed against Verona, repaired in haste to Bevilacqua,where he concerted with Klenau an attack on the right flank of the Republicans . Thus both parties, mutually deceived as to each other's designs, manœuvred as if their object had been reciprocally to avoid each other; the bulkof the Austrian forces being directed against the French right, and the principal part of the Republicans against the Imperial left (3).At three in the morning of the 26th March, the whole French left wing wasin motion, while the flotilla on the lake of Guarda set sail during the night tosecond their operations . In this quarter they met with brilliant success; the redoubts and intrenchments of Pastrengo were carried , Rivoli fell into theirhands; and the garrison of the intrenched camp, crossing in haste the bridgeof Polo, left fifteen hundred prisoners and twelve pieces of cannon in the March 26. hands of the Republicans. The action did not begin in the centretill near ten o'clock, but it soon became there also extremely warm. The villages in front of Verona were obstinately contested, but after adesperate resistance , the Republicans pressed forward, and nearlythe Adige. reached the walls of Verona. At this sight, Kaim, who was apprehensive of being attacked in the town, made a general attack on the front andflanks of the assailants with fresh forces; but, although the village of SanMassimo, taken and retaken seven times during the day, finally remained inthe possession of the Austrians till night separated the combatants, they sensibly lost ground, upon the whole , in that quarter; and the post of SaintLucie, also the theatre of obstinate contest , was carried by the Republicans.But, while fortune favoured their arms on the left, and divided her favoursin the centre, the right was overwhelmed by a superior force, conducted byKray in person. General Montrichard advanced in that quarter to Legnago,and had already commenced a cannonade on the place, when Frolich debouched in three columns, and commenced a furious attack along the dikes which led to the French column, while the division of Mercantin advancedas a reserve. The Republicans were speedily routed; attacked at once infront and both flanks , they lost all their artillery, and were driven withgreat loss behind Torre on the road to Mantua (3) . The loss of the French in this battle amounted to four thousandsult. men, while that of the Imperialists was nearly seven thousand; but nevertheless, as the success on the left and centre was in some degree balanced by the disaster on right, they were unable to derive any decisive advantage from this large difference in their favour. The capture of theFirst suc cess of the French onLeads to no decisive re(1 ) Jom. xi. 155 , 156. Dum. i . 58, Th x. 245.Bot. iii. 216, 217. Arch. Ch. i . 226 .(2) Th. x. 246. Jom. 162. Dum. i . 58.(3) Jom . xi. 166 , 170 .60. St - Cyr, i . 177, 179.Th. x. 247. Dum. i. 59,Arch. Ch. i. 226.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 171camp at Pastrengo and of the bridge at Polo was of little importance, as theAustrians held Verona, and the only road from thence to the plain passedthrough that town . Kray, abandoning the pursuit of Montrichard, hastenedto Verona with the divisions of Mercantin and Froelich, leaving a few battalions only to guard the line of the Lower Adige; while the Republicansrecrossed the upper part of that river above Verona, and retired towardsPeschiera. Thus the bulk of the forces on both sides were assembled nearVerona, which was felt to be the key to the Adige equally by the Imperialistsand Republicans. Already the courage of the Austrians was elevated by thebalanced success which they had obtained ( 1 ); and from the hesitation oftheenemy in following up his advantage at Pastrengo, they perceived withpleasure that the genius of Napoléon had not been inherited by his successor (2) .Scherer ex- After much irresolution, and assembling a council of war, Schérer periences a resolved to descend the Adige with the bulk of his forces, to check in endeavourMarch 30.ingto cross attempt a passage between Verona and Legnago at Ronca or Albathe Adige. redo, while Serrurier, with one division, was thrown across theupper stream at Polo to distract the attention of the enemy. Preparatory tothis design, the army was countermarched from left- right, a complicatedoperation, which fatigued and embarrassed the soldiers without any adequate advantage. At length, on the 30th March, while the main body of thearmy was descending the river, Serrurier crossed with seven thousand menat Polo, and boldly advanced on the high-road leading to Trenttowards Verona; Kray, debouching from the central point at Verona , assailedthe advancing columns with fifteen thousand men of the divisions Frœlichand Elnitz, and attacking the Republicans with great vigour, drove themback in disorder to the bridge, and pressing forward, approached so near,that it would have fallen into his hands, if the French had not sunk the boatsof which it consisted . The situation of Serrurier was now altogether desperate; part of his men dispersed and saved themselves in the mountains; afew escaped over the river at Rivoli; but above fifteen hundred were madeprisoners, and the total loss of his division was nearly three thousand men (3) .Counter- Notwithstanding this severe check, Scherer persisted in hisboth parties. design of passing the Adige below Verona. After countermarchinghis troops , without any visible reason , he concentrated them below VillaFranca, between the Adige and the Tartaro; his right encamped near PortoLegnago, the remainder in the position of Magnano. Kray, perceiving thedefects of their situation , wisely resolved to bring the weight of his forces tobear on the Republican left, so as to threaten their communications withLombardy. For this purpose, he directed Hohenzollern and St. -Julien to theMontebaldo and the road to Trent; while Wukassowich, who formed part ofBellegarde's corps in the Tyrol, was to move on La Chiesa, by the westernside of the lake of Guarda, and he himself debouched from Verona, at thehead of the divisions of Kaim, Zoph, and Mercantin , right against the Republican centre at Magnano. The peril of the left wing of the French wasnow extreme, and it became indispensable to move the right and centretowards it, in order to avoid its total destruction . Ilad Kray, whose armywas now raised, by the arrival of his reserves, to forty-five thousand, attackedon the 4th April, he would have surprised the French in the midst oftheirmarches of(1 ) Dum. i. 60, 61. Jom. xi. 172, 173. St.- Cyr,i. 179, 181.(2) Saguntinis quia præter spem resisterent, crevissent animi. Poenus quia non vicesset pro victo esset.-Liv. xxi. 9.(3) Jom. xi. 177. Dum. i , 62, € 3. Th. x. 248,249. St.- Cyr, i . 182 , 183.IV.18 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.lateral movements, and destroyed two oftheir divisions; but by delaying theaction till the day following, the perilous change of position was completed,and the opportunity lost (1).battle at Decisive It was just when the lateral movement was on the point of beingMagnano. accomplished that the hostile armies encountered each other onthe plains of MAGNANO. The French force amounted to thirty-four thousandinfantry and seven thousand cavalry; the Austrians were superior, havingnearly forty-five thousand in the field, of whom five thousand were horse.Mercantin was intrusted with the attack of the French right; Kaim the centre, and Zoph the left, while Frolich , at the head of a powerful reserve, wasto follow the steps of Kaim, and Hohenzollern was moved forward againstVilla Franca on the road to Mantua. The marshy plain, to the south of Magnano, is intersected by a multitude of streams, which fall into the Tartaro andthe Menago, and render the deploying of infantry difficult, that of cavalryimpossible (2) .The right wing of the French, commanded by Victor and Grenier, overwhelmed the division of Mercantin to which it was opposed . But while thissuccess attended the Republicans in that quarter, the Austrian centre, underKaim, penetrated , without opposition , between the rear of Montrichard andthe front of Delmas, who were in the act of completing their lateral movement from right to left, and occupied a salient angle in the centre of theFrench position. Had the Imperialists been in a situation to have supportedthis advantage by fresh troops , it would have been decisive of the fate of theday; but Kray, alarmed at the progress of the Republican right, was at themoment hastening to support Mercantin withthe reserve of Frolich; and thustime was given to Moreau and Delmas, not only to restore affairs in that quarter, by causing their rear and vanguards to form in line to resist thefarther progress of the enemy, but even to attack and carry the village of Buttapreda, notwithstanding the most vigorous resistance from Kaim's division.On the left, Moreau, having arrived at the open plain , favourable to the operations of cavalry , executed several brilliant charges, and drove the Austriansfrom all the villages which they occupied, almost into the walls of Verona.Victory on every side seemed to incline to the Republican standard, thoughdecisive success was no longer to be expected from the insulated situation ofall the divisions, and the unconnected operations which they were severallycarrying on. But Kray changed the fortune of the day, by a decisive operation against the French right. Putting himself at the headof the reserve of Frolich, supported by two batteries of heavyartillery, he fell unawares upon the division of Grenier, and put itto the rout; Victor, trying to restore the combat, was charged in flank bytheImperial horse, and driven back in disorder, while the overthrow of thatwing was completed by the attack of Mercantin's division, which had nowrallied in its rear. Meanwhile, Moreau continued to maintain his ground inthe centre, and Serrurier made himself master on the left of Villa Franca,and advanced near to Verona. But the rout of the right wing, which wasnow driven a mile and a-half from the field of battle, so as to leave the centreentirely uncovered, was decisive of the victory. Before night, Scherer drewoff his shattered forces behind the Tartaro, carrying with them two thousandprisoners and several pieces of cannon, a poor compensation for the loss offour thousand killed and wounded, four thousand prisoners, seven standards,Brilliant attack of Kray with the reserve gives the Austrians the victory.(1 ) Jom. xi. 179, 181. Dum. i . 65. Th, x , 250. (2) Dum, i. 65. Jom. xi. 186, 187.St.-Cyr, i . 184.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 19eight pieces of cannon, and forty caissons , which had fallen into the hands ofthe Imperialists (1).results.Its decisive This victory, one ofthe most glorious in the annals of the Austrianmonarchy, was decisive ofthe fate of Italy . Thenceforth, the French fell from one disaster into another, till they were driven over the MaritimeAlps, and expelled from the whole peninsula-a striking example of theimportance of early victory to the whole fate of a campaign, and of the facility with which the confidence and vigour resulting from long-continuedtriumphs may, by a single well-timed success, be exchanged for the depres sion and irresolution which are the sure forerunners of defeat. The advantages gained by the Imperialists were mainly owing to the possession of the fortified posts of Verona and Legnago, and the interior line of operationswhich they afforded them on the Adige, another instance, among the manywhich this war exhibited, of the inestimable importance of a central positionin the hands of one who can avail himself of it , and the degree to which itmay sometimes, in the hands of a skilful general, counterbalance the mostdecided superiority in other respects (2) .retreat of Disorderly The Republicans, thrown into the deepest dejection by this dethe French . feat, retired on the following day behind the Mincio; and not feeling themselves in security there, even with the fortress of Mantua on oneflank, and that of Peschiera on the other, Scherer continued his retreat April 12. behind the Oglio, and then the Adda. This retrograde movement was performed in such confusion, that it entirely lost that generalthe little consideration which remained to him with his troops, and theyloudly demanded the removal of a leader who had torn from their brows the April 14. laurels of Rivoli and Arcola. The Austrians, astonished at theirown success, and fearful of endangering it by a precipitate advance, movedslowly after the beaten army. Eight days after the battle elapsed before theycrossed the Mincio, and established themselves at Castillaro, after detachingElnitz, with ten thousand men, to observe Mantua, and three battalions to form the investment of Peschiera (5) .Corfu sur renders tofleets.While the Republican fortunes were thus sinking in Italy, anotherthe Russian disaster awaited them, in the capture of Corfu, which capitulated and Turkish to the combined forces of Russia and Turkey, shortly after the commencement of hostilities; and thus deprived them of their last footing in the March 3. Ionian isles. Thus on every side the star of the Republic seemed tobe on the wane, while that of Austria was rising in the ascendant (4) .While these important events were in progress to the south oftheAlps, the Austrians evinced an unpardonable tardiness in followingup their success at Stockach. In vain the Archduke urged them not to losethe precious moments; the Aulic Council, desirous not to endanger the advantage which they had already gained, enjoined him to confine his operations in clearing the right bank of the Danube by detached parties.After several engagements, the French were finally expelled from the German side, but in their retreat they, with needless barbarity, burned the celebratedwooden bridge at Schaffhausen, the most perfect specimen of that speciesof architecture that existed in the world ( 5) .April 13.Operations in Ger many .(1 ) Th. x. 251 , 252. Jom. xi. 190, 194. Dum. i.64, 65. St.- Cyr, i. 185. 190.(2) Jom. xi. 195.(3) Th. x. 252, 253. Jom. xi. 198, 199. Dum. i .66. St. Cyr, i . 191, 195.(4) Ann. Reg. 1799, 80. Jom. xi. 199.(5) Jom, xi . 205. Dum. i . 72. Arch. Ch . i . 215,221 .20 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII.position inMasséna, to whom the command of the army on the Rhine, as wellas in the Alps, was now intrusted, found himself under the necesdefensive sity ofchanging entirely the disposition of his army. Turned on thelie Grisons , one flank by the Imperialists on the lake of Constance, and on theother by the advance of Kray beyond the Adige, he was necessitated to retireinto the central parts of Switzerland, and the Directory now found how grievous an error they had committed by attacking that country, and renderingits rugged frontiers the centre of military operations. Deprived of the shelterwhich they had hitherto found for their flanks in the neutral ridges of theAlps, the Republicans were now compelled to maintain one uninterruptedline of defence from the Texel to the gulf of Genoa, and any considerabledisaster in one part of that long extent weakened their operations in everyother. Masséna was well aware that a mountainous country, in appearancethe most easy, is frequently in reality the most difficult of defence; becausethe communication from one part of the line to another is often so muchobstructed, and it is so easy for a skilful adversary to bring an overwhelmingforce to bear against an unsupported part. Impressed with those ideas, hedrew back his advanced posts at Taufers, Glurentz on the Adige, and Fintermuntz on the Inn, and arranged his forces in the following manner. Theright wing was composed of Lecourbe in the Engadine, Ménard in the Grisons, and Lorges in the valley of the Rhine, as far down as the lake of Constance; the centre, consisting of four divisions, supported by an auxiliarySwiss corps , occupied the line of that river as far as Huningen. Headquarterswere established at Basle, which was put in a respectable posture of defence.The left wing, scattered over Huningen, Old Brisach, Kehl , and Manheim,was destined to protect the line of the Rhine below that place. The wholeof these forces amounted to one hundred thousand men, of whom abouttwo-thirds were stationed in Switzerland and the Grisons (1) .Description of the theatre of war.Three impetuous streams, each flowing within the other, descendfrom the snowy ridges of the Alps towards the north, and form, bytheir junction , the great river of the Rhinc. The first of these isthe Rhine itself, which, rising in the Glaciers near the St.-Gothard, and flowing through the Grisons to the north, loses itself in the great lake of Constance; issues from it at Stein, and flows to the westward as far as Basle , whereit commences its majestic and perpendicular course towards the sea. Thisriver covers the whole of Switzerland, and contains within its ample circuitall its tributary streams. The second is formed by the course of the Linth ,which , rising in the Alps of Glarus and the Wallenstatter sea, forms in itscourse the charming lake of Zurich, and issuing from its northern extremityat the town of the same name, under the appellation of the Limmat, fallsinto the Aar, not far from the junction of that river with the Rhine. Thatline only covers a part of Switzerland , and is of much smaller extent thanthe former; but it is more concentrated , and offers a far more advantageousposition for defence . Lastly, there is the Reuss, which, descending from theSt.-Gothard through the precipitous valley of Schollenen, swells into theromantic lake of the four cantons at Altdorf, and leaving its wood- clad cliffsat Lucerne, falls into the Aar, near its junction with the Rhine. All theselines , shut in on the right by enormous mountains, terminating on the leftin deep rivers, and intersected by vast lakes and ridges of rock, present thegreatest advantages for defence. Masséna soon found that the exterior circle,that of the Rhine, could not be maintained, with the troops at his disposal,(1 ) Dum. i . 71. Jo:, xi . 211 , 213, 215. Th. x . 277, 278. Archduke, i . 233, 241 .Masséna falls back on the Alps,and takes a1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE . 21against the increasing forces ofthe Austrians, and he retired to the inner line,that of the Limmat and Linth, and established his head-quarters at Zurich,in a position of the most formidable strength (1) .General at tack upon Masséna'sGrisons.April 30.Meanwhile Hotze and Bellegarde were combining a general attackupon the whole line of the Republicans in the Grisons. Towardsline in the the latter end of April, their forces where all in motion along theimmense extent of mountains from the valley of Coire to the Engadine. After a vigorous attack, Bellegarde was repulsed by Lecourbe, fromthe fortified post of Ramis, in the Lower Engadine, while a detachment sentby the Col de Tcherfs to Zemetz was cut to pieces, with the loss of six hundred prisoners, among whom was the young Prince de Ligne. But as the Imperialists were advancing through the valleys on his flanks, Lecourbe retreatedin the night, and next day was attacked by Bellegarde at Suss, whence, afteran obstinate resistance, he was driven with great loss to the sources oftheAlbula. At the same time, a general attack was made, in the valley of theRhine, on the French posts; but though the Imperialists were at first so farsuccessful as to drive back the Republicans to Luciensteg and the heights ofMayenfeld, yet , at the close of the day, they were obliged to fall back to theirformer position (2).in his rear;supported,Insurrection This general attack upon the French line in the Grisons, was comof the Swissbined with an insurrection of the peasants in their rear and in the being un- small cantons, where the desire for revenge, on account of theis crushed. cruelties of the French during the preceding year, had become extremely strong. This feeling had been worked up to a perfectfury by an attemptof the Directory to complete the auxiliary forces of eighteen thousand men,which Switzerland was bound to furnish, by levies from the militia of thedifferent cantons. Determined to combat rather against than for the destroyers of their liberties, ten thousand men took up arms in the small cantonsand adjoining districts of the Grisons, and fell with such rapidity upon theFrench posts in the rear, that they not only made themselves masters of Disentis and Ilantz , but surprised the important bridge of Reichenau, whichthey strongly barricaded, thus cutting off all communication between thedivisions of Lecourbe, at the sources of the Albula, and the remainder ofthearmy. Had the attack of Hotze and Bellegarde succeeded at the same timethat this formidable insurrection broke out in their rear, it is highly probable ´that Masséna's right wing would have been totally destroyed; but the defeatofHotze at Luciensteg gave the Republicans time to crush it before it hadacquired any formidable consistency . Masséna, aware ofthe vital importanceof early success in subduing an insurrection , acted with the greatest vigouragainst the insurgents; Ménard moved towards Reichenau, which was abandoned at his approach, and pursued the peasants to Ilantz and Disentis . Atthis latter place they stood firm, in number about six thousand,and, though destitute of artillery, made a desperate resistance . At length,however, they were broken, and pursued with great slaughter into themountains, leaving above one thousand men slain on the spot . At the sametime, Soult proceeded with his division to Schwytz , where he overthrew abody of peasants; and, embarking on the lake of Lucerne, landed, in spite ofthe utmost resistance, at Altdorf, and cut to pieces a body of three thousandmen, supported by four pieces of cannon , who had taken post in the defilesMay 5.( 1 ) Th . x. 278, 279. Jom . xi , 213 . (2) Jom. xi. 215, 219. Dum. i . 114, 117. Arch duke, i. 253, 256.22 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII .of the Reuss above that place . The broken remains of this division fled byWasen to the valley of Schollenen , but there they were met and entirelydispersed by Lecourbe, who, after subduing the insurrection in the Vallevantine, had crossed the St.-Gothard, and fallen upon the fugitives in rear.In this affair, above two thousand peasants were killed and wounded; andsuch was the consternation excited by the military execution which followed ,that the people of that part of Switzerland made no further attempt, duringthe progress of the campaign, to take a part in hostilities . Theysaw that theirefforts were of little avail amidst the immense masses of disciplined men, bywhom their country was traversed; and suffering almost as much, in the conflicts which followed, from their friends as their enemies, they resignedthemselves, in indignant silence , to be the spectators of a contest, from whichthey had nothing to hope, and no power to prevent ( 1) .Masséna draws back his rightItalian Alps.General at tack by thethe French in the Gri sons. Lu ciensteg isThese movements, however, rendered it indispensable for theFrench to evacuate the Engadine, as great part of the troops who wing in the formed the line of defence had been drawn into the rear to quellthe insurrection. Loison retired from Tirrano , and joined Lecourbeat S. -Giacomo; and as the Imperialists, who were now far advanced in Lombardy, were collecting forces at Lugano, evidently with the design of seizingupon the St. -Gothard, and so turning the flank of Masséna's position , thatactive general instantly crossed the Bernhardine, and descending the Misocco,advanced to Bellinzona, in order to protect the extreme right of his interiorline, which rested on the St. - Gothard, the lake of Zurich, and the Limmat (2) .The Archduke, convinced that it was by turning the right of MasAustrians on séna in the mountains, that he would be most easily forced fromthis strong line of defence , strengthened Hotze by fresh troops, andcombined a general attack with Lecourbe for the 14th May. The carried. forces they brought into action on that day were very considerable,amounting to not less than thirty thousand men, while those of Ménard ,since the greater part of Lecourbe's division had retreated to Bellinzona, didnot exceed fourteen thousand men. Luciensteg, since it fell into the hands ofthe Republicans, had been greatly strengthened; a narrow defile, boundedby the precipices of the Alps on one side , and a rocky eminence bathed bythe Rhine on the other, was crossed by strong intrenchments, mounted witha formidable artillery; but the intelligence which the Archduke received ofthe approach of thirty thousand Russians to support his army, who had already arrived in Gallicia, determined him without delay to commence offensive operations. Accordingly, on the 12th May, the columns were everywhere put in motion in the mountains, and two days afterwards this important post was attacked. The assailants were divided into four columns; one was destined to engage the attention of the enemy by a false attack in front; the second to make a circuit by the Alps of Mayenfeld, anddescend on the intrenchments in rear; a third to cross the Suvisir Alps; andthe fourth, to which the cavalry and artillery were attached , to assail thepass called the Slapiner Joch. Hotze commanded in person the attack infront, while Jellachich directed the other columns. After twelve hours of fatiguing march, the latter succeeded in bringing his troops in rear to attackthe intrenchments. When the animating sound of their hurra was heard,Hotze pressed forward to assail the works in front, and, after a stout resisMay 14.( 1) Jom . xi . 219, 221. Dan. i . 117 , 119, Arch.(h . i . 267, 268.(2) Dum. i . 120, 121. Jom . xi , 222, 223. Arch .Ch. i. 263, 267.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 23tance, the barriers were burst open, and the fort carried , with the loss to theRepublicans of fifteen hundred prisoners (1 ).This important success occasioned the immediate retreat of the Frencharmies from the Grisons. Their left fell back by Sargans to Wallenstadt; thecentre by the gorge of Vettis; the right by Reichenau, Ilantz , and Disentis,into the valley of Urseren. The centre of the army was forced; and had Bellegarde been at hand to follow up the successes of Hotze, it would have beenall over with the Republicans in Helvetia. As it was, they did not effect theirretreat from the Grisons without sustaining a loss of three thousand men inprisoners alone; while the total loss of the Imperialists was only seventy-onemen; an extraordinary, but well- authenticated proof of the immense advantage of offensive operations in mountain warfare, and the great disasters towhich even the best troops are subjected by being exposed, when acting onthe defensive, to the loss oftheir communications, by their adversary turningtheir position (2).Retreat of Masséna This catastrophe obliged Masséna to alter entirely his line of debehind the fence. The right wing in the Alps being driven back, it was no Lake of Zurich. longer possible to maintain the line of the lake of Constance and May 20. the Rhine from Stein to Eglisau. In consequence, he fell back fromthe Rhine behind the Thur; Lecourbe received orders to evacuate the St.-Gothard and concentrate his forces below the Devil's Bridge, in the valley of theReuss, while the bulk of his army was assembled round the headquarters atZurich, all the approaches to which were fortified with the utmost care (3) .Notwithstanding the strength of this position, Lecourbe wouldhave been unable to have maintained his ground with the rightwing against the impetuous attacks of Hotze, had that enterprisinggeneral been supported by Bellegarde; but the Aulic Council , conceiving that Italy was to be the theatre of decisive operations, directed himto descend into Lombardy, and reinforce the army there, now commandedby Suwarrow, leaving only ten thousand men to guard the Valteline andgain possession of the St.-Gothard . In pursuance of these orders he crossedthe Splugen, and proceeded by the lake of Como to Milan, while Hotze vigorously pursued the retreating enemy in the valley of the Rhine, and everywhere drove him back to the Swiss frontiers (4) .Part ofthe Austrian left wing detached into Lomisbardy.Encouraged by these successes, and the near approach of the Russianauxiliaries, to push the war with vigour, the Archduke published a proclamation to the Swiss, in which he announced that he was about to enter theirterritory, to deliver them from their chains, and exhorted them to take upMay 22. arms against their oppressors. At the same time the Rhine waspassed at all points, a large column crossed at Stein, under Nauendorf; another at Eglisau, while Hotze crossed the upper part of the stream in the Grisons, and penetrated, by the source of the Thur, into the Toggenberg. ToMay 24. prevent thejunction of the Archduke and Hotze, Masséna left his intrenchments on the Limmat, and commenced an attack on the advanced guardofNauendorf. A desultory action ensued , which was maintained withgreat vivacity on both sides; fresh troops continually came up to reinforce those whowere exhausted with fatigue, and though undecisive upon the whole, Oudinot gained a considerable advantage over an Austrian division , commandedby Petrasch, which was defeated, with the loss of fifteeen hundred prisoners.(1) Dum. i. 123, 124.Ch. i. 271, 278.(2) Jom. xi. 226, 227.Ch. i . 271 , 281.Jom. xi. 224, 225. Arch.Dum. i . 124, 125. Arch.(3) Jom. xi. 228. Dum. i . 127.(4) Dum. i. 124, 126. Jom. xi . 228, 230. Arch.Ch. i . 283, 284.24 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII .Notwithstanding that check, however, the object was gained; theArchduke marched on the following day, towards Winterthur,while Hotze descended with all his forces to support him. Theimportant post called the Steigpass was attacked at noon , andcarried by that intrepid general ( 1 ) , while the Archduke effected his junction with the left wing of his army at Winterthur and Nestenbach. Masséna, upon this, fell back to Zurich, and the Republicans confined themselvesto their defensive position on the Limmat.May 25 .French centre is forced by the Arch duke.Their right wing isthe St.May 29.While the French centre was thus forced back to their interiordriven from line of defence, the right wing, under Lecourbe, was still more Gothard. severely pressed by the Imperialists . No sooner had Bellegarde arrived in Lombardy, than Suwarrow detached General Haddick, with ten thousand men, to drive them from the St. -Gothard. Loison's division , defeatedat the Monte Cenere, by Hohenzollern , retired up the valley of the Ticino , toAirolo, where it was reinforced by several additional battalions , inorder to maintain the passage of the St. - Gothard , and give time for the baggage and artillery to defile to Altdorf. Overwhelmed by numbers, Loison wasat length driven over the snowy summit of that rugged mountain, throughthe smiling valley of Urseren, and down the deep descent of the Devil'sBridge, to Wasen, with the loss of six hundred prisoners. An Austrian brigadeeven chased him from Wasen down to Amsteg, within three miles of Altdorf;but Lecourbe, justly alarmed at so near an approach, sallied forth from thatplace, at the head of a considerable body of troops , and attacked them withsuch vigour, that they were obliged to retrace their steps in confusion up thewhole valley of Schollenen , and could only prevent the irruption of theenemy into the valley of Urseren by cutting an arch of the Devil's bridge . Atthe same time, General Xaintrailles, at the head of a strong French division ,which Masséna had dispatched to the support of the army of Italy, attackedand routed a body of six thousand peasants, which had taken post at Leuk (2) ,in the upper Valais, and made himself master of Brieg, the well-known village at the foot of the Simplon.position at Masséna's Meanwhile, the bulk of the Austrian forces were concentrated inZurich. the environs of Zurich, where Masséna still maintained, with characteristic obstinacy, his defensive position . The French lines extended fromthe intrenched heights of Zurich, through those of Regensberg, and thenceto the Rhine, in a direction nearly parallel to the course ofthe Aar. The camparound Zurich was strengthened by the most formidable redoubts, at whichthe army had laboured for above a month; while the whole country by whichit could be approached , situated between the Glatt, the Limmat, and the Aar,filled with wooded heights, and intersected by precipitous ravines , presentedthe greatest obstacles to an attacking army. On the 5th June, theArchduke, having assembled all his forces, assailed him along thefully ed byattack the whole line . The chief weight of his attack was directed against Mas Archduke.June 5.He is there unsuccesssena's centre and right. At the latter point, Hotze gained at firstwhat seemed an important success; his advanced posts even penetrated intothe suburbs of Zurich, and carried the whole intrenchments which coveredthe right of the army; but before the close of the day, Soult coming up withthe reserve, regained the lost ground and forced back the Imperialists, aftera desperate struggle , to the ground they had occupied at the commencementof the action. The combat at the same time raged in the centre with un( 1) Dum. i . 164 , 167. Jom. xi . 235. 237. Arch.Ch. i. 292, 306.(2) Jom. xi. 240, 244. Dum. i . 158. Arch. Ch. i ,286, 290.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 25certain success; and at length the Archduke, seeing the repulse of Hotze, anddeeming the heights of the Zurichberg the decisive point, detached GeneralWallis, with a portion of the reserve, to renew the attack, while the Princeof Lorraine made a simultaneous effort on the side of the Attisberg. Wallis atfirst made a great impression, carried the farm of Zurichberg, and, after avehement struggle, arrived at the palissades of the intrenchments; but Masséna, seeing the danger, flew to the spot, at the head of a column of grenadiers , and assailed the Imperialists in flank , while a tremendous fire ofgrapeand musketry from the summit of the works tore down the foremost of theirranks. Notwithstanding all their efforts, the Imperialists were unable to forcethe intrenchments; Hotze himself was severely wounded; and , after a bloodyconflict, they retired over the Glatt, leaving three thousand killed andwounded on the field battle (1 ) .aarranged at tack . Mas sénaa retreat.He prepares Noways discouraged by this check, the Archduke, after a day's reand better pose, made arrangements for a renewal of the attack; and , taught,by experience, adopted such dispositions as must have ensuredvents it by success . Before daybreak on the morning of the 6th , two columns,of eight thousand men each, were destined to assault the heights ofZurich and Wipchengen, while all the left, the reserve, and part of thecentre, were to support their attack. But Masséna, apprehensive of the result, retreated during the night, defiled over the bridges of Zurich and Weltingen, and took post, between Lucerne and Zurich, on Mount Albis, a rockyridge stretching from the lake of Zurich to the Aar, in a position even strongerthan the one he had left . The retreat was effected without loss under coverof night; but the great arsenal of Zurich, containing 150 pieces of cannon,and immense warlike stores, fell on the day following into the hands of theImperialists (2)..Dissolution The evacuation of the intrenched camp at Zurich, drew after itSwissforces the dissolution of the forces of the Swiss Confederacy in the in of all thein the ser vice of terest of France. The battalions of Berne and Soleure, already France.much weakened by desertion , were entirely dissolved by thatevent; while those of Zurich and Turgovia, menaced with military executionon their dwellings, if they continued longer with the enemy, made haste toabandon a cause of which they were already ashamed in their hearts. In aweek the battalions of the Pays de Vaud, and a few hundreds of the mostardent of the Zurich democrats, alone remained of the eighteen thousandauxiliaries first assembled under the tricolor standard . At the same time, theprovisional government of Helvetia, no longer in safety at Lucerne, set off forBerne; the long file of its carriages excited the ironical contempt of thepeasantry, still ardently attached to the institutions of their fathers , in therural districts through which they passed (3) .Reflections The details which have now been given of the campaign in thenitude of Alps, though hardly intelligible to those who have not traversed on the magthe preced.ing opera.tions in the the country, or studied the positions with care in an excellentAlps. map, offer the most remarkable spectacle, in a military point ofview, which the revolutionary war had yet exhibited (4) . From the 14th May, when the attack on the fort of Luciensteg commenced, to the 6th June,when the intrenched camp at Zurich was abandoned, was nothing but one(1) Jom. xi. 249, 251. Dum , i . 169, 170. Th. x.295. Arch. Ch. i . 327, 344.(2) Jom. xi. 251 , 252. Th . x. 296. Dum. i . 1 €9,170. Arch . Ch. i . 345 , 350.(3) Join. xi, 255, 256. Arch. Ch . i . 350, 357.(4) Those who have enjoyed the advantage ofhaving travelled over these mountains will require the aid of no map to remind them of places whose relative position is indelibly imprinted in their memory. Those who have not, will find them de.lineated in the common Carte Routière de la Suisse..26 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII .continual combat, in a vast field of battle, extending from the snowy summits of the Alps, to the confluence of the great streams which flow from theirperennial fountains. Posterity will hardly credit that great armies could bemaintained in such a situation , and the same unity of operations communi cated to a line, extending from Bellinzona to Basle, across the highest mountains in Europe, as to a small body of men manoeuvring on the most favour able ground for military operations. The consumption of human life duringthese prolonged actions for twenty days; the forced marches by which theywere succeeded; the sufferings and privations which the troops on both sides endured; the efforts necessary to find provisions for large bodies in those inhospitable regions, in many of which the traveller or the chamois hunter can often hardly find a footing, combined to render this warfare both the mostmemorable and the most animating which had occurred since the fall ofthe Roman empire (1).Arrival of the Ruson the Min cio.While success was thus attending the Imperial standards on thesians, under Rhine and the Alps, events of a still more decisive character ocSuwarrow curred on the Italian plains . A few days after the important battleof Magnano, twenty thousand Russians, under Suwarrow, joinedthe Imperial army, still encamped on the shores of the Mincio. Thus werethe forces of the north, for the first time since the origin of the Revolution,brought into collision with those of the south, and that desperate contestcommenced which was destined to inflict such terrible wounds on both empires; to wrap in flames the towers of the Kremlin, and bring the Tartars ofthe Desert to the shores of the Seine, and ultimately establish a new balanceof power in Europe, by arraying all its forces under the banners either ofAsiatic despotism or European ambition.The Emperor Paul, who now entered, with all the characteristic impetuosity of his character, into the alliance against France, had embraced themost extensive and visionary ideas as to the ulterior measures which shouldbe adopted upon the overthrow of the French Revolutionary power. Helaboured to effect the formation , not only of a cordial league between all thesovereigns of Europe, to stop the progress of anarchy, but the restoration ofall the potentates and interests which had been subverted by the French arms,and the closing of the great schism between the Greek and Catholic Churches,which had so long divided the Christian world. He went even so far as tocontemplate the union of the Catholics and Protestants , the stilling of all thecontroversies which distracted the latter body, and the assemblage of the followers ofChrist, ofwhatever denomination , under the banners of one CatholicChurch. Captivating ideas , which will never cease to attract the enthusiasticand benevolent in every age, but which the experienced observer of humanevents will dismiss to the regions of imagination, and class with the Utopia ofSir Thomas More, or the probable extinction of death, which amused thereveries of Condorcet (2) .The troops thus brought against the Republicans, though verytheir com manders.troops and different from the soldiers of Eylau and Borodino, were still formidable by their discipline, their enthusiasm, and their stubbornvalour. Their cavalry, indeed, was poorly equipped, and their artillery inferior in skill and science to that of the French, but their infantry, strong,hardy and resolute, yielded to none in Europe in the energy and obstinacy soessential to military success . Field -marshal Suwarrow, who commanded(1 ) Dum. i. 172, 173. Jom. xi . 257, 258. (2) Hard. vii. 215, 217.Character of these1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 27them, and now assumed the general direction of the allied army, though thesingularity of his manner and the extravagance of his ideas in some particularshave detracted, in the estimation of foreigners, from his well-earned reputation, was yet unquestionably one of the most remarkable generals of thelast age. Impetuous, enthusiastic, and impassioned, brave in conduct, invincible in resolution , endowed with the confidence and ardour whichconstitute the soul of the conqueror, without the vigilance or foresight whichare requisite to the general, he was better calculated to sweep over the worldwith the fierce tempest of Scythian war, than conduct the long and cautiouscontests which civilised nations maintain with each other. His favouriteweapon was the bayonet, his system of war incessant and vigorous attack,and his great advantage the impression of superiority and invincible powerwhich a long course of success under that method had taught to his soldiers.The first orders he gave to General Chastelar, chief of the staff to the Imperialists, were singularly characteristic, both of his temper of mind and systemof tactics . That general having proposed a reconnoissance, the marshal answered warmly, "Reconnoissance! I am for none of them; they are of no usebut to the timid, and to inform the enemy that you are approaching. It isnever difficult to find your opponents when you really wish it . Form column;charge bayonets; plunge into the centre of the enemy; these are my reconnoissances; " words which, amid some exaggeration, unfold more of the realgenius of war than is generally supposed (1) .Fearless and impetuous in conversation as action, the Russian veteranmade no secret of the ultimate designs with which his imperial master hadentered into the war. To restore every thing to the state in which it wasbefore the French Revolution broke out; to overturn the new republics,re-establish , without exception, the dispossessed princes, restrain universallythe spread of revolutionary ideas, punish the authors of fresh disturbances,and substitute for the cool policy of calculating interest a frank, generous,disinterested system, was the only way, he constantly maintained, to putdown effectually the Gallic usurpation. The Austrian officers , startled at suchnovel ideas, carefully reported them to the cabinet of Vienna, where theyexcited no small disquietude . To expel the French from the whole Italianpeninsula, and, if possible, raise up an effectual barrier against any futureincursions in that quarter from their ambition, was, indeed, a favourite objectof their policy; but it was no part of their designs to sanction a universalrestitution of the possessions acquired since the commencement of the war,or exchange the distant and rebellious provinces of Flanders for the rich andsubmissive Venetian territories adjoining the Hereditary States , and affording them at all times a secure entrance into the Italian plains . Hence a secretjealousy and distrust speedily arose between the coalesced Powers, and experienced observers already began to predict, from the very rapidity of thesuccess with which their arms were at first attended, the evolution of suchcauses of discord as would- ultimately lead to the dissolution of the confederacy ( 2) .The plan ofoperations concerted between the Archduke and Suwarrow wasto separate entirely the French armies of Switzerland and Italy, and to combine the movements of the two allied armies by the conquest of the Italian Alps, Lombardy, and Piedmont, in order to penetrate into France on its mostdefenceless side by the Vosges mountains and the defiles of the Jura, the(1) Jom. xi . 261 , 262. Dum. i . 173. Hard . vii. (2) Hard. vii . 220.213, 219.28 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.same quarter on which the great invasion of 1814 was afterwards effected . Itwas on this principle that they maintained so vigorous a contest under Bellegarde and Hotze, in the Val-levantine and Grisons; and by their successesthe right wing of Masséna was forced to retire; the Imperialists were interposed in a salient angle between the Republican armies, and the one thrownback on the line of the Po, the other on that of the Aar (1 ) .Moreau suc- ceeds to thethe Italian army. Its wretchedMoreau succeeded Sherer in the command of the army of Italy atcommand ofthis momentous crisis. He found it reduced, by sickness and thesword, to twenty-eight thousand combatants; and, after a vaincondition . attempt to maintain the line of the Oglio , the troops retired towardsMilan, leaving the immense military stores and reserve artillery parks atCremona to the Conquerors, while a bridge equipage, which was descendingthe Mincio from Mantua, with a view to gain the waters of the Po, also fellinto the hands of the Imperialists ( 2) .Moreau retreats be- hind the Adda.Moreau finding himself cut off from his connexion with Massénain the Alps, and being unable to face the Allies in the plain ofLombardy, resolved to retire towards the mountains of Genoa, inorder to facilitate his junction with Macdonald, who had received orders toevacuate the Parthenopeian republic, and retire upon the Apennines. Mantuawas invested; and all the frontier towns ofthe Cisalpine republic were abandoned to their own resources. Soon after, Peschiera was carried by assault;April 20. Ferrara besieged; and Brescia summoned . Kray, to whom the rightwing was intrusted , carried the latter town without opposition; and the garrison, eleven hundred strong, which had retired into the castle, soon aftersurrendered at discretion . The French now retired behind the line of theAdda, a rapid stream, which, descending from the lake of Lecco, runs in adeep and swift torrent, over a surface of twenty-four leagues , to the Po. Theright bank is almost every where so lofty as to command the left; and thebridges at Lecco, Cassana, Lodi, and Pizzighitone are defended either byfortified towns or strong tétes-de-pont. On the 25th April the Allies approached this formidable line; and a sharp skirmish ensued between theRussians, under Prince BAGRATHION, destined to meet a glorious death on thefield of Borodino, and the French, before the walls of Lecco, in which theformer were repulsed: commencing thus a contest which was never destinedto be finally extinguished till the Russian standards waved on the heights of Montmartre (3) .The passage of the Adda is forced with imto the French.Suwarrow now left twenty thousand men, under Kray, to besiegePeschiera and blockade Mantua, and prepared to force the passagemense loss of the Adda. To frustrate this intention, Moreau accumulated histroops in masses on that part of the river which seemed chieflythreatened . But while actively engaged in this design , the Austrian divisionof General Ott succeeded in throwing a bridge, during the night, at Trezzo,and before morning his whole troops had crossed over to the right; while, atthe same time, Wukassowich surprised the passage at Brivio. The Frenchline was thus divided into three parts; and Serrurier's division , eight thousand strong, which formed the extreme left, was not only cut off from allsupport, but even from receiving any orders from the remainder of the army.The divisions of Ott and Zoph commenced a furious attack on Grenier'sdivision, and after a brave resistance, drove it back towards Milan, with theloss of two thousand four hundred men, including eleven hundred pri-(1 ) Dum. i. 174. Jom. xi. 262. Arch. Ch. ii.33, 34.(2) Jom. xi , 262, 263. Dum. i . 174, 175.(3) Jom. xi. 265, 267. Dum. i . 79. St. -Cyr, i.200, 202.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 29Surrender of Serrurier with 7000 men.soners , while Serrurier, whose division was entirely isolated by the passageofWukassowich at Brivio , took post at Verderio, in a strong position , determined to defend himself to the last extremity. Guillet, with the brigadeunder his orders, who was returning from the Valteline , escaped destructionby embarking on the lake of Como, steering for Menagio, and making hisway to the lake of Lugano by the beautiful valley which leads from that placeto Porlezza . By remaining in his position at Verderio while the Allied armywas advancing, Serrurier necessarily was soon enveloped by theircolumns; evincing thus rather the courage of a soldier who disdainsApril 26. to retreat, than the conduct of an officer who knows how to extricate his men from difficulties. He was soon surrounded on all sides by theImperialists; and, after an honourable resistance , finding his retreat cut off,and the assailants triple his own force, laid down his arms with seven thousand men. At the same time, Melas carried the tête-de-pont at Cassano, andpursued the fugitives withsuch vigour that he passed the bridge pell- mell withthem, and pushed on before night to Gorgonzelo, on the road to Milan ( 1 ) .Suwarrow The situation of the French was now in the highest degree critical.in triumph. In these engagements they had lost above eleven thousand men,and could now, even with all the reinforcements which they received , hardlymuster in their retreat twenty thousand to meet the great army of the Allies,above sixty thousand strong, which was advancing in pursuit. In these disastrous circumstances, Milan was abandoned , and the army withdrawn behindthe Ticino. Suwarrow, the same day, made his triumphal entryinto that capital , amidst the transports of the Catholic and aristocratic party,and the loud applause of the multitude, who greeted him with the sameacclamations which they had lavished , on a similar occasion , on Napoléonthree years before. The Republican army, having left a garrison of two thousand men in the castle, moved slowly in two columns towards Turin, in deepdejection, and heavily burdened with the numerous families compromisedby the Revolution, who now pursued their mournful way towards the frontiers of France ( 2) .enters MilanApril 29.Moreau Nothing now remained to Moreau but to retire to such a position retires to as might enable him to rally to his standards the yet unbroken Alexandria and Turin.May 7.army which Macdonald was bringing up from the south of thepeninsula. For this purpose he divided his forces into two columns, one ofwhich, under his own command, escorting the parks of artillery , the baggage,and military chest, took the road of Turin, while the other, consisting of the divisions of Victor and Laboissiere, moved towards Alexandria, with a viewto occupy the defiles of the Bochetta and the approaches to Genoa. Havingeffected the evacuation of the town and the arsenal, provided for the defenceof the citadel , in which he left a garrison of three thousand men,under General Fiorilla, and secured the communications with the adjacentpasses of the Alps, the French general moved the remainder of his army intothe plain between the Po and the Tanaro, at the foot of the northern slopeand principal debouches of the Apennines, where they encircle the bay ofGenoa and join the Maritime Alps. This position , extending only over a frontof four leagues, supported on the right by Alexandria, and on the left by Valence, affording the means of manoeuvring either on the Bormida or the Po, and covering at once the roads from Asti to Turin and Coni (3) , and those(1) Th. x. 284. Jom . xi 276, 278. Dum . i . 112.St - Cyr, i . 194, 199. Arch. Ch. i . 230, 231 .(2) Arch. Ch. i . 35 , 36. Th. x. 286. Jom. xi. 278,9. St.- Cyr, i . 199, 201.(3) Jom. xi. 280, 284. Th. x. 286, 287. Dum. i141, 142. St.- Cyr, i . 200, 203.30 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII .from Acqui to Nizza and Savona, was better adapted than any other that couldhave been selected to enable the Republicans to maintain their footing inItaly, until they were reinforced by the army of Macdonald, or received assistance from the interior of France.Whither he is tardily Master of all the plain of Lombardy, and at the head of an overfollowed by whelming force, Suwarrow did not evince that activity in pursuingSuwarrow. the broken remains of his adversary which might have been expected from the general vigour of his character. For above a week he gavehimself up to festivities at Milan , while an army hardly a third of his own wasin full retreat, by diverging columns, before him. At length , finding hisactive disposition wearied with triumphal honours, he set out for Alexandria,leaving Latterman to blockade the castle of Milan with four thousand men.At the same time Orci , Novi, Peschiera, and Pizzightone surrendered to theAllies, with a hundred pieces of cannon, twenty gun-boats, a siege equipage,and immense stores of ammunition and provisions; an advantage whichenabled Kray to draw closer the blockade of Mantua, and dispatch Hohenzollern to assist at the siege of the castle of Milan . On the 9th the Alliesreached Tortona, blew open the gates, and drove the French into the citadel;while their advanced posts were pushed to San-Juliano, Garofalo, and Novi.Meanwhile, though a reinforcement of six thousand Russians arrived at Tortona, Moreau remained firm in his position behind the Po and the Tanaro.To divert his attention , the Russian general extended his right from Novi toSerravalle and Gavi, threatening thereby his communications with Genoaand France ( 1 ) , but this was a mere feint, intended to mask his real design,which was to cross the Po, turn his left, and force him to a general and decisive action.Check of the RusRosenberg,in endeatoThe right, or southern bank of the Po, from the junction of thesians, under Tanaro to Valence, is more lofty than the northern, which is low,marshy, and approachable only on dykes. Some large islands opcross the Po. posite Mugarone having afforded facilities for the passage, Rosenberg, who commanded one of Suwarrow's divisions directed against Valence,was induced, by his military ardour, to attempt to cross it in that quarter.In the night ofthe 11th, he threw six thousand men across the principal arminto a wooded island, from whence they shortly passed over, some by swimMay 11. ming, others by wading, with the water up to their armpits, andtook possession of the village of Mugarone. Moreau no sooner heard of thisdescent, than he directed an overwhelming force to the menaced point; theRussians, vigorously attacked in the village, were soon compelled to retire;in vain they formed squares, and, under Prince Rosenberg and the ArchdukeConstantine, defended themselves with the characteristic bravery of theirnation; assailed on every side, and torn to pieces by a murderous fire ofgrape-shot, they were driven back, first into the island, then across to thenorthern bank, with the loss of eight hundred killed and wounded, fourpieces of cannon, and seven hundred prisoners. No sooner was Suwarrowinformed of the first success of Rosenberg's attack, than he pushed forwardtwo divisions to support him, while another was advanced towards Marengoto effect a diversion; but the bad success of the enterprise, which failedbecause it was not combined with sufficient support at the first (2) , renderedit necessary that they should be recalled , and the Allied army was concentrated anew in the intrenched camp of Garofalo .(1) Dum. i. 142, 145. Jom. xi . 289, 290. St. Cyr,i. 203. Arch. Ch. iii. 37, 39.(2) Jom. xi. 292, 294. Dum. i . 146. St.- Cyr, i.204, 205. Th. x. 288.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 31Indecisive action be tween Su warrow andnear Alex andria.At the same instant that this was passing in one quarter, Suwarrow raised his camp at S. -Juliano, with the design of crossing the Moreau Po near Casa Tenia, and marching upon Sesia. This attempt was notattended with decisive success . A warm action ensued between thedivision of Victor and the Russian advanced guard, nine thousand strong,under the orders of Generals Bagrathion and Lusignan. Victory was longdoubtful, and although the French were at length forced to retreat undershelter of the cannon of Alexandria, the demonstration led to no serious impression at the time on the position of the Republican general (1 ) .reApenninesMoreau at Tired with the unsatisfactory nature of these manœuvres, Suwartreats to the row resolved to march with the bulk of his forces upon Turin,crest ofthe where the vast magazines of artillery and military stores of theand Turin. French army were assembled, in the hope that, by reducing itscitadel, and occupying the plains ofPiedmont to the foot of the Alps, the position ofMoreau on the Po and the Tanaro might be rendered no longer tenable, from theinterruption of its communications with France. By a singularcoincidence, not unusual in war, at the very time that the Russian marshalwas adopting this resolution, Moreau had resolved, on his part, to retire byAsti, upon Turin and Coni, and, abandoning the line of the Apennines, concentrate his forces for the preservation of his communication with the Alps.Invincible necessity had compelled him to adopt this retrograde movement.Great part of Piedmont was in a state of insurrection; a large body of peasantshad recently occupied Ceva, another had made themselves masters of Mondovi, which closed the principal line of retreat for the army, the sole onethen practicable for artillery and carriages. The recent success of the Russians towards Alexandria led him to believe that the weight of theirforce was to be moved in that direction, and that he would soon be in dangerofhaving his communications with France cut off. Influenced by these considerations, he detached the division of Victor, without artillery or baggage,by the mountain paths, towards Genoa, in order to maintain the crest of theApennines, and reinforce, when necessary, the army of Macdonald, whichwas approaching from Naples, while he himself, having first thrown threethousand meninto Alexandria, retired by Asti towards Turin, with the designof maintaining himself, if possible, at Coni, the last fortified place on the Italian side of the Alps, until he received the promised reinforcements from the interior of France (2) .May 19.May 27.surprisesNo sooner was Suwarrow informed of the retreat of Moreau, thanSuwarrow he occupied Valence and Casala, which had been abandoned by the Turin. Republicans, and, after having moved forward a strong body underSchwiekowsky to form the investment of Alexandria, advanced himself withthe main body of the army towards Turin. Wukassowich, who commandedthe advanced guard, withthe aid of some inhabitants ofthe town who favouredhis designs, surprised one of the gates, and rapidly introducing his troops,compelled the French to take refuge in the citadel . The fruits of this conquestwere 261 pieces of cannon, eighty mortars, 60,000 muskets, besides an enormous quantity of ammunition and military stores, which had been accumulating in that city ever since the first occupation of Italy by the arms of Napoléon. This great stroke, the success of which was owing to the celerity andskill of the Russian generals, deprived Moreau of all his resources, and rendered the situation both of his own army and that of Macdonald in the high(1 ) Jom. xi. 296, 297. Dum. i . 146. St.- Cyr, i.205.(2) Th. x. 291. Du . i , 148 , 149. Jom . xi . 300,301. St.-Cyr, i. 206, 208. Arch. Ch. ii . 44, 45.32 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.-And the Castle of Milan is taken.est degree critical. At the same time, intelligence was received ofthe fall of the castle of Milan, after four days of open trenches, anadvantage which permitted the division of Hohenzollern to reinforce the besieging army before Mantua, while the artillery was dispatched toTortona, which was now closely invested (1) .May 24.Moreau retreats towardsUnable from these disasters, to maintain his ground in the basinof Piedmont, Moreau now thought only of regaining his position Genoa. on the ridge of the Apennines, and covering the avenue to the cityof Genoa, the only rallying point where he could still hope to effect a junctionwith Macdonald, and which covered the principal line of retreat for botharmies into France. For this purpose he retired to Savigliano, having firstmoved forward an advanced guard , under Grouchy, to clear the road he wasto follow, by retaking Mondovi and Ceva, into the latter of which the Austrians had succeeded in throwing a small garrison to support the insurgentswho had occupied it. That general retook Mondovi, but all his efforts failedbefore the ramparts ofCeva. The closing of the great road through this townrendered Moreau's situation apparently hopeless. Suwarrow, with a superiorforce, was close in his rear; the only route practicable for artillery by whichhe could regain the Apennines was blocked up; and he could not retire by theCol di Tende without abandoning all prospect of rejoining Macdonald, andleaving his army to certain destruction. From this desperate situation theRepublicans were extricated by the skill and vigour of their general, aidedby the resources of Guilleminot and the engineer corps under his directions .He retires By their exertions and the indefatigable efforts of one-half of theFrench army, a mountain path, leading across the Apennines fromthe valley of Garessio to the coast of Genoa, was, in four days, rendered practicable for artillery and chariots; and as soon as this was done, theblockade of Ceva was raised , three thousand men were thrown as a garrisoninto Coni, which was abandoned to its own resources; and the remainder ofover the Apennines to that town.Still occu- pying the crest of the mountains.the army, after a strong rear-guard had been posted at Murialto tocover the passage, defiled over the narrow and rocky path, and arrived in safety at Loano, on the southern side of the mountains. Nosooner were they arrived there than they formed a junction with Victor, whohad successfully accomplished his retreat by Acqui, Spigno, and Digo, andoccupied all the passes leading towards Genoa over the Apennines; Victorwas intrusted with the important post of Pontremoli, while the other divisions placed themselves on the crest of the mountains from Loano to the Bocchetta (2).overand LomSuwarrow Suwarrow, on being informed of the retreat of Moreau from thethe whole plain of Piedmont, spread his troops over its rich surface , and upof Piedmont the glens which run from thence into the heart of the Alps. The bardy. Russian divisions entered into the beautiful valleys of Suza, St. - Jeande Maurienne, and Aosta. Frœlich pushed his advanced posts to the neighbourhood of Coni; Pignerol capitulated; Suza surrendered at discretion: andthe advanced posts of the Allies every where appearing on the summit ofthe Alpine passes, spread consternation over the ancient frontiers of France. Atthe same time the citadel ofTurin was closely invested; the sieges of Tortonaand Alexandria were pushed with vigour, while intelligence was received atthe same time that a detachment, sent by Kray from before Mantua , had made itself master ofFerrara; that a flotilla from Venice had surprised Ravenna,(1 ) Jom. xi. 302, 305. Dum. i . 152, 158. Th . x.292. Arch. Ch. ii , 45.(2) Jom. xi. 307, 308. Th . x. 292. Arch. Ch. ii.45. Dum. i . 176, 177.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 33and an insurrection had broken out in the mountainous parts of Tuscany andthe Ecclesiastical States , which threatened Ancona, and had already wrestedArezzo and Lucca from the Republican dominions (1 ) .cesses of theThus, in less than three months after the opening of the Campaign rapid suc- on the Adige, the French standards were driven back to the sumAllies. mit of the Alps; the whole plain of Lombardy was regained, withthe exception of a few of its strongest fortresses; the conquests of Napoléonhad been lost in less time than it had taken to make them; and the Republican armies , divided and dispirited , were reduced to a painful and hazardousdefence of their own frontiers , instead of carrying the thunder of their vic torious arms over the Italian Peninsula. A hundred thousand men werespread over the plain of Lombardy, of whom forty thousand were grouped under Suwarrowround Turin ( 2) . History has not a more brilliant or decisiveseries of triumphs to record; and they demonstrate on how flimsy and insecure a basis the French dominion at that period rested; how much it wasdependent onthe genius and activity of a single individual; how inadequatethe revolutionary government was to the long-continued and sustained effortswhich were requisite to maintain the contest from their own resources; andhow easily, by a combined effort of all the powers at that critical period,when Napoléon was absent, and time and wisdom had not consolidated the conquests of democracy, they might have been wrested from their grasp, andthe peace of Europe established on an equitable foundation . But, notwithstanding all their reverses, the European governments were not as yet sufficiently awakened to the dangers of their situation; Prussia still kept aloof indubious neutrality; Russia was not irrevocably engaged in the cause; andGreat Britain, as yet confining her efforts to the subsidizing of other powers,had not descended as a principal into the field , or begun to pour forth, onland at least, those streams of blood which were destined to be shed beforethe great struggle was brought to a termination.These successes, great as they were, were yet not such as might have beenachieved, if the Russian general, neglecting all minor considerations, andblockading only the greater fortresses, had vigorously followed up with hisoverwhelming force the retreating army of the Republicans, and driven itover the Maritime Alps. Unable to withstand so formidable an assailant, theymust have retired within the French frontier, leaving not only Mantua andGenoa, but the army which occupied the Neapolitan territory, to its fate. Thisbold and decisive plan of operations was such as suited the ardent characterofthe Russian general , and which, if left to himself, he would unquestionablyhave adopted; but his better judgment was overruled by the cautious policyofthe Aulic Council, who, above all things, were desirous to secure a fortifiedfrontier for its Venetian acquisitions, and compelled him, much against hiswill, to halt in the midst of the career of victory, and besiege in form thefortresses of Lombardy. Something was no doubt gained by their reduction (3); but not to be compared with what might have been expected if an overwhelming mass had been interposed between the French armies, andthe conquerors of Naples had been compelled to lay down their arms between the Apennines and the Po (4) .Reflections on these(1) Jom, xi. 310, 315. Dum. i. 176 , 179. Arch.Ch. ii. 46. 48.(2) Arch. Ch. ii , 47.(3) Arch. Ch. ii . 47, 48. Hard. vii. 248, 249.(4) A Russian officer of Suwarrow's staff at this juncture wrote to Count Rostopchin at St.-Petersburg:-"Our glorious operations are thwarted by thosevery persons who are most interested in their suc cess. Far from applauding the brilliant triumphs of our arms, the cursed cabinet of Vienna seeks only to retard their marcb. It insists that our great Suwarrow should divide his army, and direct it at once to several points, which will save Moreau from total destruction. That cabinet, which fears a too 3IV.34 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXVIII..Affairs of the Parthepublic at Naples.While these disastrous events were in progress in the north of the nopeian Re- Peninsula, the affairs of France were not in a more favourable trainin its southern provinces. The Parthenopeian republic, establishedat Naples in the first fervour of revolutionary success, had been involved inthose consequences, the invariable attendant on a sudden concession ofpower to the people, spoliation of the rich, misery among the poor, andinextricable embarrassment in the finances of the state. In truth , the Directory, pressed by extreme pecuniary difficulties, looked to nothing so muchin their conquests as indemnifying themselves for the expenses of their ex peditions, and invariably made it the first condition with all the revolutionary states which they established , that they should pay the expenses ofthe war, and take upon themselves the sole support of the armies which wereto defend them . In conformity with these instructions, the first fruits of democratic ascendency in Naples were found to be bitter in the extreme; the successive contributions of twelve and fifteen millions of francs on the capital and provinces, of which mention has already been made, excited theutmost dissatisfaction , which was greatly increased soon after by the experienced insolence and rapacity of the civil agents of the Directory. A provi sional government was established, which introduced innovations that excitedgeneral alarm; the Jacobin clubs speedily began to diffuse the arrests andterror of revolutionary times; the national guard totally failed in producingany efficient force, while the confiscation of the church property, and theabolition of its festivals, spread dismay and horror through that large portionof the population who were still attached to the Catholic faith. These circumstances speedily produced partial insurrections: CardinalRuffo, in Calabria, succeeded in exciting a revolt, and led to thefield an army, fifteen thousand strong, composed of the descendantsof the Bruttians and Lucanians, while another insurrection, hardly less for midable, broke out in the province of Apulia. But these tumultuary bodies,imperfectly armed and totally undisciplined , were unable to withstand theveteran troops of France. Trani, where the principal force of the insurgentsof the latter province had established themselves, was carried by assault withgreat slaughter; but, on the other hand, Ruffo, in Calabria, defeated an attack on Castelluccia by the democratic bands of the new republic, and, encouraged by this success, marched into Apulia, where his forces were soongreatly augmented, and he was reinforced by some regular troops dispatched from Sicily ( 1) .Revolt ex cited by the oppression of the French.May 7.commencesAffairs were in this dangerous state in the Neapolitan dominions,Macdonald when orders reached Macdonald to evacuate, without loss of time,his retreat. the south of Italy, in order to bring his army to support the Republican arms in Lombardy. He immediately assembled all his disposable forces ,and after having left garrisons in fort St. -Elmo, Capua and Gaeta, set off forRomeat the head of twenty thousand men. His retreat, conducted with greatrapidity and skill, was exposed to serious dangers. The peasantry, informedby the English cruisers of the disasters experienced by the French in Upperrapid conquest of Italy, from designs which it dares not avow, as it knows well those of our magnanim ous Emperor, has, by the Aulic Council, forced the Archduke Charles into a state of inactivity, and enjoined our incomparable chief to secure his con quests rather than extend them; that it is to waste its time and strength inthe siege of fortresses which would fall of themselves ifthe French army wasdestroyed. What terrifies them even more than therapidity of our conquests, is the generous project,openly announced , of restoring to every one what he has lost. Deceived by his ministers, the Emperor Francis has, with his own hand, written to our illustrious general to pause in a career of conquest ofwhich the very rapidity fills him with alarm. "HARD. vii. 249 , 250.(1) Jom. xi. 316, 338. Orloff's Memoirs, ii. 190,220.1799. ]HISTORY OF EUROPE. 35Though repeatedlyretreats innorth of Tuscany.Italy, broke out into insurrection in every quarter. Duhesme left Apulia inopen revolt, and had a constant fight to maintain before he reached Capua;a few hundred English landed at Salerno, and, aided by the peasantry, advanced to Vietri and Castello-mare; while the insurgents of theassailed, he Roman and Tuscan states, becoming daily more audacious, intersafety to the rupted all the communications with the north of Italy. Notwithstanding these menacing circumstances, Macdonald effected hisretreat in the best order, and without sustaining any serious loss . He arrivedat Rome on the 16th, where he reinforced his army by the divisions of Grenier, continued his route by Acquapendente to Florence, where he ralliedto his standards the divisions of Gauthier and Montrichard , whowere in the environs of Pistoia and Bologna, and established his headquartersat Lucca in the end of May. The left wing, composed of the Polish divisionDombrowsky, took post at Carzana and Aula; the centre occupied the greatroad from Florence to Pistoia, the right, the high road to Bologna, and all thepasses into the Modena, with an advanced guard in the city of Bolognaitself (1) .May 29.He enters into comwith Mo- reau , and concerts measuresIn this situation, Moreau and Macdonald were in open communimunication cation; and it was concerted between them that the chief body oftheir united forces should be brought to bear upon the Lower Po,with a view to threaten the communications of the Allies , disen- with him. gage Mantua, and compel their retreat from the plain of Lombardy.For this purpose it was agreed that Macdonald should cross the Apennines and advance towards Tortona; his right resting on the mountains , his left onthe right bank of the Po, while Moreau, debouching by the Bochetta, Gavi,and Serravalle, should move into the plain of that river. As the weight of the contest would in this view fall upon the former of these generals, the division of Victor, which formed the eastern part of Moreau's army, was placedunder his orders, and a strong division directed to descend the valley of theTrebbia, in order to keep up the communication between the two armies,and support either as occasion might require (2) .this junc- ture.Position of The position ofthe allied armies, when these formidable preparathe Allies at tions were making to dislodge them from their conquests, were asfollows: Kray, who commanded the whole forces on the Lower Po,had 24,000 men under his orders, of whom one-half were engaged in thesiege of Mantua, while 5,000 under Hohenzollern, had been dispatched tocover Modena, and 6,000, under Ott, watched the mouths of the lateral valleys of the Taro and the Trebbia. The main body of the army, consisting ofthe divisions Zoph, Kaim, and the Russians, amounting to 28,000 men, wasencamped in the neighbourhood of Turin, with its advanced posts pushedinto the entrance of the Alpine valleys . Frœlich, with 6,000 men, observedConi; Wukassowich, with 5,700, occupied Mondovi, Ceva, and Salicetto;Lusignan, with 3,000 combatants, blockaded Fenestrelles; Bagrathion,with a detachment of1,500 men, was posted in Cezanna, and the Col di l'Asietta; Schwiekousky, with 6,000, men, blockaded Tortona and Alexandria;the corps of Count Bellegarde, 15,000 strong, detached from the Tyrol, wasadvancing from Como to form the siege ofthese two fortresses; while that ofHaddick, amounting to fourteen thousand bayonets, which formed the communication between the rear of the army and the left wing of the Archduke(1) Th. x. 297. Jom . xi , 338 , 341. Dum, i . 154,156.(2) Arch. Ch. ii . 49. Jom. xi . 341 , 342. Th. x.299.36 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.Charles, was preparing to penetrate into the Valais by the Simplon and thepass ofNuffenen ( 1 ) .greatDangers Thus, though the Allies had above a hundred thousand men inarising from the field, they could hardly assemble thirty thousand men at anydispersion. one point; so immensely had they extended themselves over the plains ofLombardy, and so obstinately had the Aulic Council adhered to theold system of establishing a cordon of troops all over the territory whichthey occupied . This vast dispersion of force was attended with little dangeras long as the shattered army of Moreau alone was in the field; but the casewas widely different when it was supported by thirty- five thousand freshtroops, prepared to penetrate into the centre and most unprotected part oftheir line. Had Macdonald been able to push on as rapidly from Florence ashe had done in arriving at that place, he might have crushed the divisions ofKlenau, Hohenzollern , and Ott, before they could possibly have been succoured from other quarters; but the time consumed in reorganizing his armyin Tuscany, and concerting operations with Moreau , gave Suwarrow an opportunity to repair what was faulty in the disposition of his forces, and assemble a sufficient body ofmen to resist the attack at the menaced point ( 2) . June 12.Macdonald's advance.First combats with the Republi- cans.Macdonald, having at length completed his preparations, raisedhis camp in the neighbourhood of Pistoia on the 7th June, with anarmy , including Victor's division , of thirty-seven thousand men,and marched across the Apennines to Bologna. Hohenzollern , whocommanded in the Modena, withdrew his posts into the town ofModena, where he was attacked in a few days, and , after a bloody engagement, driven out with the loss of fifteen hundred men. Had the right wingof the Republicans punctually executed his instructions, and occupied theroad to Ferrara during the combat round the town, the whole of the Imperialists would have been made prisoners. Immediately after this success,Macdonald advanced to Parma, driving the Imperial cavalry before him,while Ott, who was stationed at the entrance of the valley of the Taro, seeingthat his retreat was in danger of being cut off, retired to Placentia , leavingthe road open to Victor, who upon that debouched entirely from the Apennines, and effected his junction with Macdonald at Borgo San Denino, entirely to the north of the mountains. On the day following, Placentia wasoccupied by the Republicans, and their whole army established in the neighbourhood of that city (3) .Able andresolutionadopted byNo sooner was Suwarrow informed of the appearance of Mac- energetic donald's army in Tuscany, than he adopted the same energeticimmediately resolution by which Napoléon had repulsed the attack ofWursmer Suwarrow. on the Adige three years before. All his advanced posts in Piedmontwere recalled; the brigade of Lusignan near Fenestrelles, the divisionsFroelich, Bagrathion and Schwiekousky began their march on the same dayfor the general rendezvous at Asti; and Kray received orders instantly toraise the siege of Mantua, dispatch his artillery with all imaginable speed toPaschiera and Verona, and hasten with all his disposable force to join themain army in the neighbourhood of Placentia . The vigour of the Russiangeneral communicated itself to all the officers of his army. These movementswere all punctually executed, notwithstanding the excessive rains whichimpeded the movements of the troops; the castles of Milan and Pizzighitone(1 ) Arch. Ch . ii . 48, 49. Jom . xi . 343, 344.Dum, i. 160, 182, 185. Th. x. 297, 298.(2) Th. x. 298, 299. Dum, i , 184, 189. Jom. xi,(3) Arch. Ch. ii . 51, 52. St. -Cyr, i . 213, 214.Dum. i. 191 , 192. Jom, xi . 346, 349.344.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 37were provisioned, a great intrenched camp formed near the tête-de-pont ofValence, and all the stores recently captured , not necessary for the siege ofthe citadel , removed from Turin. By these means the Allied army was rapidlyreassembled, and on the 15th June, although Kray with the troops fromMantua had not yet arrived , thirty thousand infantry and six thousand cavalry were encamped at Garofalo, on the ground they had occupied six weeks before (1) .The twoon theJune 17.First and indecisiveThe intelligence of Suwarrow's approach induced Macdonald toarmies meet concentrate his forces; but, nevertheless, he flattered himself with Trebbia. the hope that he would succeed in overwhelming Ott before hecould be supported by the succours which were advancing. Three torrents,flowing parallel to each other, from the Apennines to the Po, intersected theplain occupied by the French army; the Nura, the TREBBIA, and the Tidone.The bulk of the Republican forces were on the Nura; the divisions Victor,Dombrowsky, and Rusca, were in advance on the Trebbia, and receivedorders to cross it, in order to overwhelm the Austrian division stationedbehind the Tidone. For this purpose, early on the morning of the17th, they passed both the Trebbia and the Tidone, and assailed the Imperialists with such vigour and superiority of force, that they were speedilydriven back in great disorder; but Suwarrow, aware, from the loud sound ofthe cannonade, of what was going forward, dispatched Chastellar with theadvanced guard of the main army, which speedily re-established affairs . Bydegrees, as their successive troops came up, the superiority passed to the sideof the Allies; the Austrians rallied , and commenced a vigorous attack on thedivision of Victor, while the Russian infantry, under Bagrathion, supportedthe left of the Imperialists . Soon after, Dombrowsky, on the left,action there. having brought up his Polish division by a sudden charge, capturedeight pieces of cannon, and pushed forward to Caramel; but at this criticalmoment, Suwarrow ordered a charge in flank by Prince Gortschakoff, withtwo regiments of Cossacks and four battalions, while Ott attacked them infront. This movement proved decisive; the Poles were broken , and fled indisorder over the Tidone. Meanwhile the right of the Republicans, composedof Victor's division , withstood all the efforts of Bagrathion, and was advancing along the Po to gain possession of the bridge of S. - Giovanni, when therout of Dombrowsky's division obliged them to retire. This retreat was conducted in good order, till the retiring columns were charged in flank by theCossacks, who had overthrown the Poles; in vain the French formed squares,and received the assailants with a rolling fire; they were broken, great partcut to pieces, and the remainder fled in disorder over the Trebbia. The Russians , in the heat of the pursuit ( 2) , plunged like the Carthaginians of oldinto that classic stream, but they were received with so destructive a fire ofmusketry and grape-shot from the batteries of the main body of the Frenchon the other side, that they were forced to retire with great loss; and thehostile armies bivouacked for the night on the same ground which had beenoccupied nineteen hundred years before by the troops of Hannibal and theRoman legions (3) .(1 ) St.-Cyr, i . 215, 217. Jom. xi. 349, 353. Dum.i . 193. Arch. Ch. ii . 55.(2) Jom, xi . 354, 357. Dum. i . 195, 197. Th. x .300, 301. Arch. Ch ii . 53 .(3) It is remarkable, that the fate of Italy has thrice been decided on the same spot; once in the battle between the Romans and Carthaginians,again, in 1746, in that between the Austrians and French, and in 1799, between the French andRussians. A similar coincidence will frequently again occur in the course of this work, particularly at Vittoria, Leipsic, Lutzen , Fleurus, and many others; a striking proof how permanent are theoperation of the causes, under every variety of the military art, which conduct hostile nations, at remote periods from each other, to the same fields of battle. See ARCHDUKE CHARLES, ii . 61. The author visited this field in 1818, along with his38 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [CHAP. XXVIII.judicious plan ofSuwarrow's During the night, Suwarrow brought up all his forces, and, encouraged by the success of the preceding day, made his dispositions attack. for a general action . Judging, with great sagacity, that the principal object of Macdonald would be to maintain his ground on the mountains,by which the communication with Moreau was to be preserved, he directedtowards his own right, which was to assail that quarter, his best infantry,consisting of the divisions Bagrathion and Schwiekousky, under the ordersof Prince Rosenberg. These troops received orders to pass the Trebbia, andadvance by Settimo to St. Georgia, on the Nura, in order to interpose between the French left and the mountains . Melas commanded thecentre, supported by a powerful reserve under Frolich; while Ott, with asmall corps, formed the left, and was established on the high- road to Placentia, rather to preserve the communication with its castle, than to take anyactive part in the engagement. The day was the anniversary of the battle of Kolin; and Suwarrow, to stimulate the ardour of the Austrians; gave forthe watchword, " Theresa and Kolin," while the general instructions to thearmy were to combat in large masses, and as much as possible with the bayonet (1) .June 18.Trebbia,and successsians on theBattle of the Macdonald , who intended to have delayed the battle till the dayfollowing, had only the divisions Victor, Dombrowsky, and Rusca,of the Rus- with the brigade of Salm, in position on the Trebbia; those ofOliviersecond day. and Montrichard could not arrive in line till noon . A furious actioncommenced at six o'clock, between the troops of Bagrathion and Victor'sdivision, which formed the extreme left of the French and rested on themountains. The French general, seeing he was to be attacked, crossed theTrebbia, and advanced against the enemy. A bloody battle ensued on theground intersected by the Torridella , till at length, towards evening, thesteady valour of the Russians prevailed , and the Republicans were driven backwith great slaughter over the Trebbia, followed by the Allies, who advancedas far as Settimo. On the French right, Salm's division, enveloped by superior forces, retreated with difficulty across the river. In the middle of theday, the divisions of Olivier and Montrichard arrived to support the centre;but though they gained at first a slight advantage, nothing decisive occurred,and at the approach of night they retired at all points over the Trebbia,which again formed the line of separation between the hostile armies ( 2) .Worn out with fatigue, the troops , on both sides , lay down roundtheir watchfires, on the opposite shores of the Trebbia, which still ,night. as in the days of Hannibal, flows in a gravelly bed , between banksof moderate height, clothed with stunted trees and underwood. The corpsof Rosenberg alone had crossed the stream, and reached Settimo, in the rearof the French lines; but disquieted by its separation from the remainder ofthe army, and ignorant of the immense advantages of its position, it passedan anxious night, in square, with the cavalry bridled and the men sleepingon their guns, and before daybreak withdrew to the Russian side of the river.Towards midnight, three French battalions , misled by false reports , entered,in disorder, into the bed of the Trebbia, and opened a fire of musketry uponthe Russian videttes, upon which the two armies immediately started to theirarms; the cavalry on both sides rushed into the river, the artillery played,without distinguishing , on friends and foes , and the extraordinary spectacleSingular nocturnal combat on the secondvalued friend, Captain Basil Hall: the lapse of two thousand years had altered none of the features described by the graphic pen of Livy.(1 ) Arch. Ch. ii . 54. Jom. xi . 358, 359. Dum. i .196, 197. Th. x. 302.(2) Th. x. 302, 303. Dum. i . 197, 198. Jom . xi.360, 361. Arch. Ch. ii . 54.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 39was exhibited of a nocturnal combat by moonlight, by hostile bodies up tothe middle in water. At length the officers succeeded in putting an end tothis useless butchery, and the rival armies, separated only by the stream,sunk into sleep within a few yards of each other, amidst the dead and the dying (1).Prepara tions of both The sun arose for the third time on this scene of slaughter; but noparties for disposition appeared on either side to terminate the contest . Suwarrow, reinforced by five battalions and six squadrons, which had battle on the third day.June 19.come up from the other side of the Po, again strengthened hisright, renewed to Rosenberg the orders to press vigorously on in that quarter, and directed Melas to be ready to support him with the reserve . Hours,even minutes, were of value; for the Russian general was aware that Moreauhad left his position on the Apennines, that the force opposed to him wastotally inadequate to arrest his progress, and he was in momentary expectation of hearing the distant sound of his cannon in the rear of the army.Every thing, therefore, depended on a vigorous prosecution of the advantages gained on the two preceding days, so as to render the co - operation ofthe Republican armies impossible. On the other hand, Macdonald, havingnow collected all his forces, and reckoning on the arrival of Moreau on the following day, resolved to resume the offensive. His plan was toturn at once both flanks of the enemy; a hazardous operation at all times,unless conducted by a greatly superior army, by reason of the dispersion offorce which it requires, but doubly so in the present instance , from the riskof one of his wings being driven into the Po. The battle was to be commenced by Dombrowsky moving in the direction of Niviano to outflank thecorps of Rosenberg, while Rusca and Victor attacked it in front; Olivier andMontrichard were charged with the task of forcing the passage of the river inthe centre, while the extreme right, composed of the brigade of Salm and thereserve ofWatrin, were to drive back the Russian left by interposing betweenit and the river Po (2) .conflict on Desperate Such was the fatigue of the men on both sides, that they couldthe Trebbia. not commence the action before ten o'clock. Suwarrow at thathour was beginning to put his troops in motion, when the French appearedin two lines on the opposite shore of the Trebbia, with the intervals betweenthe columns filled with cavalry, and instantly the first line crossed the riverwith the water up to the soldiers' arm-pits , and advanced fiercely to theattack. Dombrowsky pushed on to Rivallo , and soon outflanked the Russianright; and Suwarrow, seeing the danger in that quarter ordered the divisionBagrathion to the w back its right in order to face the enemy, and, after awarm contest, that general succeeded in driving the Poles across the river.But that manœuvre having uncovered the flank of the division Schwiekousky,it was speedily enveloped by Victor and Rusca, driven back to Casaleggio,and only owed its safety to the invincible firmness of the Russian infantry,who formed square, faced about on all sides, and by an incessant rolling firemaintained their ground till Bagrathion, after defeating the Poles, came up intheir rear, and Chastellar brought up four battalions ofthe division of Forsterto attack them in front. The Poles , entirely disconcerted by their repulse,remained inactive; and, after a murderous strife, the French were overwhelmed, and Victor and Rusca driven, with great loss , over the Trebbia (3) .In the centre, Olivier and Montrichard had crossed the river, and attacked( 1 ) Jom . xi. 362. Th. x. 304.(2) Arch. Ch. ii , 55. Jom. xi . 363. Th. x. 303.(3) Jom. xi. 364, 365. Dum. i, 200, 201. Th. x.304. Hard, vii, 256, 257.40 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [CHAP. XXVIII.Decisive attack of Prince Lichtenstein on the French centre.the Austrians, under Melas, with such vigour, that they madethemselves masters of some pieces of artillery, and threw the lineinto disorder. Already Montrichard was advancing against the division Forster, in the middle of the Russian line, when the Prince ofLichtenstein, at the head of the reserve, composed of the flower of the Alliedarmy, who at that moment was defiling towards the right to support Schwiekousky, suddenly fell upon their flank, when already somewhat disorderedby success, and threw them into confusion, which was soon increased into adefeat by the heavy fire of Forster on the other side. This circumstance decided the fate of the day. Forster was now so far relieved as to be able tosuccour Suwarrow on the right, while Melas was supported by the reserve,who had been ordered, in the first moment of alarm, in the same direction.Prince Lichtenstein now charged the division of Olivier with such fury, thatit was forced to retire across the river. At the extreme left of the Allies,Watrin advanced, without meeting with any resistance, along the Po; but hewas ultimately obliged to retreat, to avoid being cut off and driven into theriver by the victorious centre. Master ofthe whole left bank of the river,Suwarrow made several attempts to pass it; but he was constantly repulsedby the firmness of the French reserves, and night at length closed on thisscene of carnage (1 ) .Victory re- mains with the Rus- sians . Exon both sides.Such was the terrible battle of the Trebbia, the most obstinatelycontested and bloody which had occurred since the commencementcessive loss of the war, since, out of thirty-six thousand men in the field , theFrench, in the three days, had lost above twelve thousand in killedand wounded, and the Allies nearly as many. It shows how much morefierce and sanguinary the war was destined to become when the iron bandsof Russia were brought into the field , and how little all the advantages ofskill and experience avail , when opposed to the indomitable courage andheroic valour of northern states. But though the losses on both sides werenearly equal, the relative situation of the combatants was very different atthe termination of the strife. The Allies were victorious, and soon expectedgreat reinforcements from Hohenzollern and Klenau , who had already occupied Parma and Modena, and would more than compensate their losses inthe field; whereas the Republicans had exhausted their last reserves , weredejected by defeat, and had no second army to fall back upon in their misfortunes . These considerations determined Macdonald; he decamped duringthe night (2) , and retired over the Nura, directing his march to re-enter theApennines by the valley of the Taro.The disas trous re- treat of thethe ApenEarly on the following morning, a despatch was intercepted fromthe French general to Moreau, in which he represented the situaFrench over tion of his army as almost desperate, and gave information as to the nines. line of his retreat. This information filled the Allied generals withjoy, and made them resolve to pursue the enemy with the utmost vigour.For this purpose, all their divisions were instantly dispatched in pursuit;Rosenberg, supported by Forster, moved rapidly towards the Nura, whileMelas, with the divisions Ott and Froelich, advanced to Placentia. Victor'sdivision , which formed the rear-guard on the Nura, was speedily assailed bysuperior forces both in front and flank, and , after a gallant resistance , broken ,great part made prisoners, and the remainder dispersed over the mountains.Melas, on his side, quickly made himself master of Placentia, where the(1) Dum. i . 201, 202. Jom. ii . 367, 368. Th. x.305, 306. Hard. vii . 257, 258. Arch. Ch. ii, 55.(2) Jom. xi. 367, 368. Th. x. 306, 307. Dum.i. 202, 203.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 41June 21.French wounded, five thousand in number, were taken prisoners, includingthe generals Olivier, Rusca, Salm, and Cambray; and had he not imprudentlyhalted the division Frolich at that town, the whole troops of Watrin wouldhave fallen into his hands. Macdonald, on the following day, retired toParma, from whence he dislodged Hohenzollern , and with infinite difficultyrallied the remains ofhis army behind the Larda, where they were reorganizedin three divisions. The melancholy survey showed a chasm in hisranks of above fifteen thousand men since crossing the Apennines. At thesame time, Lapoype, defeated at Casteggio by a Russian detachment, wasdriven from the high-road, and with great pain escaped by mountain pathsinto the neighbourhood of Genoa ( 1 ) . All the French wounded fell into thehands of the Allies; they made prisoners in all, during the battle and in thepursuit, four generals, five hundred and six officers, and twelve thousandseven hundred and seventy-eight private soldiers ( 2) .Successful operations,during the battle, of Moreau againstThe pursuit of Suwarrow was not continued beyond the Larda, in consequence of intelligence which there reached him of the progress of Moreau.Macdonald retired , therefore, unmolested to Modena and Bologna, where herepulsed General Ott, who made an attack on his army at Sassecolo , and regained the positions which it had occupied before the advance to the Trebbia ( 3) .In effect, the return of Suwarrow towards Tortona was becomeindispensable, and the dangerous situation of matters in his rearshowed the magnitude of the peril from which, by his rapid andBellegarde . decided conduct, he had extricated his army. Moreau, on the 16th,debouched from the Apennines by Gavi, and moved in two columns towardsTortona, at the head of fourteen thousand men. He advanced , however, withsuch circumspection, that on the 18th he had not passed Novi and Serravale;and on that day the fate of the Neapolitan army was determined onthe banksof the Trebbia. Bellegarde, unable with four brigades to arrest his progress,retired to a defensive position near Alexandria, leaving Tortona uncovered,the blockade ofwhich was speedily raised by the French general. Immediatelyafter , Moreau attacked Bellegarde with forces so immensely superior, that hedefeated him, after a sharp action, with the loss of fifteen hundred prisonersand five pieces of cannon . The Austrians, in disorder, sought refuge behindthe Bormida, intending to fall back under the cannon of Valence (4); and Moreau was advancing towards Placentia, when he was informed of the victory ofSuwarrow and the fall of the citadel of Turin.Fall of the citadel of Turin.June 20.The vast military stores found by the Allies in the city of Turin ,enabled them to complete their preparations for the siege of its citadel with great rapidity . A hundred pieces of heavy cannonspeedily armed the trenches; forty bombs were shortly after added; the batteries were opened on the night of the 10th June, and on the 19th the secondparallel was completed . Night and day the besiegers from that time thunderedon the walls from above two hundred pieces of artillery, and such was theeffect of their fire, that the garrison capitulated within twenty-four hoursafter, on condition of being sent back to France. This conquest was of immense importance. Besides disengaging the besieging force of General Kaim ,which instantly set out to reinforce Bellegarde, and rendering the Allies masters of one ofthe strongest fortresses in Piedmont, it put into their hands 61pieces of cannon, 40,000 muskets, and 50,000 quintails of powder, with theloss ofonly fifty men (5) .(1) Dum. i. 205. Th. x. 306. Jom. xi . 371 , 373.(2) Arch. Ch. ii. 56.(3) Jom. xi. 374, 375. Dum, i. 205.(4) Jom. xi. 379, 380. Dum. i . 204. Th. x. 307.Arch. Ch. ii. 57.(5) St.-Cyr, i. 220. Jom, xi . 380, 381. Dum. i . 206.42 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.June 23.Moreau re treats on Suwarrow turning against him,nald regainspainful cir cuit.No sooner was Suwarrow informed , upon the Larda, ofthe advanceof Moreau and the defeat of Bellegarde , than, without losing aninstant, he wheeled about, and marched with the utmost expediand Macdo- tion to meet this new adversary. But Moreau fell back as rapidlyGenoa after a as he approached, and after revictualling Tortona, retired by Noviand Gavi to his former defensive position on the Apennines . TheAllies occupied Novi , and pushed their advanced posts far up the valleys intothe mountains, while the blockade of Tortona was resumed; and the besieging force, removed from the lines before Mantua, sat down again before thatimportant fortress. Macdonald commenced a long and painful retreat overthe Apennines into Tuscany and the Genoese territory; a perilous lateral operation at all times in presence of an enemy in possession of the plain ofthePo, and doubly so after the recent disaster which they had experienced .Fortunately for the French, Suwarrow had received at this time positive orders from the Aulic Council, ever attached to methodical proceedings, to attempt no operation beyond the Apennines till the fortresses of Lombardy werereduced (1 ) , in consequence of which he was compelled to remain in a stateof inactivity on the Orba, while his antagonist completed his hazardous movements. Macdonald arrived, leaving only a detachment on the Apenninesnear the sources of the Trebbia, at Genoa by Lerici, in the middle ofJuly, in the most deplorable state; his artillery dismounted or broken down,the cavalry and caissons without horses, the soldiers halfnaked , without shoesor linen of any sort, more like spectres than men. How different from thesplendid troops which, three years before, had traversed the same country,in all the pomp of war, under the standards of Napoléon (2)!July 17.tion of bothmies under Moreau.Reorganiza Mutual exhaustion, and the intervening ridge of the Apennines,French ar now compelled a cessation from hostilities for above a month.Suwarrow collected forty-five thousand men in the plain betweenTortona and Alexandria, to watch the Republicans on the mountains ofGenoa, and cover the sieges of those places and of Mantua, which were nowpressed with activity . The French, in deep dejection , commenced the reorganization of their two armies into one; Macdonald was recalled , and yieldedthe command of the right wing to St. -Cyr; Pérignon was intrusted with thecentre, and Lemoine, who brought up twelve fresh battalions from France,put at the head of the left . Montrichard and Lapoype were disgraced , andMoreau continued in the chief command. Notwithstanding all the reinforcements he had received , this skilful general was not able, with both armiesunited, to reckon on more than forty thousand men for operations in thefield; the poor remains of above a hundred thousand that might have beenassembled for that purpose at the opening ofthe campaign (3) .on Suwarrable conprecedingReflections The remarkable analogy must strike the most inattentive observer,row's admi- between the conduct of Suwarrow previous to the battle of theduct in the Trebbia, and that of Napoléon on the approach of Wurmser tomovement. succour Mantua. Imitating the vigour and activity of his great predecessor, the Russian general, though at the head of an army considerablyinferior to that of his adversaries, was present every where at the decisivepoint. The citadel of Turin , with its immense magazines, was captured by an army of only forty thousand men, in presence of two whose united forceexceeded fifty thousand; for although Suwarrow ordered up great part ofthegarrison of Mantua to reinforce his army previous to the battle of the Trebbia,(1 ) Arch. Ch. ii. 63.(2) Jom. xi . 381 , 387, 388. St.- Cyr, i . 218, 219.Arch, Ch. ii . 65 , 67.(3) Jom. xi. 388, 390. Dum. i . 220, 223. St.- Cyr,i . 220.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 43they were prevented from joining by an autograph order of the Emperor,who deemed the acquisition of that fortress of greater importance than anyother consideration to the Austrian empire (1 ) . The Russian general, therefore, had to contend not only with the armies of Macdonald and Moreau, butthe obstacles thrown in his way by the Imperial authorities; and when thisis considered, his defeat of the Republicans, by rapidly interposing the bulkof his forces between them, and turning first on the one, and then on theother, must be regarded as one of the most splendid feats which the history of the war afforded .Naval efDirectory toarmy fromDuring these critical operations at the foot of the Apennines, the forts of the Directory had succeeded in assembling a great naval force in theget back the Mediterranean. Already convinced, by the disasters they had expe- Egypt. rienced, of the impolicy of the eccentric direction of so considerablea part oftheir force as had resulted from the expedition to Egypt, they exertedall their efforts to obtain the means of their return, or at least open a communication with that far-famed, now isolated army. No sooner was intelligence received of the defeat of Jourdan at Stockach, than Bruix, minister ofmarine, repaired to Brest, where he urged, with the utmost diligence, thepreparations for the sailing of the fleet. Such was the effect of his exertions,that, in the end of April, he was enabled to put to sea, with twenty-five shipsof the line, at the time when Lord Bridport was blown off the coast with theChannel fleet. As soon as intelligence was received that they had sailed, theEnglish admiral steered for the southern coast of Ireland , while Bruix,directing his course straight to Cadiz, raised the blockade of that harbour,which Admiral Keith maintained with fifteen ships of the line, and passed the straits of Gibraltar. The entrance ofthe combined fleet into the Mediterraneanseemed to announce decisive events, but nevertheless it came to nothing.The immense armament, amounting to fifty ships of the line, steered for thebay of Genoa, where it entered into communication with Moreau, and for atime powerfully supported the spirits of his army. But after remaining some weeks on the Italian coast, Bruix sailed for Cadiz,from whence he returned to Brest, which he reached in the middle ofAugust, without either having fallen in with any of the English fleets, orachieved any thing whatever, with one of the most powerful squadrons thatever left a European harbour ( 2).Which come to nothing.August 13.June 20.Expulsion of the Refrom Naples.The retreat of Macdonald was immediately followed by the recovery of his dominions by the King ofNaples. The army of Cardinalpublicans Ruffo, which was soon swelled to twenty thousand men, advancedagainst Naples, and having speedily dispersed the feeble bands ofthe revolutionists who opposed his progress, took possession of that capital;and a combined force of English, Russians, and Neapolitans having a fewdays after entered the port, the fort St.-Elmo was so vigorously besieged ,that it was obliged to capitulate, the garrison returning to France,on condition of not again serving till exchanged . Capua was next attacked, and surrendered, by capitulation , to Commodore Trowbridge, whichwas followed, two days after, by the reduction of the important fortress ofGaeta, on the same terms, which completed the deliverance of the Neapolitan dominions ( 3) .July 29.July 31.Bloody re- venge of the Royalist party atThe French, who surrendered in these two last fortresses , gave upunconditionally to their indignant enemies the revolted Neapolitans Naples. who had taken a part in the late revolution . A special commission(1) Jom. xi , 386. Hard. vii . 250, 251.(2) Jom. xi. 394, 396. Ann. Reg. 1799; 291.(3) Ann. Reg. 1799, 292. Bot. iii . 395 , 410.44 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXVIII.was immediately appointed, which, without much formality, and still lesshumanity, condemned to death the greater part of those who had been engaged in the insurrection; and a dreadful series of executions, or rathermassacres, took place, which but too clearly evinced the relentless spirit ofItalian revenge. But the executions at Naples were of more moment, andpeculiarly call for the attention of the British historians, because they haveaffixed the only stain to the character of the greatest naval hero of his country.The garrisons of the Castello Nuovo, and the Castella del Uovo, had capitulatedto Cardinal Ruffo, on the express condition that they themselves, and theirfamilies, should be protected , and that they should have liberty either toretire to Toulon, or remain in Naples , as they should feel inclined; but in thislatter case they were to experience no molestation in their persons or property. This capitulation was subscribed by Cardinal Ruffo, as viceroy of thekingdom; by Kerandy, on the part of the Emperor of Russia; and by CaptainFoote, on the part of the King of Great Britain; and the cardinal , in the nameof the King, shortly after published a proclamation, in which he granted anentire amnesty to the Republicans; guaranteeing to them perfect security, ifthey remained at Naples, and a free navigation to Marseilles, if they preferredfollowing the fortunes of the tricolor standard . In terms of this treaty, twovessels, containing the refugees from Castellomare, had already arrived safeat Marseilles (1) .capitula Violation of But these wise and humane measures were instantly interruptedtions by the by the arrival of the King and Queen , with the court, on board of Court. Nelson's fleet. They were animated with the strongest feelings ofrevenge against the Republican party; and unfortunately the English admiral, who had fallen under the fascinating influence of Lady Hamilton,who shared in all the feelings of the court, was too much inclined toadopt the same principles . He instantly declared the capitulation null, as not having obtained the King's authority , and entering the harbour at the headof his fleet, made all those who had issued from the castles , in virtue of thecapitulation, prisoners, and had them chained, two and two, on board hisown fleet. The King, whose humanity could not endure the sight of thepunishments which where preparing, returned to Sicily, and left the admi Nelson con. nistration ofjustice in the hands of the Queen and Lady Hamilton .curs in these Numbers were immediately condemned and executed; the vengeance of the populace supplied what was wanting in the celerityof the criminal tribunals; neither age, nor sex, nor rank were spared; womenas well as men, youths ofsixteen , and grey- headed men of seventy, were alikeled out to the scaffold, and infants oftwelve years of age sent into exile. TheRepublicans behaved, in almost every instance, in their last moments withheroic courage, and made men forget, in pity for their misfortunes, the ingratitude or treason of which they had previously been guilty (2) .iniquitous proceedings.fate ofraccioli onson's own ship.Deplorable The fate of the Neapolitan admiral, Prince Francis Carraccioli ,Prince Car was particularly deplorable. He had been one of the principalboard Nel. leaders of the revolution , and after the capitulation of the castleshad retired to the mountains, where he was betrayed by a domestic, and brought bound on board the British admiral's flag - ship. A navalcourt-martial was there immediately summoned, composed of Neapolitanofficers, by whom he was condemned to death. In vain the old man entreated that he might be shot, and not die the death of a malefactor; his prayers were disregarded, and after being strangled by the executioner, hewas thrown from the vessel into the sea. Before night his body was seen erect(1) Bot, iii. 401 , 402. Ann. Reg. 1792, 292. (2) Bot. iii . 406, 407. Southey's Nelson, ii , 47, 49.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE . 45in the waves from the middle upwards, as if he had risen from the deep toreproach the English hero with his unworthy fate ( 1) .on these un Reflections For these acts of cruelty no sort of apology can or ought to bepardonable offered . Whether the capitulation should or should not have been atrocities. granted, is a different and irrelevant question . Suffice it to say,that it had taken place, and that, in virtue of its provisions , the Allied powershad gained possession of the castles of Naples. To assert in such a case thatthe King had not ratified the capitulation , and that without such a sanctionit was null, is a quibble, which, though frequently resorted to by the French,is unworthy of a generous mind, and destitute of any support in the law ofnations. The capitulation of the vanquished should ever be held sacred incivilized warfare, for this reason, if no other existed , that, by acceding to it,they have deprived themselves of all chance of resistance, and put the meansof violating it with impunity in the hands of their adversaries—it then becomes a debt of honour which must be paid. The sovereign power whichtakes benefit from one side of a capitulation by gaining possession of thefortress which the capitulants held, is unquestionably bound to perform theother part of the bilateral engagement, by whomever entered into , which,so far from repudiating, it has, by that very act, homologated and acquiescedin. If the Neapolitan authorities were resolutely determined to commit sucha breach of public faith , the English admiral , if he had not sufficient influenceto prevent it, should at least have taken no part in the iniquities which followed, and not stained the standard of England by judicial murders committed under its own shadow. In every point ofview, therefore, the conductof Nelson in this tragic affair was inexcusable; his biographer may perhapswith justice ascribe it to the fatal ascendency of female fascination (2); butthe historian, who has the interests of humanity and the cause of justice tosupport, can admit of no such alleviation , and will best discharge his dutyby imitating the conduct of his eloquent annalist, and with shame acknowledging the disgraceful deeds (3) .inference to be drawn from theAnd on the The events of this campaign demonstrate, in the most strikingmanner, the vast importance of assuming the offensive in mountaincampaign. warfare; and how frequently a smaller force , skilfully led , maytriumph over a greater in such a situation , by the simple expedient of turning its position by the lateral valleys, and appearing unexpectedly in its rear.The nature of the ground is singularly favourable to such an operation, bythe concealment which lofty intervening ridges afford to the turning column,and the impossibility of escape to the one turned , shut in on both sides bydifficult, perhaps impassable ridges, and suddenly assailed in rear whenfully occupied in front. The brilliant successes of Lecourbe at Glarus andMartinsbruck, and of Hotze at Luciensteg, were both achieved, in oppositionto superior forces, by the skilful application ofthis principle. Against such adanger, the intrenchments usually thrown up in the gorge or at the summitof mountain passes, afford but little protection; for open behind (4) , theyare easily taken by the column which has penetrated into the rear by acircuitous route, and, destitute of casements, they afford no sort of protectionagainst a plunging fire from the heights on either side.Nor did this memorable struggle evince in a less convincing manner theerroneous foundation on which the opinion then generally received rested,(1 ) Southey, ii . 47, 53. Bot. iii. 414, 415.(2 ) Southey, 47, 53, Bot. iii. 415, 416. Hard .vii. 332, 333.(3) It deserves to be recorded to the honour of Napoléon, that he endeavoured to palliate Nelson'sshare in these dark transactions, ascribing it to misinformation, and the fascinating ascendant of Lady Hamilton, ~~ O'MEARA, i . 308.(4) Arch. Ch. i . 95, 96.46 HISTORY OF EUROPE [ CHAP. XXVIII. .that the possession of the mountains ensured that of the plains at their feet;and that the true key to the south of Germany and north of Italy was to befound in the Alps which were interposed between them. Of what avail wasthe successful irruption of Masséna into the Grisons, after the disaster ofStockach brought the Republican standards to the Rhine; or the splendidstroke of Lecourbe in the Engadine, when the disaster of Magnano caused them to lose the line of the Adige? In tactics , or the lesser operations ofstrategy, the possession of mountain ridges is often of decisive importance,but in the great designs of extensive warfare seldom of any lasting value. He that has gained a height which commands field of battle is often secureof the day; but the master of a ridge of lofty mountains is by no meansequally safe against the efforts of an adversary, who by having acquired possession of the entrance of all the valleys leading from thence into the plain, is enabled to cut him off both from his communications and his resources.Water descends from the higher ground to the lower; but the strength andsinews of war in general follow an opposite course, and ascend from theriches and fortresses of the plain to the sterility and desolation of the mountains. It is in the valley of the Danube and the plain of Lombardy that thestruggle between France and Austria ever has and ever will be determined ( 1);the lofty ridges of Switzerland and Tyrol , important as an accessory to securethe flanks of either army, are far from being the decisive point.Although the campaign had lasted so short a time, it was already apparenthow muchthe views of the Austrian cabinet were hampered by the possessionofVenice, and how completely the spoliation of that republic had thrown theapple of discord between the Allied Powers. The principle laid down by theEmperor Paul, of restoring to every one what he had lost, though the truefoundation for the anti-revolutionary alliance, which had been eloquentlysupported by Mr. Burke, and afterwards became the basis of the great confederacy which brought the war to a successful issue , gave the utmostuneasiness to the cabinet of Vienna. They were terrified at the very rapidityof the Russian conqueror's success, and endeavoured, by every means intheir power, to moderate his disinterested fervour, and render his surprisingsuccess the means only of securing their great acquisitions in the north ofItaly. Hence the jealousies, heartburnings, and divisions which destroyed thecordial co- operation of the Allied troops, which led to the fatal separation ofthe Russian from the Austrian forces both in Italy and Switzerland, andultimately brought about all the disasters of the campaign. Had the hands ofAustria been clean, she might have invaded France by the defenceless frontierof the Jura, and brought the contest to a glorious issue in 1799, while Napoléon was as yet an exile on the banks of the Nile. Twice did the Europeanpowers lose the opportunity of crushing the forces of the Revolution , and onboth occasions from their governments having imitated its guilt; first by thewithdrawal of Prussia in 1794, to secure her share in the partition of Poland ,and next from the anxiety of Austria, in 1799, to retain her iniquitousacquisitions in Italy. England alone remained throughout unsullied by crime,unfettered by the consciousness of robbery, and she alone continued to theend unsubdued in arms. It is not by imitating the guilt of a hostile power,but steadfastly shunning it, that ultimate success is to be obtained; the gainsof iniquity to nations, not less than individuals, are generally more thancompensated by their pains; and the only true foundation for durable prosperity is to be found in that strenuous, but upright course, which resistsequally the seduction and the violence of wickedness.( 1) Arch. Ch. i , 53, 54.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 47CHAPTER XXIX.CAMPAIGN OF 1799.-PART II .FROM THE BATTLE OF THE TREBBIA TO THE CONCLUSION OF THE CAMPAIGN.ARGUMENT.Dangerous position of the Republic at this juncture-Enormous consumption of human life since the commencement of the Campaign-Clear proof thus afforded of the error ofthe Directory in attacking Switzerland and Italy-Military preparations of the Allies and Re publicans-Objects of the contending generals-Great Levy of troops by the Directory Their Measures to reinforce the Armies-The Aulic Council injudiciously restrain Suwar row from active operations-This leads to an agreement for a disastrous separation of the Austrian and Russian forces-Resumption of hostilities by the Republicans around Genoa -Progress of the Siege of Mantua- Description of that fortress -Commencement of the Siege by Kray-Its Surrender-Fall of Alexandria-Commencement of the Siege Tortona-Position of the Republicans in front of Genoa-Magnanimous conduct of Moreau on Joubert's assuming the Command-Advance of the French to raise the Siege Positions of the Allies -and of the French-Joubert had resolved to retreat on learning the fall of Mantua-He is attacked before doing so by Suwarrow-Death of Joubert-Battle of Novi-The Allies are at first repulsed -Combined Attack of all their forces - The advance of Melas at length decides the Victory-Great Loss on both sides-Moreau still maintains him self on the crest of the Apennines -Separation of the victorious force-Operations of Cham pionnet in the Alps at this time-Fall of Tortona-Situation of Masséna and the Archduke at Zurich-Insane dislocation of the Allied forces at this period by the Aulic Council Description of the Theatre of War-Plan ofthe Allies -and of Masséna-Commencement of the Attack by Lecourbe on the St. -Gothard-The Imperialists are forced back at all points They are driven from the Grimsel and the Furca- and the St. -Gothard -Successes of the French near Schwytz, who drive the Austrians into Glarus-Unsuccessful Attempt of the Archduke to cross the Limmat below Zurich -Being foiled, he marches to the Upper Rhine -Austrian left is defeated in Glarus - Successful Expedition of the Archduke against Man heim-Plan of the Allies for a combined attack by Suwarrow and Korsakow on Masséna Relative situation of the French and Russian centres at Zurich-Unfounded confidence ofthe latter -Masséna's able Plan of Attack-The passage of the Limmat is surprised below Zurich-Feigned attacks on Zurich and the Lower Limmat-Dreadful Confusion in the town ofZurich-Brave Resolution of Korsakow to cut his way through the enemy-IIe does so, but loses all his artillery and baggage-Success of Soult against Hotze above the Lake-Death of the latter officer-Operations of Suwarrow on the Ticino - Bloody Conflict above Airolo The St.-Gothard is at length forced by the Russians-Dreadful Struggle at the Devil's Bridge -Arrived at Altdorf, Suwarrow is forced to ascend the Schachenthal-Difficult passage of that ridge to Mutten--He finds none of the expected reinforcements there-and is surrounded on all sides, and reluctantly compelled to retreat -- He crosses the mountains into Glarus Desperate Struggle at Naefels-Dreadful passage of the Alps of Glarus to Ilantz on the Rhine-Bloody Conflicts with Korsakow near Constance - The Archduke hastens to his aid , and checks the further pursuit-Treaty between Russia and England for an Expedition to Hol land-Vigorous Preparations for the Expedition in England-The Expedition sails , and lands on the Dutch coast - Action at the Helder-Defeat of the enemy- Capture of the Dutch Fleet at the Texel-The British are attacked by the Republicans, but repulse them with great loss -The English, joined by the Russians, at length advance-Plan of the attack - Disaster of the Russians on the right-Victory of the British in the centre and left-But the continued retreat of the Russians arrests the British in the midst of their success-Removal of the Dutch Fleet to England -The Duke of York renews the attack, and is successful -His cri tical Situation notwithstanding- Indecisive Action -Which leads to the Retreat of the British -Who first Retire, and at length Capitulate-Reflections on this disaster in the na tion-Affairs of Italy after the Battle of Novi -The Imperialists draw round Coni - Cham pionnet is constrained to attempt its relief-Measures to effect that object-- Preparations for a decisive battle-Battle of Genola , in which the French are defeated-Success of St. -Cyr near Novi-Siege and Fall of Coni -Gallant Conduct of St. -Cyr in the Bocchetta Pass-Un successful Attempt of the Imperialists upon Genoa- Who go into Winter Quarters-Fall of Ancona-Position of the respective parties at the conclusion of the Campaign-Contrast48 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [ CHAP. XXIX .between the comforts of the Imperialists and the privations of the French- Death of Cham pionnet-Jealousies between the Russians and Austrians-Suwarrow retires into Bavaria Which leads to a rupture between the Cabinets of Vienna and St. -Petersburg-Positions assumed by the Austrians when so abandoned-Operations on the Lower Rhine-Reflections on the vast successes gained by the Allies in the campaign -Deplorable internal situation of the Republic-Causes of the Rupture of the alliance Comparison of the Passage of the St. Gothard by Suwarrow and the St. -Bernard by Napoléon-Deplorable insignificance of the part which England took in the Continental Struggle-Causes of the rapid fall of the French power in 1799.Dangerous position ofat this junc ture.SINCE the period when the white flag waved at Saumur and the tricolorwas displaced at Lyon and Toulon , the Republic had never been in suchdanger as after the first pause in the campaign of 1799. It was, in truth,within a hairbreadth of destruction . If the Allied forces in 1793the Republic were nearer her frontier, and the interior was torn by more vehement dissensions, on the other hand, the attacking powers in 1799were incomparably more formidable, and the armies they brought into thefield greatly superior both in military prowess and moral vigour. The warno longer languished in affairs of posts, or indecisive actions , leading toretreat on the first reverse; a hundred thousand men no longer fought withthe loss of three or four thousand to the victors and the vanquished; thepassions had been roused on both sides, and battles were not lost or wonwithout a desperate effusion of human blood . The military ardour of theAustrians, slow of growth, but tenacious of purpose, was now thoroughlyawakened, from the reverses the monarchy had undergone, and the imminentperils to which it had been exposed; the fanatical ardour of Suwarrow hadroused to the highest pitch the steady valour of the Russians; and Great Britain, taught by past misfortunes, was preparing to abandon the vaccilatingsystem ofher former warfare, and put forth her strength in a manner worthyof her present greatness and ancient renown. From the bay of Genoa to themouth of the Rhine, nearly three hundred thousand veteran troops wereadvancing against the Republic, flushed by victory, and conducted by consummate military talent; while the Revolution had worn out the capacitywhich directed, as well as the energy which sustained its fortunes . Themaster spirit of Carnot had ceased to guide the movements of the Frencharmies; the genius of Napoléon languished on the sands of Egypt; theboundless enthusiasm of 1793 had worn itself out; the resources of the assignats were at an end; the terrible Committee of Public Safety no longer wasat the helm to wrench out of public suffering the means of victory; anexhausted nation and a dispirited army had to withstand the weight of Austria and the vigour of Russia, guided by the science of the Archduke Charlesand the energy of Suwarrow.Enormous Though the war had lasted for so short a time since its recomtion of hu- mencement, the consumption of human life had already been consumpman life since the prodigious; the contending parties fought with unprecedentedexasperation, and the results gained had outstripped the calculations ofthe most enthusiastic speculators. In little more than fourmonths, the French and Allied armies had lost nearly a half of their effectiveforce, those cut off or irrevocably mutilated by the sword were above116,000 ( 1 ); while the means of supplying these vast chasms were muchmore ample on the part of the Allied Monarchs than the French Directory .Never, in ancient or modern times, had such immense armies contended on(1) Dum. i . 434.the cam paign.1799.] 49 HISTORY OF EUROPE.so extensive a field . The right of the Allies rested on the Maine; their centrewas posted in Switzerland; while their left stretched over the plain of Lombardy to the foot of the Apennines; and a shock was felt all along this vastline, from the rocks of Genoa to the marshes of Holland . The results hithertohad been, to an unprecedented degree, disastrous to the French . From beinguniversally victorious, they had everywhere become unfortunate; at thepoint of the bayonet they had been driven back, both in Germany and Italy,to the frontiers of the Republic; the conquests of Napoléon had been lost asthey had been won; and the power which recently threatened Vienna, nowtrembled lest the Imperial standards should appear on the summits of the Jura or the banks ofthe Rhone.thusand Italy.preparationsClear proof It was now apparent what a capital error the Directory had committed in overrunning Switzerland, in extending their forcesattacking through the Italian peninsula, instead ofconcentrating them to bear Switzerland the weight of Austria on the Adige; and exiling their best armyand greatest general in Africa at the very time when the Allies were summoning to their aid the forces ofa new monarchy and the genius of a hithertoinvincible conqueror. But these errors had been committed; their consequences had fallen like a thunderbolt on France; the return of Napoléon and his army seemed impossible; Italy was lost; and nothing but the invincibletenacity and singular talents of Masséna enabled him to maintain himself inthe last defensive line to the north of the Alps , and avert invasion fromFrance in the quarter where its frontier is most vulnerable. To complete itsmisfortunes, internal dissension had paralysed the Republic at the very timewhen foreign dangers were most pressing, and a new government added toits declining fortunes the weakness incident to every infant administration .Military The preparations of the allies to follow up this extraordinary flowof the Allies of prosperous affairs were of the most formidable kind . The forceslicans. in Italy amounted to one hundred and fifteen thousand men; andafter deducting the troops required in the siege of Mantua, Alexandria, andother fortresses in the rear, Suwarrow could still collect above fifty thousandmen to press on the dispirited army of Moreau in the Ligurian Alps, whichcould not muster twenty thousand soldiers around its banners. This armywas destined to clear the Maritime Alps and Savoy of the enemy, and turnthe position ofMasséna, who still maintained himself with invincible obstinacyon the banks of the Limmat. The Archduke had not under his immediateorders at that period above forty-three thousand men, twenty-two thousandhaving been left in the Black Forest, to mask the garrisons in the têtes-depont which the French possessed on the Upper Rhine, and sixteen thousandin the Grisons and the central Alps, to keep possession of the important ridgeof the St.-Gothard. But a fresh Russian army of twenty-six thousand menwas approaching under Korsakow, and was expected in the environs ofZurich by the middle of August; and something was hoped from the insurrection of the Swiss who had been liberated from the French armies (1 ) .and RepubTo meet these formidable forces, the French, who had directed all thenew levies to the north of Switzerland, as the chiefly menaced point, hadseventy-five thousand men, under Masséna, on the Limmat, and the utmostefforts were made in the interior to augment to the greatest degree this important army. The English and Russians also had combined a plan for thedescent of forty thousand men on the coast of Holland, for which purposeseventeen thousand men were to be furnished by his Imperial Majesty anded of the error of(1) Archduke, ii , 2, 92. Dum, i . 223, 225. Jom. xii . 60, 72.4IV.50 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX .twenty-five thousand by Great Britain; and this force, it was hoped, wouldnot only liberate Holland , but paralyse all the north of France, as GeneralBrune had only fifteen thousand French troops in the United Provinces, andthe native soldiers did not exceed twenty thousand ( 1 ) . Thus, while thecentre of the French was threatened with an attack from overwhelming forcesin the Alps, and an inroad preparing, by the defenceless frontier of the Jura,into the heart of their territory, their left was menaced by a more formidableinvasion from the northern powers than they had yet experienced, and theirright with difficulty maintained itself with inferior forces on the inhospitablesummits of the Maritime Alps.Objects ofing GeneBut although the plan of the Allies was so extensive , the decisive the contend. point lay in the centre of the line, and it was by the Archduke thatrals. the vital blow was to be struck, which would at once have openedto them an entrance into the heart of France. This able commander impatiently awaited the arrival of the Russians under Korsakow, which wouldhave conferred a superiority of thirty thousand men over his opponent, andenabled him to resume the offensive with an overwhelming advantage. Theobject of Masséna, of course, was to strike a blow before this great reinforcement arrived; as, though his army was rapidly augmenting by conscriptsfrom the interior, he had no such sudden increase to expect as awaited theImperial forces. It was equally indispensable for the Republicans to resume the offensive without any delay in Italy, as the important fortresses of Mantuaand Alexandria were now hard pressed by the Allies, and if not speedily relieved, must not only, by their fall , give them the entire command of theplain of Lombardy, but enable them to render the position of Masséna unten- able to the north of the Alps (2).Great levythe DirecTo meet these accumulating dangers, the French governmentof troops by exhibited an energy commensurate to the crisis in which they tory. were placed. The imminence of the peril induced them to exhibitit without disguise to both branches of the legislature. General Jourdan proposed to call out at once all classes of the conscripts, which, it was expected ,would produce an increase of two hundred thousand men to the armies, andto levy a forced loan of 120,000,000 francs, or L.4,800,000 on the opulentclasses, secured on the national domains. Both motions were at once agreedto by the Councils. To render them as soon as possible available, the conscriptions were ordered to be formed into regiments, and drilled in theirseveral departments, and marched off, the moment they were disposable, tothe nearest army on the frontier, while the service of Lisle , Strasbourg, andthe other fortresses was, in great part, intrusted to the national guards of thevicinity. Thus, with the recurrence of a crisis in the affairs of the Republic,the revolutionary measures which had already been found so efficacious wereagain put in activity. Bernadotte, who at this crisis was appointed ministerat war, rapidly infused into all the departments of the military service hisown energy and resolution; and we have the best of all authorities, that ofhis political antagonist Napoléon himself, for the assertion, that it was to theadmirable measures which he set on foot, and the conscripts whom he assembled round the Imperial standards, that not only the victory of Zurich,at the close of the campaign, but the subsequent triumph of Marengo, were,in a great degree, owing (3) .( 1) Jom. xii . 60, 178 , 182. Ann. Reg. 1799,301. Arch. Ch. ii . 2, 92.(2) Arch. Ch. ii . 79, 86. Dam. i. 226.(3) Nap. in Las Casas , ii . 241. Gob. i . 90. Jom.xii . 18 , 20. Th. x. 336 , 337 .1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE . 51Their mea- sures to reinforceIn order to counteract as far as possible the designs of the Allies,it was resolved to augment to thirty thousand men the forcesthe armies. placed on the summit of the Alps, from the St. -Bernard to the Mediterranean; while the army of Italy, debouching from the Apennines,should resume the offensive, in order to prevent the siege of Coni and raise those of Mantua and Alexandria; and Masséna should execute apowerful diversion on the Limmat ere the arrival of the Russians underKorsakow. For this purpose, all the conscripts on the eastern and southerndepartments were rapidly marched off to the armies at Zurich and on the Alps, and the fortresses of Grenoble, Briançon, and Fenestrelles, commandingthe principal entrances from Piedmont into France, armed and provisioned .At the same time the direction of the troops on the frontier was changed.Championnet, liberated from prison, was intrusted with the command of thearmy of the Alps, while that of the army of Italy was taken from Moreau,under whom, notwithstanding his great abilities, it had experienced nothingbut disaster, and given to Joubert; a youthful hero, who joined heroic valourto great natural abilities, and though as yet untried in the separate commandof large armies, had evinced such talents in subordinate situations as gavethe promise of great future renown if it had not been cut short in the very outset of his career on the field of Novi ( 1) .The Aulic . Council inrestrainoperations .Suwarrow, who was well aware of the inestimable importance ofjudiciously time in war, was devoured with anxiety to commence operationsSuwarrow against the army of Moreau in the Ligurian Alps, now not more from active than twenty thousand strong, before it had recovered from its consternation, or was strengthened by the arrival of Macdonald's forces , whichwere making a painful circuit by Florence and Pisa in its rear . But the AulicCouncil, who looked more to the immediate concerns of Austria than thegeneral interest of the common cause, insisted upon Mantua being put intotheir hands before any thing was attempted either against Switzerland,Genoa, or the Maritime Alps; and the Emperor again wrote to Suwarrow,positively forbidding any enterprise until that important fortress had surrendered. The impetuous marshal, unable to conceal his vexation, and fullyaware of the disastrous effects this resolution would have upon the generalfate of the campaign, exclaimed, " Thus it is that armies are ruined! " butnevertheless, obeying the orders, he dispatched considerable reinforcementsand a powerful train of artillery by the Po, to aid the siege of Mantua, and assembled at Turin the stores necessary for the reduction of Alexandria. Disgusted, however, with the subordinate part thus assigned to him, the Russiangeneral abandoned to General Ott the duty of harassing the retreat of thearmy of Naples, and encamped with his veterans on the Bormida, to awaitthe tedious operations of the besieging forces (2) .agreementforces.Leads to an This circumstance contributed to induce an event, attended ulfor a disas- timately with important effects on the fate of the campaign, viz . ,tation of the the separation of the Austrian and Russian forces, and the ruptureRussian and of any cordial concert between their respective governments. Thecabinet of Vienna were too desirous of the exclusive sovereigntyof the conquests in Italy, to be willing to share their possession with a powerful rival; while the pride of the Russians was hurt at beholding their un- conquered commander, whom they justly regarded as the soul of the confederacy, subjected to the orders of the Aulic Council, who could not(1) Jom. xii , 25, 26. St. - Cyr, i . 221, 222 (2) Chastellar's Memoirs, 137. Jom, xii. 27, 28.Hard, vii. 250, 251 .52 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX .appreciate his energetic mode of conducting war, and frequently interruptedhim in the midst of the career of conquest. At the same time, the Englishgovernment were desirous of allowing the Russian forces to act alone inSwitzerland, aided by the insurrection which they hoped to organize in thatcountry, and beheld with satisfaction the removal of the Muscovite standardsfrom the shores of the Mediterranean, where their establishment in a permanent manner might possibly have occasioned them some uneasiness . Thesefeelings on all sides led to an agreement between the Allied Powers, in virtueof which it was stipulated , that the whole Russian troops, after the fall ofAlexandria and Mantua, should be concentrated in Switzerland under Marshal Suwarrow; that the Imperialists should alone prosecute the war in Italy,and that the army of the Archduke Charles should act under his separateorders on the Upper Rhine. This plan itself was highly advisable; but, fromthe time at which it was carried into execution, it led to the most calamitousresults (1 ).The whole forces of the Republic, at this period actually on foot, did notexceed 220,000 combatants; and although the new conscription was pressedwith the utmost vigour, it could not be expected that it could add materiallyto the efficiency of the defending armies for several months, in the course ofwhich, to all appearance, their fate would be decided (2) .July 29. The arrival of the army of Naples at Genoa in the end of July havof hostilities ing raised the French force to forty-eight thousand men, including by the Im perialists around Genoa.three thousand cavalry and a powerful artillery , it was deemedindispensable on every account to resume offensive operations , inconjunction with the army of the Alps, which had now been augmented to a respectable amount. Every thing, accordingly, was put in motion inthe valleys of the Alps and Apennines; and the French army, whoseheadquarters were at Cornegliano, occupied at Voltri, Savona, Vado, andLoano nearly the same position which Napoléon held, previous to his memorable descent into Italy in March 1796. But it was too late; all the activityof Moreau and Joubert could not prevent the fall of the bulwarks of Lombardy and Piedmont (3) .the siege of Progress of The siege of Mantua, which had been blockaded ever since theMantua. battle of Magnano, was pressed in good earnest by General Krayafter the victory of the Trebbia. The capture of Turin having placed at the disposal of the Allies immense resources, both in artillery and ammunition ,the defeat of Macdonald relieved them from all anxiety as to the raising ofthesiege, thirty thousand men were soon collected round its walls, and the batteries of the besiegers armed with two hundred pieces ofcannon . The garrisonoriginally consisted of nearly eleven thousand men; but this force, barelyadequate at first to man its extensive ramparts, was now considerably weakened by disease. The peculiar situation of this celebrated fortress rendered it indispensable that, at all hazards, the exterior works should be maintained, and this was no easy matter with an insufficient body of troops.The soldiers were provisioned for a year; but the inhabitants, thrice impo verished by enormous contributions, were in the most miserable condition,and the famine with which they were menaced , joined to the natural un healthiness of the situation during the autumnal months, soon produced those contagious disorders ever in the rear of protracted war, which in spiteof every precaution, seriously weakened the strength ofthe garrison (4) .(1) Archduke, ii . 83, 84.Dum, i . 283.(3) Dum. i . 256. Jom. xii. 29, 30. St.-Cyr, i. 222.(4) Dum, 258, 260. Jom, xii . 31, 35.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 53Description of that for- tress.siege byMantua, situated in the middle of a lake , formed by the Mincio inthe course of its passage from the Alps to the Po, depends entirelyfor its security upon its external works, and the command of the waterswhich surround its wall . Two chaussées traverse its whole extent on bridgesof stone; the first leads to the citadel , the second to the faubourg St. -George.Connected with the citadel are the external works and intrenched camp,which surround the lake, and prevent all access to its margin. These works,with the exception of the citadel, are not of any considerable strength; thereal defence of Mantua consists in the command which the garrison has ofthe waters in the lake, which is formed by three locks. That of the citadelenables them at pleasure to augment the upper lake; that of Pradella givesthem the command of the entrance of its waters into the Pajolo; while thatofthe port Cerese puts it in their power to dam up the canal of Pajolo, andlet it flow into inundations to obstruct the approach of the place . But, on theother hand, the besiegers have the means of augmenting or diminishing thesupply of water to the lake itself, by draining off the river which feeds itabove the town; and the dykes which lead to Pradella are of such breadth asto permit trenches to be cut and approaches made along it . Upon the whole,an exaggerated idea had been formed both of the value and strength of Mantua, by the importance which it had assumed in the campaign of 1796, andthe result of the present siege revealed the secret of its real weakness ( 1 ) .Commence- Kray, taking advantage with ability of all the means at his dis- ment of the posal, had caused his flotilla to descend by Peschiera and GoitoKray. from the lake of Guarda, and brought up many gunboats by the inferior part of the Mincio into the lower lake. By means of these vessels, whichwere armed with cannon of the heaviest calibre , he kept up an incessantfire on the dykes, and at the same time established batteries against the curtain between the citadel and fort St. - George. These were intended merely asfeints to divert the attention of the besiegers from the real point of attack,July 14. which was the front of fort Pradella . On the night ofthe 14th July,while the garrison were reposing, after having celebrated by extraordinaryrejoicings the anniversary of the taking of the Bastille, the trenches wereopened, and after the approaches had been continued for some days, thetower of Cerese was carried by assault, and the besiegers' guns rapidlybrought close up to the outworks of the place. On the night of the 24th, allthe batteries of the besiegers being fully armed, they opened theirfire, from above two hundred pieces, with such tremendous effect, that the defences ofthe fortress speedily gave way before it; in less than two hours theoutworks of fort Pradella were destroyed; while the batteries, intended tocreate a diversion against the citadel, soon produced a serious impression .Nothing could stand against the vigour and sustained weight of the besiegers'fire; their discharges gradually rose from six thousand cannon-shot to twelvethousand in twenty-four hours, and the loss of the garrison from its effectswas from five to six hundred a-day. Under the pressure arising from so terrible an attack, the fort of St. -George and the battery of Pajolo were succesIts surrender. sively abandoned; and at length the garrison, reduced to seventhousand five hundred men, surrendered, on condition of being sent back toFrance, and not serving again until regularly exchanged. Hardly were the July 30. terms agreed to, when the upper lake flowed with such violenceinto the under, through an aperture which the governor had cut to let in thewaters, that sixty feet of the dike were carried away, and the inundation ofJuly 19,(1) Jom, xii , 34, 35. Dum. i , 262.54 HISTORY Of Europe. [ CHAP. XXIX .Pajolo deepened to such a degree, that it might have prolonged for at leasteight days his means of defence, and possibly, by preventing the besiegingforce taking a part in the battle of Novi, which shortly followed, altered the fate of the campaign (1).July 8.Fall ofJuly 21.While the bulwark of Lombardy was thus falling, after an unexAlexandria. pectedly short resistance, into the hands of the Imperialists , Count July 21. Bellegarde was not less successful against the citadel of Alexandria.Trenches were opened on the 8th July, and in a few days, eighty pieces ofcannon were placed in battery; and such was the activity with which theywere served, that in seven days they discharged no less than forty-two thousand projectiles. On the 21st, the garrison, consisting of sixteenhundred men, surrendered at discretion . This conquest was of great importance to the future projects of Suwarrow; but it was dearly purchased by theloss of General Chastellar, his chief of the staff, who was severely woundedsoon after the first trenches were opened , an officer whose talents and activity had, in a great degree, contributed to the success of the campaign ( 2) .After the fall of Alexandria and Mantua, Suwarrow, faithful tothe orders he had received from Vienna, to leave no fortified placeAug. 2. in the enemy's hands in his rear, drew his forces round Coni, andcommenced the siege of Tortona. His army was soon augmented by the arrival of General Kray with twenty thousand men from the siege of the latter Aug. 12. place, who entered into line on the 12th August. The trencheswere opened before Tortona on the 5th August, and on the 7th , the castle ofSerravalle, situated at the entrance of one of the valleys leading into theApennines, was taken after a short cannonade. But the French army, whowere now concentrated under Joubert on the Apennines, was preparing anoffensive movement, and the approaches to Genoa were destined to be thetheatre of one of the most bloody battles on record in modern times (3) .The Republicans at this epoch occupied the following positions . The rightwing, fifteen thousand strong, under St.- Cyr, guarded the passes of the Apennines from Pontremoli to Torriglio, and furnished the garrison of Genoa. Thecentre, consisting of ten thousand , held the important posts of the Bocchettaand Campo Freddo; while the left, twenty- two thousand strong, was encamped on the reverse of the mountains on the side of Piedmont, from theupper end of the valley of Tanaro, and both guarded the communications of the whole army with France, and kept up the connexion with the corps under Championnet, which was beginningto collect on the higher passes of the Alps. On the other hand, the Alliescould only muster forty-five thousand in front of Tortona; General Kaim,with twelve thousand being at Cherasco to observe the army of the Alps, andKlenau in Tuscany, with seven thousand combatants; and the remainder oftheir great army occupied in keeping up the communications between theirwidely scattered forces ( 4) .Magnani- The arrival of Joubert to supersede him in the command of hisarmy, had no tendency to excite feelings of jealousy in the mind ofmous con duct of Moreau on Joubert's assumingthe his great predecessor . Moreau was incapable of a personal feelingcommand. when the interest of his country was at stake; and with a magnanimity truly worthy of admiration, he not onlygave his youthful successor thefull benefit of his matured counsel and experience, but offered to accompanyCommence ment ofthe siege of Tortona.Position of the Repub licans in front of Genoa.( 1) Jom. xii . 37, 47. Dum. i . 262, 272.(2) Dum. i . 254, 255. Jom. xii . 48, 54.(3) Jom. xii . 98. Arch, Ch. ii . 70, 71. Dum, i.(4) Arch. Ch. ii . 71. Jom. xii. 96, 97. St.-Cyr, i.221, 222.317.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 55him for some days after he opened his campaign; contributing thus, by hisadvice, to the glory of a rival who had just supplanted him in the command.Joubert, on his side, not only profited by the assistance thus generously proffered, but deferred on every occasion to the advice of his illustrious friend;and to the good understanding between these great men, the preservation ofthe Republican forces after the defeat at Novi and the death of Joubert ismainly to be ascribed (1 ) . How different from the presumption of Lafeuillade, who, a century before, had caused the ruin of a French army near thesame spot, by neglecting the advice of Marshal Vauban before the walls ofTurin.Advance of the Frenchsiege.the AlliesOn the 9th of August, the French army commenced its forwardto raise the movements; and after debouching by the valleys of the Bormida,the Erro, and the Orba, concentrated , on the 13th, at Novi, andblockaded Serravalle, in the rear of their right wing. A fourth column,under the orders of St. -Cyr, destined to raise the siege ofTortona, descended the defiles of the Bocchetta. Suwarrow no sooner heard of this advance thanhe concentrated his army, which, on the evening of the 14th, occupied the Aug. 14. following positions: Kray, with the divisions of Bellegarde andPositions of Ott, was encamped in two lines on the right, near the road fromNovi to Bosco; the centre, consisting of the divisions of Forsterand Schwiekousky, commanded by Derfelden , bivouacked in rear of PozzoloFormigan, while Melas, with the left, consisting of the Austrian divisions ofFrolich and Lichtenstein, occupied Rivalta. The army of Joubert was concentrated on the plateau in the rear of Novi, with his right on the Scrivia, hiscentre at Novi, and his left at Basaluzzo; a position which enabled him tocoverthe march of the columns detached from his right, which were destinedAnd ofthe to advance by Cassano to effect the deliverance of Novi. The Frenchoccupied a semicircle on the northern slopes of the Monte Rotonda;the left, composed of the divisions Grouchy and Lemoine, under the command of Perignon , extended itself, in a circular form, around Pacturana; inthe centre, the division Laboissiere , under St. -Cyr, covered the heights onthe right and left of Novi; while the division Watrin, on the right, guardedthe approaches to the Monte Rotondo from the side of Tortona, and Dombrowsky, with the Polish division , blockaded Serravalle . The position wasstrong, and the concentrated masses of the Republicans presented a formidable front among the woods, ravines, slopes, and vineyards with which thefoot of the Apennines was broken. On the side of the French, forty- threethousand men were assembled; while the forces of the Allies were above fiftyfive thousand; a superiority which made the first desirous to engage uponthe rugged ground at the foot of the hills, and the latter anxious to drawtheir opponent into the plain, where their great superiority in cavalry mightgive them a decisive advantage ( 2) .French.resolved to retreat onof tua.Joubert had Joubert, who had given no credit to the rumours which hadreached the army ofthe fall of Mantua, and continually disbelievedlearning the the asseverations of St. -Cyr that he would have the whole Alliedarmy on his hands, received a painful confirmation of its truth, bybeholding the dense masses of Kray encamped opposite to his right wing.He was thrown by this unexpected discovery into the utmost perplexity; toengage with so great an inferiority of force was the height of temerity, whileretreat was difficult in presence of so enterprising an enemy. In these cir(1) Jom. xii. 97. Dum. i . 319, 320. St.-Cyr, i .222.(2) Arch. Ch. ii . 71 , 72. Jom . xii . 98 , 103. Dum.i. 521, 523. Th. x, 349, 350. St -Cyr, i . 227, 234.56 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX.cumstances, he resolved , late on the night ofthe 14th, after such irresolutionas throws great doubts on his capacity as general-in -chief, whatever histalents as second in command may have been, on retiring into the fastnessesofthe Apennines, and only waited for the arrival of his scouts in the morningto give the necessary orders for carrying it into effect; when the commencement of the attack by the Allies compelled him to accept battle in the posi tion which he occupied ( 1) .Death of Joubert.Suwarrow's design was to force back the right of the French, bymeans of the corps of Kray, while Bagrathion had orders to turntheir left, and unite in their rear, under cover of the cannon ofSuwarrow Serravalle, with that corps; while Derfelden attacked Novi in thecentre, and Melas commanded the reserve , ready to support anypart ofthe army which required his aid . In pursuance of these orders, Kraycommenced the attack at five in the morning; Bellegarde attacked Grouchy,and Ott Lemoine; the Republicans were at first taken by surprise; and theirmasses, in great part in the act of marching, or entangled in the vineyards,received the fire of the Austrians without being able either to deploy or answer it. Notwithstanding the heroic resistance of some brigades, the Imperialists sensibly gained ground, and the heads of their columns were alreadymounting the plateau , when Joubert hurried in person to the spot, andreceived a ball in his breast, when in the act of waving his hat, and exclaiming, " Forward, let us throw ourselves among the tirailleurs!" He instantlyfell , and with his last breath exclaimed , " Advance, my friends, advance ( 2) .”The confusion occasioned by this circumstance would have provedfatal, in all probability, to the French army, had the other corpsof the Allies been so far advanced as to take advantage ofit; but, by a strangefatality, though the attacks of the Allies were all combined and concentric,they were calculated to take place at different times; and while this important advantage was gained on their left, the Russians in the centre were stillresting at Pozzolo-Formigaro, and Melas had merely dispatched a detach ment from Rivolta to observe the course of the Scrivia. This circumstance,joined to the opportune arrival of Moreau, who assumed the command andharangued the troops, restored order, and the Austrians were at lengthdriven down to the bottom ofthe hill , on their second line. During this encounter, Bellegarde endeavoured to gain the rear of Pasturana by a ravinewhich encircled it, and was on the point of succeeding, when Pérignoncharged him so vigorously with the grenadiers of Partouneaux and the cavalry ofRichepanse, that the Imperialists were driven back in confusion, andthe whole left wing rescued from danger (3) .The Allies are at first Hitherto the right of the Republicans had not been attacked , andrepulsed. St.-Cyr availed himself of this respite to complete his defensive arrangements. Kray, finding the whole weight of the engagement on his hands, pressed Bagrathion to commence an attack on Novi; and though theRussian general was desirous to wait till the hour assigned by his commanderfor his moving, he agreed to commence, when, it was evident, that unlessAug. 15.He is at tacked be fore doing so byBattle of Novi.(1) Jom. xii. 103. St.- Cyr, i . 237, 243.Suwarrow's order of battle at Novi was highly characteristic of that singular warrior. It was simplythis: "Kray and Bellegarde will attack the left, the Russians the centre, Melas the right." To the soldiers he said , " God wills , the Emperor orders,Suwarrow cominands, that to- morrow the enemy be conquered." Dressed in his usual costume, in his shirt down to the waist, he was on horseback at the advanced posts the whole preceding evening, attended by a few horsemen, minutely reconnoitring the Republican position. He was recognised from the French lines bythe singularity of his dress, and a skirmish of advanced posts in consequence took place. -HARD. vii . 271, and ST.- CYR, i . 236.(2) Jom. xii . 105, 107. Dum. i . 323. Th. x. 351.St.- Cyr, i . 245, 246. (3) Jom. xii. 106, 108. Th. x. 352. St. -Cyr, i.247, 248.1799.]HISTORY OF EUROPE. 57speedily supported, Kray would be compelled to retreat. The Russians advanced with great gallantry to the attack; but a discharge from the division Laboissiere of musketry and grape, at half gunshot threw them into confusion; and, after an obstinate engagement, they were finally broken by acharge by Watrin, with a brigade of infantry, on their flank, and driven backwith great loss to Pozzolo-Formigaro ( 1) .attack of all Combined The failure of these partial attacks rendered it evident that a comtheir forces . bined effort of all the columns was necessary. It was now noon, andthe French line was unbroken, although the superiority of numbers on thepart of the Allies was nearly fifteen thousand men. Suwarrow, therefore,combined all his forces for a decisive movement; Kray, whom nothing couldintimidate, received orders to prepare for a fresh attack; Derfelden wasdestined to support Bagrathion in the centre, Melas was directed to break upfrom Rivolta to form the left of the line, while Rosenberg was ordered in allhaste to advance from Tortona to support his movement. The battle , after apause, began again with the utmost fury at all points. It was for long, however, most obstinately disputed . Notwithstanding the utmost efforts of Kray,who returned above ten times to the charge, the Imperialists could make noimpression on the French left; in vain column after column advanced to theharvest of death; nothing could break the firm array of the Republicans;while Bagrathion, Derfelden , and Milaradowitch, in the centre, after the mostheroic exertions, were compelled to recoil before the terrible fire of theinfantry and batteries which were disposed around Novi. For above fourhours, the action continued with the utmost fury, without the French infantrybeing any where displaced , until at length the fatigue on both sides produceda temporary pause, and the contending hosts rested on their arms amidst afield covered with the slain ( 2) .ofMelas The advance The resolution of any other general but Suwarrow would havedecides the been shaken by so terrible a carnage without any result; but his victory . moral courage was of a kind which nothing could subdue. At fouro'clock the left wing of the Allies came up, under Melas, and preparationswere instantly made to take advantage of so great a reinforcement. Melas was directed to assail the extreme right of the Republicans, and endeavour, byturning it , to threaten the road from Novi to Genoa, while Kray againattacked the left, and Suwarrow himself, with the whole weight of the Russians, pressed the centre . The resistance experienced on the left was so obstinate, that, though he led on the troops with the courage of a grenadier, Kraycould not gain a foot of ground; but the Russians, in the centre, after a terrible conflict, succeeded in driving the Republicans into Novi, from the oldwalls and ruined towers of which they still kept up a murderous fire . But theprogress of Melas on the right was much more alarming. While one of hiscolumns ascended the right bank of the Scrivia and reached Serravalle,another by the left bank had already turned the Monte Rotondo, and wasrapidly ascending its sides; while the general himself, with a third, was advancing against the eastern flank of the plateau ofNovi. To make head againstso many dangers, Moreau ordered the division Watrin to move towards themenaced plateau, but finding itself assailed during its march, both in front and rear, by the divisions of Melas, it fell into confusion, and fled in theutmost disorder, with difficulty cutting its way through the enemy on theroad in the rear of the French position . It now became indispensable for the(1) Dum. i. 323. Jom, xii , 109, 110. Th, x, 352.St.-Cyr, i. 248, 250.(2) Th. x. 353. Jom . xii , 112, 113. Dum. i . 324,325. St.-Cyr, i. 252, 254.58 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX.Republicans to retire; for Lichtenstein , at the head of the Imperial cavalryand three brigades of grenadiers, was already established on the road to Gavi,his triumphant battalions , with loud shouts, were sweeping round the rearof the Republicans, while the glittering helmets of the horsemen appeared onevery eminence behind their lines, and no other line of communication remained open but that which led by Pasturana to Ovada. Suwarrow, who sawhis advantage, was preparing a last and simultaneous attack on the front andflanks of his opponent, when Moreau anticipated him by a general retreat.It was at first conducted in good order, but the impetuous assaults of theAllies soon converted it into a rout . Novi, stripped of its principal defenders,could no longer withstand the assaults of the Russians, who, confident ofvictory, and seeing the standards of the Allies in the rear of the French position rushed forward with resistless fury and deafening cheers , over the deadbodies of their comrades, to the charge; Lemoine and Grouchy with difficultysustained themselves, in retiring, against the impetuous attacks of theirunwearied antagonist Kray, when the village of Pasturana, in their rear, was carried by the Russians, whose vehemence increased with their success, andthe only road practicable for their artillery cut off. Despair now seized theirranks; infantry, cavalry, and artillery disbanded , and fled in tumultuousconfusion across the vineyards and orchards which adjoined the line ofretreat; Colli , with his whole brigade, were made prisoners; and Pérignonand Grouchy, almost cut to pieces with sabre wounds, fell into the hands ofthe enemy. The army, in utter confusion, reached Gavi, where it was ralliedby the efforts of Moreau, the Allies being too much exhausted with fatigue tocontinue the pursuit (1) .Great loss The battle of Novi was the most bloody and obstinately contestedthat had yet occurred in the war. The loss of the Allies was1800 killed , 5200 wounded, and 1200 prisoners; but that of the French wasmuch more considerable , amounting to 1500 killed , 5500 wounded, and3000 prisoners, besides 37 cannons, 28 caissons , and 4 standards. As the waradvanced, and fiercer passions were brought into collision , the carnage became daily greater; the officers were more prodigal of their own blood andthat of their soldiers; and the chiefs themselves, regardless of life, at lengthled them on both sides to the charge, with an enthusiasm which nothingcould surpass. Joubert was the victim of this heroic feeling; Grouchy chargedwith a standard in his hand, and when it was torn from him in the mêlée, heraised his helmet on his sabre, and was thrown down and wounded in theshock of the opposing squadrons; and Kray, Bagrathion, and Melas led ontheir troops to the mouth of the enemy's cannon, as if their duty had beenthat of merely commanding grenadier battalions (2).MoreaumaintainThe consequences of the battle of Novi were not so great as mighton to have been expected from so desperate a shock. On the night ofthe himself on 15th, Moreau regained in haste the defile of the Apennines, andposted St.- Cyr, with a strong rear-guard, to defend the approachesto the Bocchetta. In the first moments of consternation , he had seriousthoughts of evacuating Genoa, and the artillery was already collected at SanPietro d'Arena for that purpose; but finding that he was not seriously disquieted, he again dispersed his troops through the mountains, nearly in theposition they held before the battle. St. -Cyr was intrusted with the right,where a serious impression was chiefly apprehended, and an attack whichon both sides.the Apen nines.(1 ) Jom, xii . 104, 120. Th. x. 351 , 354. Dum. i.324, 327. Arch. Ch . ii . 72, 73. St. - Cyr, i , 255, 264.(2) Dum. i . 328, 330. Jom. xii . 121. St. -Cyr, i ,264, 270. Th . x. 355.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 59the victoriousKlenau made onthat partofthe position withfive thousand menwas repulsed,Separation of with the loss of seven hundred men to the Imperialists. Suwar- forces. row himself, informed of the successes of the French in the smallcantons of Switzerland, immediately detached Kray, with twelve thousand men, to the Tessino; while he himself, in order to keep an eye on Championnet, whose force was daily accumulating on the Maritime Alps, encamped atAsti, where he covered at once the blockade of Coni and the siege of Tor- Aug. 20. tona (1 ) .Aug. 1o.Operations of Cham- pionnet in the AlpsDuring the concentration of the Allied forces for the battle of Novi,this active commander so ably disposed his little army, which onlyamounted to sixteen thousand combatants, instead of thirty thouduring this sand, as he had been promised by the Directory, that he succeededof Tortona. in forcing the passage of the Little St. - Bernard, and driving theImperialists back to Suza. These successes continued even after the Russiancommander took post at Asti; and in a variety of affairs of posts in the valleysAug. 14 , 15. of the Alps, they succeeded in taking fifteen hundred prisonersand four pieces of cannon. But these advantages were more than counterbalanced by the fall of Tortona, which capitulated on the 25th August, on condition that, if not relieved by the 11th September, the place should be surren- Sept. II. dered to the Allies. This conquest was the only trophy which theyderived from the bloody battle of Novi . Moreau made an ineffectual attemptto relieve the blockade, and , finding it impossible to effect the object, retiredinto the fastnesses of the Apennines; while Suwarrow, who had received orders to collect the whole Russians in the Alps, set out, agreeably to the planfixed on, with seventeen thousand men for the canton of the Tessino (2).Situation of Masséna and the Arch- duke at Zu- rich.While these great events were passing to the south of the Alps,events of still more decisive importance occurred to the north ofthose mountains. Immediately after the capture of Zurich and theretreat of Masséna to Mount Albis, the Archduke established the bulk of hisforces on the hills which separate the Glatt from the Limmat, and placed a`line of posts along the whole line of that river and the Aar, to observe themovements of the Republicans. Each of the opposing armies in Switzerlandnumbered about seventy-five thousand combatants; but the French hadacquired a decided superiority on the Upper Rhine, where they had collectedforty thousand men, while the forces of the Imperialists amounted in thatquarter only to twenty-two thousand . Both parties were anxiously waitingfor reinforcements; but as that expected by the Archduke, under Korsakow,was by muchthe most important, Masséna resolved to anticipate his adversary,and strike a decisive blow before that dreaded auxiliary arrived. For thispurpose he commenced his operations by means of his right wing in thehigher Alps, hoping, by the advantage which the initiative always gives inmountainous regions, to dispossess the Imperialists from the important position of the St. -Gothard, and separate their Italian from their German armiesby the acquisition of these elevated ridges, which were universally at thatperiod deemed the key to the campaign (3) .Insane dis- location of the Allied forces atby theAt the very time when the French general was making preparations for these important movements, the Aulic Council gave everythis period possible facility to their success, by compelling the Archduke toAulic Coun- depart with his experienced troops for the Rhine, and make way forthe Russians under Korsakow, equally unskilled in mountain war-(3) Arch. Ch. ii , 77, 81. Jom. xii 55 , 58. Dum.i. 296.cil.(1 ) Jom. xii. 127, 128. Dum. i . 334, 335. St. - Cyr,ii. 1 , 3.(2) Jom. xii . 129, 133, 138. Arch. Ch. ii . 74 , 77.Dum. i, 336, 337.60 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX .fare, and unacquainted with the French tactics. In vain that able commanderrepresented that the line of the Rhine, with its double barrier of fortresses,was equally formidable to an invading as advantageous to an offensive army;that nothing decisive, therefore, could be expected in that quarter , while thechances of success were much greater from a combined attack of the Russiansand Austrians on the frontier of the Jura, where no fortresses existed to impede an invading force; that fifty thousand Russians in Switzerland could notsupply the place of seventy thousand Austrians; and the chances, therefore,were that some serious disaster would occur in the most important part ofthe line of operations; and that nothing could be more hazardous than tomake a change oftroops and commanders in presence of a powerful and enterprising enemy, at the very time that he was meditating offensive operations.These judicious observations produced no sort of effect, and the court of Vienna ordered " the immediate execution of its will, without further objections ( 1 ). "Description of thewar.To understand the important military operations which followed,theatre of it is indispensable to form some idea of the ground on which theytook place. The St. - Gothard, though inferior in elevation to manyother mountains in Switzerland , is nevertheless the central point of thecountry, and from its sides the greatest rivers in Europe take their rise. Onthe east, the Rhine, springing from the glaciers of Disentis and Hinter- Rhine,carries its waters, by a circuitous course, through the vast expanse of thelake of Constance to the German ocean; on the north, the Reuss and theAar, descending in parallel ravines through rugged mountains, feed the lakesof Lucerne, Thun, and Brientz, and ultimately contribute their waters to thesame majestic stream; on the west, a still greater river rises in the blue andglittering glacier of the Rhone, and descending through the long channel ofthe Valais, expands into the beautiful lake of Geneva; while to the south,the snows of the St. -Gothard nourish the impetuous torrent of the Tessino,which, after foaming through the rocks of Faido, and bathing the smilingshores of the Italian bailliwicks, swells out into the sweet expanse oftheLago Maggiore, and loses itself in the classic waves of the Po.The line of the Limmat, which now separated the hostile armies, is com posed of the Linth, which rises in the snowy mountains of Glarus, and , after(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 80, 91. Th. x. 407, 408.The relative situation and strength of the two armies at this period is thus given by the Archduke Charles:FRENCH.From Huningen to the mouth ofthe Aar,From the mouth ofthe Aar to Mount Uetli,From Mount Albis to the lake of Lucerne.From the lake of Lucerne to the valley of Oberhasli ,In the Valais, from Brig to St.- Maurice,In the interior of Switzerland,Total, .Total,.ALLIES.Between Weis and Wutach,From the mouth of the Aar to the lake of Zurich,Between the lake of Zurich and Lucerne,•From the lake of Lucerne to the St.-Gothard,On the St.-Gothard, the Grimsel, and the Upper Valais ,In the Grisons,Swiss,I ·Infantry.10,991 23,792 11,761 7,732 10,886 2,08867,250Infantry.4,269 37,053 8,722 4,184 5,744 1,188 3,45364,613Cavalry.3,208 3,239 564554 1,1268,691-75,941Cavalry.1,329 10,458 834 175 150 35513,301-77,9141799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 61forming in its course the lake of Zurich , issues from that great sheet ofwater,under the name of the Limmat, and throws itself into the Aar at Bruick.Hotze guarded the line of the Linth; the Archduke himself that of the Limmat. Korsakow was considerably in the rear, and was not expected at Schaff hausen till the 19th August ( 1 ) .One road, practicable for cavalry, but barely so for artillery at that period,crossed the St. -Gothard from Bellinzona to Altdorf (2) . Ascending fromBellinzona on the southern side, it passes through a narrow defile close to theTessino, between immense walls of rock between Faido and Airolo; climbsthe steep ascent above Airolo to the inhospitable summit of the St.-Gothard;descends, by a torrent's edge, its northern declivity to the elevated mountainvalley of Urseren, from whence, after traversing the dark and humid galleryofthe Unnerloch, it crosses the foaming cascade of the Reuss by the celebratedDevil's Bridge, and descends, through the desolate and rugged valley of Schollenen, to Altdorfon the lake of Lucerne. But there all vestige of a practicableroad ceases; the sublime lake of Uri lies before the traveller, the sides ofwhich, formed of gigantic walls of rock, defy all attempt at the formation ofa path, and the communication with Lucerne is carried on by water alongthe beautiful lake of the four cantons. The only way in which it is possibleto proceed on land from this point, is either by shepherds' tracks towardsStantz and the canton of Underwalden, or by the rugged and almost impracticable pass of the Schachenthal, by which the traveller may reach the upperextremity of the canton of Glarus. From the valley of Urseren , in the heartof the St.-Gothard, a difficult and dangerous path leads over the Furca andthe Grimsel, across steep and slippery slopes, where the most experiencedtraveller can with difficulty keep his footing, to Meyringen, in the valley ofOberhasli.Plan of the The plan ofthe Allies was, that Hotze, with twenty-five thousand Allies Austrians, should be left on the Linth; and at the end ofSeptemberageneral attack should be made on the French position along the whole line.Korsakow was to lead the attack on the left with his Russian forces; Hotz inthe centre with the Austrians; while Suwarrow, with seventeen thousand ofhis best troops, flushed with the conquest of Italy, was to assail the rightflank of the Republicans, and by the St. - Gothard throw himself into the rearof their position on the Limmat. This design might have been attended withsuccess, if it had been undertaken with troops already assembled on thetheatre of operations; but when they were to be collected from Novi andBavaria, and undertaken in presence of a general perfectly master of theground, and already occupying a central position in the midst of these converging columns, it was evidently attended with the most imminent hazard,as if any ofthe columns did not arrive at the appointed time, the whole weightof the enemy might be expected to fall on the first which appeared (3) .Masséna intrusted to Lecourbe, whose skill in mountain warfare Masséna, had already been amply evinced, the important duty of throwingforward his right wing, and expelling the Imperialists from thehigher Alps; while he himself, by a false attack along the whole line, andespecially upon Zurich in the centre, distracted the attention ofthe enemy,and prevented him from perceiving the accumulation of force which wasbrought to bear on the St. -Gothard . Early on the morning of the 14thAugust, his troops were every where in motion . On the left, the AlliedAnd ofAug. 14.(1) Th. x. 409, 410. Arch. Ch. i. 96.(2) The magnificent chaussée , which now tra verses this mountainous and romantic region, was not formed till the year 1819.(3) Th. x. 411. Arch. Ch. ii . 100, 103.62 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX.outposts were driven in along the whole line; and in the centre the attackwas so impetuous that the Austrians were forced back almost to Zurich,where the Archduke rapidly collected his forces to resist the inroad. Afterconsiderable bloodshed, as the object was gained , the Republicans drewoff, and resumed their positions on the Limmat (1 ) .attack bythe St.-Commence- The real attack of Lecourbe was attended with very different rementof the sults. The forces at his disposal, including those of Thureau in the Lecourbe on Valais , were little short of thirty thousand men, and they were diGothard. rected with the most consummate ability . General Gudin, with fivebattalions, was to leave the valley of the Aar, force the ridge of the Grimsel,and forming a junction with General Thureau in the Valais, drive the Aus- trians from the source of the Rhône and the Furca. Asecond column ofthreebattalions, commanded by Loison , received orders to cross the ridge of the Steinen between Oberhasli and the valley of Schollenen , and descend uponWasen; while a third marched from Engelberg upon Erstfeld , on the lake ofLucerne; and a fourth moved direct by the valley of Issi upon Altdorf. Le- courbe himself was to embark from Lucerne on board his flotilla, make himself master of Brunnen and Schwytz on its eastern shore, and combine withthe other corps for the capture of Altdorf and all the posts occupied by the enemy in the valley of the Reuss (2) .Aug. 14.The Impeforced backThese attacks all proved successful. The Republican parties , underrialists are Lecourbe and Oudinot, advanced by land and water against Schwytz,at all points. and after an obstinate combat, the united Swiss and Imperialistswere driven from that canton into the Muttenthal. From Brunnen, the harbour of Schwytz on the lake, Lecourbe conducted his flotilla under the chapelof William Tell , through the sublime scenery ofthe lake of Uri, beneath precipices fifteen hundred feet high, to Fluellen, where he landed with greatdifficulty, under a heavy fire from the Austrian troops; and, after a warm engagement, forced General Simbschen, who defended Altdorf, to retire furtherup the valley of the Reuss. Meanwhile Loison, after encountering incredibledifficulties, had crossed the Steinerberg and the glaciers of Susten, and notonly forced the enemy back into the valley of Reuss, but, after five assaults,made himself master of the important elevated post of Wasen, in the middleof its extent, so as to expose the troops who had been driven up from Altdorf to be assailed in rear as well as front. In this extremity they had no resourcebut to retire by the lateral gorge of Maderaner, from whence they reached byTavitch the valley of the Rhine ( 3) .driven fromand the Furca.They are Meanwhile successes still more decisive were achieved by the Rethe Grimsel publicans in the other parts of their mountain line . General Thureau at the same hour attacked Prince Rohan , who was stationed inthe Valais, near Brig, to guard the northern approach to the Simplon , and defeated him with such loss, that he was constrained to evacuate the valley ofthe Rhône, and retire by the terrific gorges of the Simplon to Duomo d'Ossolla ,on the Italian side of the mountains. This disaster obliged Colonel Strauch,who guarded, amidst snow and granite, the rugged sides of the Grimsel andthe Furca with eight battalions, to fly to the relief of the imperialists in theUpper Valais, leaving only fifteen hundred to guard the summit of thatmountain. He succeeded in stopping the advance of the Republicans up theValais, but during his absence the important posts of the Grimsel and Furcawere lost, General Gudin , at the head of three thousand men, set out from(1) Dum. i. 298 , 299.Dum. i . 299, 304, 305. Arch . Ch. ii. 103.Jom. xii. 77, 78.(3) Arch. Ch. ii. 107 , 108. Jom , xii. 78, 80. Dum.i. 305, 307.I 1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 63herWle1Goultanen, in the valley of the Aar, and after climbing up the valley, andsurmounting with infinite difficulty the glaciers of Ghelmen, succeeded inassailing the corps who guarded, amidst ice and snow, the rugged summit ofthe Grimsel from a higher point than that which they occupied . After a desperate conflict, in which a severe loss was experienced on both sides, the Imperialists were driven down the northern side of the mountain into theValais; and Colonel Strauch, finding himself now exposed on both flanks, hadno alternative but to retire by the dangerous pass called the Pas de Nuffenen,over a slippery glacier, to Faido on the Tessino, from whence he rejoined thescattered detachments of his force, which had made their escape from theValais by paths known only to chamois hunters through the Val Formazza atBellinzona (1).Lecourbe, ignorant of the success of his right wing, on the succeeding daypursued his career of victory in the valley of the Reuss. Following the retir Aug. 15. ing columns of the Imperialists up the dark and shaggy pass ofSchollenen, he at length arrived at the Devil's Bridge, where a chasm thirtyfeet wide, formed by the blowing up of the arch, and a murderous fire fromthe rocks on the opposite side of the ravine, arrested his progress . But thisobstacle was not of long duration. During the night the Republicans threwbeams over the chasm; and the Austrians, finding themselves menaced ontheir flank by General Gudin, who was descending the valley of Urseren fromthe Furca by Realp, were obliged to evacuate that almost impregnable post,and retire to the heights of the Crispalt, behind the Oberalp, near the sourceAnd the St. of the Rhine. There they maintained themselves, with great resolution, against the Republican grenadiers till the evening; but onthe following day as they were assailed by the united forces of Lecourbe andGudin, they were finally broken and driven back to Ilantz, with the loss of athousand prisoners and three pieces of cannon . At the same time, adetachment took possession ofthe summit ofthe St. -Gothard, and establisheditself at Airolo, on the southern declivity of the mountain (2) .Gothard.Aug. 16.Successes of While Lecourbe was gaining these great successes on the right,left, who drive the Imperialiststhe French his left, between the lakes of Lucerne and Zurich, was equally fortunate. General Chabran, on the extreme left, cleared the wholeinto Glarus. western bank of the lake of Zurich as far as Weggis, the centralcolumns drove the Imperialists from Schwytz into the Muttenthal, and defeatedJellachich at Ensiedlen; and on the following day, aided by Chabran, whomoved against his flank bythe Wiggisthal, they totally routed the Austrians,who fell back, with the loss of twelve hundred prisoners, by the lake ofKlonthal, into the canton of Glarus. Thus, by a series of operations, as ablyexecuted as they were skilfully conceived , was the whole left wing of theImperialists routed and driven back in less than forty- eight hours, with theloss of ten pieces of cannon, four thousand prisoners, and two thousand inkilled and wounded, and the important post of the St.-Gothard, with all itsapproaches and lateral valleys , wrested from their hands (3) .ful attempt Uusuccess- These brilliant successes, however, were only gained by Massénaof the Arch through the great concentration of his forces on the right wing. duke toLimmat be cross the To accomplish this he was obliged to weaken his left, which, lowerlow Zurich . down in the plain, guarded the course of the Aar. The Archduke( 1 ) Arch. Ch. ii . 105 , 107. Jom. xii . 80, 81 .Dum. i. 308, 309. Ebel, Manuel du Voyageur en Suisse, 325.( 2) Arch. Ch. ii . 108, 110. Jom. xii . 81 , 82.Dum. i. 308, 309.(3) Arch. Ch. ii. 212, 213. Join, xii . 82, 84. Dum.i. 305.Many readers will recognise, in the theatre of these operations, the scenes indelibly engraven on their memory by the matchless sublimity of their features.64 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP . XXIX .resolved to avail himself of this circumstance to strike a decisive blow againstthat weakened extremity; in which he was the more encouraged by thearrival of twenty thousand Russians of Korsakow's corps at Schaffhausen,andthe important effect which success in that quarter would have in threatening the communications of the Republican army with the interior of France. For this purpose, thirty thousand men were assembled on the banks of theriver, and the point selected for the passage at Gross Dettingen, a littlebelow the junction of the Reuss and the Aar. Hotze was left in Zurich witheight thousand men, which he engaged to defend to the last extremity; while Korsakow promised to arrive at Ober Endingen, in the centre of theline, with twenty-three thousand men. The march of the columns was sowell concealed,, and the arrangements made with such precision, that thisgreat force reached the destined point without the enemy being aware of their arrival, and every thing promised a favourable issue to the enterprise,when it proved abortive from the difficulties of the passage, and the want ofskill and due preparation in the Austrian engineers . The bridges for thecrossing of the troops were commenced under such a violent fire of artillery as speedily cleared the opposite banks, but it was found impossibleto anchor the pontoons in the rocky bed of the stream, and therapidity of the current rendered it hopeless to construct the bridges in any other manner. Thus, from the want of a little foresight and a few precautions on the part of the engineers, did a project fail , as ably conceived as itwas accurately executed by the military officers, and which promised tohave altered the fate of the campaign, and perhaps of the war . Had the passage been effected , the Archduke, with forty thousand men, would havecleared all the right bank of the Aar, separated the French left wing on theRhine from their centre and right in Switzerland, compelled Masséna to undertake a disastrous retreat into the canton of Berne, exposed to almostcertain destruction the small corps at Basle, and opened to immediate invasion the defenceless frontier of the Jura, from the united troops of the Archduke, Korsakow, and Suwarrow. The want of a few grappling-irons defeateda project on which perhaps the fate of the world depended. Such is frequently the fortune ofwar (1) .Aug. 16 and 17.he marchesRhine.Aug. 19. Desirous still of achieving something considerable with his veteran troops before leaving the command in Switzerland, the Archduke,after his troops had resumed their position, again concentrated his left underBeing foiled, Hotze. But the usual jealousies between the troops and commandto the Upper ers of rival nations prevented this project from being carried intoexecution; and before the end of the month the Austrians, undertheir able commander, were in full march for the Upper Rhine, leavingtwenty-five thousand men, under Hotze, as an auxiliary force to supportKorsakow until the arrival of Suwarrow from the plains of Piedmont (2) .This change of commanders, and weakening of the Allied forces,left is de presented too great chances of success to escape the observation of Glarus. so able a general as Masséna, whose army was now augmented, byreinforcements from the interior, to above eighty thousand men. The movement commenced with an attack by Soult, with the right wing of the Republicans, upon Hotze, who occupied the canton of Glarus, and, after severalsharp skirmishes , a decisive action took place near Naefels, in which theAustrians were defeated , and compelled to fall back to a defensive line inAug. 30. Austrianfeated in(1) Arch. Ch. ii. 119, 126. Dum. i . 311 , 312. (2 ) Jom. xii. 92, 227. Arch. Ch. ii . 129, 133.Jom. xii . 87, 92.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 651their rear, extending from the lake of Zurich by Wasen through the Wallenstadter See, by Sargans to Coire, in the Grisons. It was at this critical momentthat the Archduke, yielding to the pressing commands of the Aulic Council,was compelled to abandon the army with the great body of his troops, leaving the united force of Korsakow and Hotze, fifty-six thousand strong, scattered over a line forty miles in length, to sustain the weight of Masséna, whocould bring sixty-five thousand to bear upon the decisive point around theramparts of Zurich ( 1) .Aug. 26.Sept 6.Successful expedition ofthe ArchThe arrival ofthe Archduke was soon attended with important effects uponthe Upper Rhine. The French had crossed that river at Manheimon the 26th August with twelve thousand men, and driving General Muller,who commanded the Imperialists, before them, laid siege to Philipsburg, onwhich they had commenced a furious bombardment. But the approach ofthe Austrian commander speedily changed the state of affairs. The columnsof that prince rapidly approaching, threatened to cut off their retreat to theRhine, and they were obliged hastily to raise the siege and retire to Manheim.The insufficient state of defence of that important place, inspiredthe Archduke with the design of carrying it by a coup-de- main. Itsduke against fortifications had, some months before, been levelled by the ReSept. 14. publicans; but since that time, they had been indefatigable intheir endeavours to restore them, and they were already in a respectablestate of defence. On the 17th, the Austrians, in two columns, one offourteenthousand men, the other of seven thousand, with a reserve of eight thousand,moved towards Manheim, and on the following day gave the assault. A thickfog favoured the enterprise; the Austrians got into the redoubts almost be Sept. 18. fore the French were aware of their approach, and drove themover the Rhine, with the loss of eighteen hundred prisoners, and twenty- onepieces ofcannon . This success threw a momentary lustre over the expedition,for which the Allies were about to pay dear by the disasters experiencedbefore Zurich ( 2) .Manheim.Allies for aPlan of the After the departure of the Archduke, it was concerted betweenSuwarrow, Korsakow, and Hotze, that the former of these commanders should set out from Bellinzona on the 21st September,CombinedSuwarrow attack , bykow and ,Korsa- on and attack the Republican positions near Airolo on the Tessino. On Masséna , the 25th, he expected to be at Altdorf, after having made himselfmaster of the St.-Gothard . From thence he was to form a junction with Korsakow at Zurich, and with their united forces assail the position of Massénaon the Limmat in front, while Hotze attacked it in flank. By this means they flattered themselves that they would be able to march on the Aar with themass of their forces, and drive the French back upon the frontier of the Juraand their own resources. This project was well conceived, in so far as theturning the French position by the St. -Gothard was concerned, and if it hadall been executed as vigorously and accurately as it was by Suwarrow, theresult might have been very different, but it presented almost insurmountable difficulties in the execution, from the rugged nature of the country inwhich the principal operations were to be conducted, the difficulty of communicating from one valley or one part of the army to another, and the re mote distances from which the corps who were to combine in the operationwere to assemble. It would have been more prudent with such detached bo dies , to have chosen the Misocco and the Bernardine for the field marshal's(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 135 , 139. Th . x. 412, 413. Jom.xii. 231, 284.(2) Jom. xii . 238, 341. Arch. Ch . ii . 149, 161 .IV. 566 HISTORY OF EUROPE, [CHAP. XXIX .march, as that would have brought him down, by roads practicable for artillery, through the Via-Mala into the heart ofthe Austrian army, under cover of the posts which they still occupied in the Grisons; but it did not promise such brilliant results in the outset as that which he adopted, and it was moresuitable to the impetuous character of the Russian veteran to throw himselfat once through the narrow ravines of the St.-Gothard upon the flank of his adversary's line (1).Relative situations ofZurich.Meanwhile Korsakow collected the greater part of his forces in thethe French neighbourhood of Zurich, where they were encamped between theand Russian ramparts of the town and the banks of the Sill . The position whichthey occupied, and the necessity of striking a decisive blow beforethe arrival of Suwarrow, suggested to Masséna a plan which he conceivedand executed with the most consummate ability. He had a superiority, untilthe arrival of Suwarrow, of ten thousand over the Allies; but the corps whichthat commander brought with him would turn the balance as far the otherway (2) . Now, therefore, was the moment, by a decisive blow in the centre,to ruin the Allied army before the junction of that dreaded commander. Butthe distribution of these troops rendered this superiority still more important; for Masséna could assemble thirty- nine thousand on the decisiveline of the Limmat ( 3) , while Korsakow could only collect twenty-five thousand, the bulk of whom were grouped together under the cannon of Zurich,where their numbers were of no avail, and their crowded state in a narrowspace only impeded any military movements.confidence of Unfounded The temper and feeling of the Russian troops , even more thanthe latter. their defective position , rendered them the ready victims of a skilful and daring adversary. Justly proud of their long series of victories overthe Turks, and of the decisive impression which Suwarrow had made in theItalian campaign, they had conceived both an unreasonable confidence in their own strength, and an unfounded contempt for their enemies. This feeling was not the result of a course of successes over an antagonist with whom they had repeatedly measured their strength, but of a blind idea ofsuperiority, unfounded either in reason or experience, and likely to lead to the most disastrous consequences. In presence of the first general then inEurope, at the head of a greatly superior force, Korsakow thought it unnecessary to adopt other measures or take greater precautions than if he hadbeen on the banks ofthe Dneister, in front of an undisciplined horde of barbarians. Thus every thing, both on the French and Allied side, prepared thegreat catastrophe which was approaching (4).Masséna's able plan of Having minutely reconnoitred the position of the enemy, Massénaattack . resolved to make only a feigned attack on Zurich, and to cross withthe bulk of his forces further down the river at Closter-Fahr, where it wasslenderly guarded; and thus to turn the position under the ramparts ofthattown, and attack Korsakow, both in front and rear (5) , at the same time thatthe Republicans had cut him off from his right wing further down the river,and the lake of Zurich separated him from his left in the mountains. The execution of this plan was as able as its conception was felicitous on the part ofthe French commander (6) .(1 ) Dum. ii . 58, 61. Arch. Ch. ii . 172, 178. Jom.xii. 241, 242.(2) The French army in the field was 76,000;that of the Allies, without Suwarrow, 70,000; with him, 88,000.- JOMIN1 , xii. 245.(3) Jom. xii . 245, 246. Arch. Ch. ii. 183, 185.(4) Arch. Ch. ii . 181 , 182.( 5) Th . x . 414, 415. Jom . xii . 247, 248 .(6) The presumption and arrogance of Korsakow were carried to such a pitch, that, in a conference with the Archduke Charles, shortly before the battle, when that great general was pointing out the positions which should in an especial manner be guarded, and said, pointing to the map, " Here you1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 67Sept. 24.The passagerich .By great exertions the French engineers collected , by land-caris surprised riage, twelve pontoons and thirty-seven barks at Dietikon , on theevening of the 24th September, where they were concealed behindan eminence and several hedges, and brought down to the margin of the riverat daybreak on the following morning. The French masked batteries werethen opened, and by the superiority of their fire the opposite bank wasspeedily cleared of the feeble detachments of the enemy who occupied it,and the passage commenced. Six hundred men, in the first instance , were ferried over, and the French artillery , directed by General Foy, protected thisgallant band against the attacks of the increasing force of the enemy, till the boats returned with a fresh detachment. Meanwhile the pontoons arrived , ata quick trot, from Dietikon; the bridge began to be formed , and the troops,ferried over, attacked and carried the height on the opposite side, thoughdefended with the most obstinate valour by three Russian battalions, fromwhence seven pieces of cannon had hitherto thundered on their crossingcolumns. By seven o'clock the plateau of Closter-Fahr, which commandedthe passage, was carried (1 ) , with the artillery which crowned it, and beforenine the bridge was completed, and Oudinot, with fifteen thousand men,firmly established on the right bank of the river.Feigned attacks onthe LowerWhile this serious attack was going on in the centre , GeneralZurich and Ménard on the left had, by a feigned attack, induced the Russian Limmat. commander, Durassow, to collect all his forces to resist the threatened passage on the lower Limmat, and Mortier, by a vigorous demonstrationagainst Zurich, retained the bulk ofthe Russian centre in the neighbourhoodof that city. His troops were inadequate to produce any serious impressionon the dense masses of the Russians who were there assembled; but while hewas retiring in confusion, and Korsakow was already congratulating himselfon a victory, he was alarmed by the increasing cannonades in his rear, andintelligence soon arrived of the passage at Closter-Fahr, the disaster of Markoff, and the separation of the right wing under Durassow from the centre,now left to its own resources at Zurich. Shortly after, he received the mostalarming accounts of the progress of Oudinot: he had made himself masterof Hong, and the heights which surround Zurich on the north west; and, inspite of a sally which Korsakow made towards evening, at the head of fivethousand men, which compelled the enemy to recede to the foot of theheights to the north of the town, they still maintained themselves in force onthat important position , barred the road ofWintherthur, the sole issue to Germany, and all but surrounded the Allied army within the walls of the city. Before nightfall, Masséna, fully sensible of his advantages, summoned the Russiancommander to surrender, a proposal to which no answer was returned (2) ..Dreadful During these disasters the confusion in Zurich rose to the highestconfusion in pitch. The immense confluence of horsemen, artillery , and bag- Zurich. gage-waggons, suddenly thrown back upon the city , and by whichits streets were soon completely blocked up; the cries of the wounded broughtin from all quarters; the trampling of the cavalry and infantry, who forcedtheir way through the dense mass, and mercilessly trode under foot thewounded and the dying to make head against the enemy, threatening to breakin from all sides, formed a scene hitherto unexampled in the war, and forshould place abattalion."-"Acompanyyou mean,"said Korsakow. " No, " replied the Archduke, a"battalion ."-" I understand you, " rejoined the other, " an Austrian battalion, or a Russian company.'HARD. vii . 287."". (1) Arch. Ch. ii . 190, 193. Th. x. 415, 416. Jom.xii. 250, 252.•(2) Arch. Ch, ii . 194, 196. Th . x. 416, 418. Jom,xii. 254, 256.68 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX .which a parallel can only be found in the horrors of the Moscow retreat.When night came, the extensive watch-fires on all the heights to the northand west ofthe city , showed the magnitude of the force with which they were threatened in that quarter; while the unruffled expanse of the lake offeredno hope of escape on the other side , and the bombs which already began to fall in the streets, gave a melancholy presage of the fate which awaited themif they were not speedily extricated from their perilous situation (1) .In these desperate circumstances , Korsakow evinced a resolutionas worthy of admiration as his former presumptuous confidencehad been deserving of censure. Disdaining the proposal to surrender, he spent the night in making arrangements for forcing,sword in hand, a passage on the next morning through the dense masses ofthe Republicans. Fortunately, considerable reinforcements arrived duringthe night; two strong battalions, detached by Hotze, and the whole rightwing, under Durassow, successively made their appearance. He had been detained till late in the evening by the feigned attacks of Ménard , but havingat length learned the real state of affairs (2) , he lost no time in rejoining his commander at Zurich, by a long circuit which enabled him to avoid the French outposts. Strengthened by these reinforcements, Korsakow resolvedto attempt the passage through the enemy on the following day.Sept. 28.He cuts .his way through the enemy but ,baggage andAt daybreak, on the 28th, the Russian columns were formed inorder of battle, and attacked with the utmost impetuosity thedivision Lorges and the brigade Bonterns, which had establishedloses all his themselves on the road to Wintherthur, the sole line of retreatartillery. which remained to them. The resistance of the French was obstinate and the carnage frightful, but the Russians fought with the courage ofdespair, and at length succeeded in driving the Republicans before them andopening a passage . The whole army of Korsakow was then arranged for aretreat; but contrary to every rule of common sense, as well as the militaryart, he placed the infantry in front, the cavalry in the centre, and the artillery and equipages in the rear, leaving only a slender rear- guard, to defendthe ramparts of Zurich until the immense mass had extricated itself from thecity. Masséna, perceiving his intention, collected his forces to prevent ordistress his retreat; but the intrepidity of the Russian infantry overthrew allhis efforts, and the head of the column cut its way through all the troopswhich could be collected to oppose its progress . But the efforts of the Republicans against the cavalry in the centre were more successful . The divisionsLorges and Gazan, by reiterated charges on the moving mass, at length succeeded in throwing it into confusion; the disorder soon spread to the rear;all the efforts ofthe generals to arrest it proved ineffectual; the brave SACKEN,destined to honourable distinction in a more glorious war, was wounded andmade prisoner, and amidst a scene of unexampled confusion , a hundredpieces of cannon, all the ammunition waggons and baggage of the army, andthe military chest, fell into the hands of the victors. Meanwhile the fire approached Zurich on all sides. Mortier was thundering from the other side ofthe Limmat, while Oudinot, carrying every thing before him, pressed downfrom the heights on the north; the garrison defiled after the main army inconfusion; soon the gates were seized; a mortal struggle ensued in the streets,in the course of which the illustrious Lavater, seeking to save the life of asoldier threatened with death, was barbarously shot. At length all the troopsBrave reso lution of Korsakow to force his way through.(1 ) Jom. xii. 254, 256. Archi . Ch. ii, 195, 196. (2) Arch. Ch. ii . 197. Th. x. 418, 419.Th. x. 417, 418. •1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 69who remained in Zurich laid down their arms; and Korsakow, weakened bythe loss ofeight thousand killed and wounded, and five thousand prisoners,besides his whole artillery and ammunition, was allowed to retire withoutfurther molestation by Eglisau to Shaffhausen (1 ) .Hotze aboveSuccess of While Zurich was immortalized by these astonishing triumphs, theSoult against attack of Soult on the Imperial right, on the upper part of theline the Lake. above the lake , was hardly less successful . Hotze had there retained only two battalions, at his headquarters of Kaltbrun; the remainderwere dispersed along the vast line, from the upper end of the lake of Zurichby Sargans, to Coire in the Grisons. Accumulating his forces, Soult skilfullyand rapidly passed the Linth, at three in the morning of the 25th . One hundred and fifty volunteers first swam across the river, with their sabres intheir teeth, during the darkness ofthe night, and aided by the artillery fromthe French side, speedily dispersed the Austrian posts on the right bank, andprotected the disembarkation of six companies of grenadiers, who soon aftermade themselves masters of Schenis . Wakened by the sound of the cannon,Hotze ran, with a few officers and a slender escort, to the spot, andfell dead by the first discharge of the Republican videttes . This calamitous event threw the Austrians into such consternation , thatthey fell back from Schenis to Kaltbrun, from which they were also dislodgedbefore the evening. At the same time, the French had succeeded in crossinga body of troops over the river , a little lower down, at Shemersken, and advanced to the bridge of Grynau, where a desperate conflict ensued. These disasters compelled the Austrians to retreat to their position at Wesen, wherethey were next day assaulted by Soult, and driven first behind the Thiers , andat length over the Rhine, with the loss of three thousand prisoners, twentypieces of cannon, all their baggage, and the whole flotilla, constructed at agreat expense, on the lake of Wallenstadt (2) .Sept. 26.Death of the latter officer.row on the Tessino.Operations While these disasters were accumulating upon the Allied force,of Suwar- which he was advancing to support, Suwarrow was resolutely andfaithfully performing his part of the general plan. He arrived atTaverno on the 15th August, and dispatching his artillery and baggage, byComo and Chiavenna, towards the Grisons, set out himself, with twelve thousand veterans, to ascend the Tessino and force the passage of the St. -Gothard,while Rosenberg, with six thousand, was sent round by the Val Blegno, toturn the position by the Crispalt and Disentis, and so descend into the valleyofUrseren by its eastern extremity. On the 21st September, the Russian mainbody arrived at Airolo, at the foot of the mountain, were General Gudin was Sept. 23. strongly posted, with four thousand men, covering both the directroad over the St.- Gothard and the path which led diagonally to the Furca.Two days after, the attack was commenced, with the utmost resolution , by the Russian troops; but in spite of all their efforts, they were arrested in the steepzigzag ascent above Airolo by the rapid and incessant fire of the French tirailleurs. In vain the Russians, marching boldly up, answered byheavy platoons of musketry; their fire , however sustained , couldproduce little impression on detached parties of sharpshooters, who,Bloody con flict above Airolo. The St.-Gothard is at length forced the Russians. posted behind rocks and scattered fir -trees, caused every shot totell upon the dense array of their assailants . Irritated at the unexpected obstacles, the old marshal advanced to the front, lay down in a ditch, and declared his resolution " to be buried there, where his children had retreated(1) Th. x. 419, 420. Arch. Ch , ii . 199, 201. Jom.xii. 257, 258. Hard, vii . 292.(2) Jom. xii. 259, 263. Arch, Ch. ii . 203, 209.Dum. ii. 61 , 63.70 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX.Sept. 24.Dreadfulthe Devil's Bridge.for the first time. " Joining generalship to resolution, however, he dispatcheddetachments to the right and left to turn the French position; and when theirfire began, putting himself at the head of his grenadiers , at length drove theRepublicans from their position , and pursued them, at the point ofthe bayonet,overthe rugged summit ofthe St. -Gothard to the valley of Urseren. Atthe sametime, Rosenberg had assailed the French detachment on the summit ofthe Crispalt, and, after destroying the greater part, driven them down in great disorder into the eastern extremity of the same valley; while a detachment,under Auffenberg, dispatched from Disentis, was proceeding through theMaderanthal to Amsteg, to cut off their retreat by the valley of Schollenen (1 ) .Assailed by such superior forces, both in front and flank, Lecourbestruggle at had no alternative but a rapid retreat . During the night, therefore, he threw his artillery into the Reuss, and retired down thevalley of Schollenen , breaking down the Devil's Bridge to impede the progressof the enemy, while Gudin scaled the Furca by moonlight, and took post onthe inhospitable summit of the Grimsel. On the following morning the unitedRussian forces approached the Devil's Bridge, but they found an impassablegulf, two hundred feet deep , which stopt the leading companies, while a⚫ dreadful fire from all the rocks on the opposite side swept off all the bravemen who approached the edge of the abyss. Hearing the firing in front, thecolumn of Bagrathion pressed on, in double quick time, through the darkpassage ofthe Unnerloch, and literally, by their pressure, drove the soldiersin front headlong over the rocks into the foaming Reuss. At length, the officers, tired of the fruitless butchery, dispatched a few companies across theReuss to scale the rocks on the left, by which the post at the bridge wasturned, and beams being hastily thrown across, the Russian troops, with loudshouts, passed the terrific defile, and pressing hard upon the retiring columnofthe Republicans, effected a junction with Auffenberg at Wasen, and drovethe enemy beyond Altdorf to take post on the sunny slopes where the Alps ofSurenen descend into the glassy lake of Lucerne (2) .Sept. 26.Arrived at Altdorf,is forced to Suwarrowascend the Shachen.thal.The capture ofthe St. -Gothard by the Russians, and the expulsionofthe French from the whole valley of the Reuss, was totally unexpected by Masséna, and would have been attended with important results upon the general fate of the campaign, if it had notbeen simultaneous with the disaster ofKorsakow at Zurich, and the defeat ofHotze's corps by the Republicans on the Linth. But, coming as it did in themidst of these misfortunes, it only induced another upon the corps whosedefeat was about to signalize the Republican arms. Arrived at Altdorf, Suwarrow found his progress in a direct line stopt by the lake of Lucerne, whoseperpendicular sides precluded all possibility ofa further advance in that direction, while the only outlet to join the Allied forces on his right lay throughthe horrible defile of the Shachenthal, in which even the audacious Lecourbehad not ventured to engage his troops, however long habituated to mountain warfare. There was now, however, no alternative , and Suwarrow, withtroops exhausted with fatigue, and a heart boiling with indignation , was compelled to commence the perilous journey (3).Difficult No words can do justice to the difficulties experienced by theRussians in this terrible march, or the heroism of the brave men passage of that ridgeto Mutten. engaged in it. Obliged to abandon their artillery and baggage, thewhole army advanced in single file , dragging the beasts of burden after them,(1 ) Th. x. 421 , 422. Jom, xii . 265, 266. Dum . i .51. Arch, Ch . ii . 227, 228.(2) Jom. xii . 267, 269. Th. x. 422. Dum. ii . 52.53. Arch. Ch. ii , 229, 235.(3) Jom. x. 269, 270. Dum. ii . 54, 55. Th. x.422. Arch. Ch, ii. 236.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 71up rocky paths, where even an active traveller can with difficulty find afooting. Numbers slipped down the precipices, and perished miserably;others, worn out with fatigue, lay down on the track, and were trodden underfoot by the multitude who followed after them, or fell into the hands of Lecourbe, who closely hung upon their rear. So complete was the dispersion ofthe army, that the leading files had reached Mutten before the last had leftAltdorf; the precipices beneath the path were covered with horses,equipages, arms, and soldiers unable to continue the laborious ascent . Atlength the marshal reached Mutten, where the troops , in a hospitable valley, abounding with cottages and green fields, hoped for some respite fromtheir fatigues; and where, in conformity to the plan agreed on, they were tohave met the Austrian corps of Jellachich and Linken, to threaten the rightof the Republicans (1).Sept. 28.Sept. 25.He findsreinforceBut it was too late: the disasters of the Imperialists deprivednone of the them of all hope of relief from this quarter. Jellachich , faithful to expected his instructions, had broken up from Coire and the valley of thements there.Rhine on the 25th, with eight battalions made himself master ofthe village of Mollis, and driven the Republicans back to Naefels, at the bridgeof which, however, they resolutely defended themselves. But on the following day, the French, issuing from Wasen, menaced the retreat ofthe Austriansby the side of the Wallenstadter See; and Jellachich, informed of the disasters at Zurich, the death of Hotze, and the retreat of his corps, made haste tofall back behind the Rhine. On the same day, Linken , who had crossed fromthe valley of the Rhine by the valley of Sernst and the sources of the Linth,after making prisoners two battalions whom they encountered, appeared inthe upper part of the valley of Glarus, so as to put Molitor between two fires.His situation now appeared all but desperate, and by a little more vigour onthe part of the Russians might have been rendered so; but the retreat of Jellachich having enabled Molitor to accumulate his forces against this new adversary, he was obliged to retreat, and after remaining inactive for three daysat Schwanden, recrossed the mountains, and retired behind the Rhine (2) .And is there Suwarrow thus found himself in the Muttenthal, in the middle ofon all sides,the enemy's forces, having the whole of Masséna's army on oneside, and that of Molitor on the other. Soon the masses of the Reto retreat. publicans began to accumulate round the Russian marshal. Molitor occupied Mont Brakel and the Klonthal, the summit of the pass betweenthe Muttenthal and Glarus, while Mortier entered the mouth of the valleytowards Schwytz, and Masséna himself arrived at Fluellen, to concert with Lecourbe a general attack on the Russian forces. In this extremity, Suwarrowhaving, with the utmost difficulty, assembled his weary troops in the Muttenthal, called a council of war, and following only the dictates of his ownimpetuous courage, proposed an immediate advance to Schwytz, in the rearof the French position at Zurich, and wrote to Korsakow, that he would holdhim answerable with his head for one step further that he continued his retreat. The officers, however, perceiving clearly the dangerous situation inwhich they were placed , strongly urged the necessity of an immediate retreat ,into Glarus and the Grisons, in order to strengthen themselves by that wingof the Allied army which alone had escaped a total defeat. At length, withthe utmost difficulty, the veteran conqueror was persuaded to alter hissurroundedand reluc tantly forced(1 ) Jom. xii. 270, 271. Th . x. 423, Arch . Ch. ii .37.(2) Arch. Ch. ii . 212, 220. Jom. xii . 271 , 272°Dum. ii, 68, 69.72 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX .plans, and, for the first time in his life, he ordered a retreat, weeping withindignation at thus finding the reputation of invincibility, which his marvellous successes had won for him, lost in the close of his career by the faultsof the generals placed under his command (1 ) .Sept. 30. Preceded by the Austrian division under Auffenberg, the Russians ascended Mount Bragel, and chasing before them the detachments ofMolitor, great part of whom were made prisoners near the lake Klonthal,threw back that general upon the banks of the Linth. It was now the turn ofthe French general to feel alarm; but, calm in the midst of dangers whichwould have overturned the resolution of an ordinary commander, he madethe most resolute defence, disputing every inch of ground, and turningevery way to face the adversaries who assailed him. Determined toblock up the passage to the Russians, he ultimately took post at Naefels , already immortalized in the wars of Swiss independence, where he was fuOct. I.He crosses the moun tains into Glarus.Desperate struggle at Naefels.riously attacked, for a whole day, by Prince Bagrathion . Both parties fought with the most heroic courage, regardless of ten days'previous combats and marches, in which they had respectivelybeen engaged; but all the efforts of the Russian grenadiers couldnot prevail over the steady resistance of the Republicans, and towards evening, having received reinforcements from Wasen , they sallied forth, anddrove the assailants back to Glarus . On the same day Masséna, with a largeforce, attacked the rearguard of the Russians, which was winding, encumbered with wounded , along the Muttenthal; but Rosenberg halting, withstoodtheir attack with such firmness, that the Republicans were compelled to giveway, and then breaking suddenly from a courageous defensive to a furiousoffensive, he routed them entirely, and drove them back as far as Schwytz,with the loss of five pieces of cannon, a thousand prisoners, and as many killed and wounded (2) .of Dreadful Unable to force the passage at Naefels , the Russian general, afterthe Alps of giving his troops some days' repose at Glarus, which was absolutelyindispensable after the desperate fatigues they had undergone,Glarus to Ilantz onthe Rhine. resolved to retreat over the mountains into the Grisons by Engi,Matt, and the valley of Sernst. To effect this in presence of a superior enemy,pressing on his footsteps both from the side of Naefels and the Klonthal, wasan enterprise of the utmost hazard, as the path over the arid summits of the Alps of Glarus, was even more rugged than that through the Shachenthal,and the horses and beasts of burden had all perished under the fatigues of theformer march. Nothing could exceed the difficulties which presented them selves. Hardships, tenfold greater than those which all but daunted theCarthaginian conqueror in the outset of his career in the Pennine Alps, awaitedthe Russians, at the close of a bloody and fatiguing campaign, among moun tains to which they were entire strangers . On the morning on which the army set out from Glarus, a heavy fall of snow both obliterated all traces of a path,Oct. 5. and augmented the natural difficulties of the passage. With incredible difficulty the wearied column wound its painful way amongst in hospitable mountains in single file , without either stores to sustain its strength,or covering to shelter it from the weather. The snow, which, in the upperparts ofthe mountains, was two feet deep, and perfectly soft from being newlyfallen , rendered the ascent so fatiguing, that the strongest men could with difficulty advance a few miles in a day. No cottages were to be found in these•(1 ) Arch. Ch. ii . 239, 240. Jom , xii . 273, 275. (2) Jom. xii. 276, 277. Arch. Ch. i . 48 .Dum, ii, 67, 68.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 73drcary and sterile mountains, not even trees were to be met with to form thecheerful light of the bivouacs, vast grey rocks starting up amongst the snowalone broke the mournful uniformity of the scene , and under their shelter,or on the open surface of the mountain, without any covering or fire, werethe soldiers obliged to lie down, and pass a long and dreary autumnal night.Great numbers perished of cold, or sunk down precipices, or into crevicesfrom which they were unable to extricate themselves, and where they were Oct. 6. soon choked by the drifting of the snow. With incredible difficultythe head of the column, on the following day, at length reached, amidst colossal rocks, the summit of the ridge; but it was not the smiling plains ofItaly which there met their view, but a sea of mountains, wrapped in thesnowy mantle which seemed the winding-sheet of the army, interspersedwith cold grey clouds which floated round their higher peaks. The Alps ofTyrol and the Grisons , whose summits stretched as far as the eye could reachin every direction, presented a vast wilderness, in the solitudes of which thearmy appeared about to be lost, while not a fire nor a column of smoke wasto be seen in the vast expanse to cheer the spirits of the soldiers. The path,long hardly visible, now totally disappeared, not a shrub or a bush was tobemet with; the naked tops of the rocks, buried in the snow, no longer servedto indicate the lying of the precipices, or rest the exhausted bodies of thetroops. On the southern descent the difficulties were still greater; the snow,hardened by a sharp freezing wind, was so slippery, that it became impossiblefor the men to keep their footing; whole companies slipped together into theabysses below, and numbers were crushed by the beasts of burden rollingdown upon them from the upper parts of the ascent, or the masses of snowwhich became loosened by the incessant march of the army, and fell downwith irresistible force upon those beneath . All the day was passed in struggling with these difficulties, and with the utmost exertions the advanced guardsreached the village of Panix, in the Grisons, at night, where headquarters were established. The whole remainder of the columns slept upon the snow,where the darkness enveloped them without either fire or covering. Butnothing could overcome the unconquerable spirit oftheRussians. With heroicresolution and incredible perseverance they struggled on, through hardshipswhich would have daunted any other soldiers ( 1 ); and at length the scatteredstragglers were rallied in the valley ofthe Rhine, and head-quarters establishedat Ilantz on the 10th, where the troops obtained some rest after the unparalleled difficulties which they had experienced.Bloody con Meanwhile Korsakow, having reorganized his army, and recovered flicts withnear Con stance.Korsakow, in some degree from his consternation, halted his columns at Busingen, and turning fiercely on his pursuers, drove them back toTrullikon; but the enemy having there received reinforcements, the combatwas renewed with the utmost obstinacy, and continued, without any decisiveresult on either side , till nightfall. On the same day, a body of Russian andAustrian cavalry, three thousand strong, posted in the vineyards and gardenswhich form the smiling environs of Constance, were attacked by a superiorbody of Republicans, under the command of General Gazen; a furious combat commenced, in the course of which the town was three times taken andretaken, barricades were thrown up in the streets, and the unhappy citizensunderwent all the horrors of a fortress carried by assault. The ArchdukeCharles, informed of these circumstances , hastened with all his disposableforces from the environs of Manheim . From the 1st to the 7th of October,(1) Arch. Ch . ii . 249, 251. Jom. xii. 277, 279.74 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [CHAP. XXIX.twenty-seven battalions and forty- six squadrons arrived in theneighbourhood ofVillingen , and the prince himself fixed his headquarters at Donaschingen, in order to be at hand to support thebrokenremains ofKorsakow's army. The Allies were withdrawn fromthe St.-Gothard, and all the posts they yet occupied in Switzerland, to theGrisons, and the Rhine formed the boundary between the hostile armies, theRussians being charged with its defence from Petershausen to Diesenhosen,and the Austrians with the remainder of the line ( 1 ) .Treaty be tween, Rusland for an expeditionWhile these desperate conflicts were going on in the south of Eusia and Eng. rope, England , at length rousing its giant strength from the state ofinactivity in which it had so long been held by the military inexto Holland. perience and want of confidence in its prowess on the part ofgovernment, was preparing an expedition more commensurate than any it hadyet sent forth to the station which it occupied in the war. Holland was thequarter selected for attack, both as being the country in the hands of the enemynearest the British shores, and most threatening to its maritime superiority,where the most vigorous co-operation might be expected from the inhabitants, and the means of defence within the power of the Republicans weremost inconsiderable. By a treaty, concluded on the 22d June, between England and Russia, it was stipulated that the former of these powers was to furnish 13,000, and the latter 17,000 men, towards a descent in Holland, andthat L.44,000 a-month should be paid by England for the expenses of theRussian troops , and her whole naval force be employed to support the operations. To re-establish the stadtholder in Holland, and terminate the revolutionary tyranny under which that opulent country groaned; to form thenucleus of an army which might threaten the northern provinces of France,and restore the barrier which had been so insanely destroyed by the EmperorJoseph; to effect a diversion in favour of the great armies now combating onthe Rhine and the Alps, and destroy the ascendency of the Republicans in themaritime provinces and naval arsenals of the Dutch, were the objects proposed in this expedition, and which, by efforts more worthy ofthe strengthof England, might unquestionable have been attained (2) .The preparations for the expedition , both in England and the Baltic, werepushed with the utmost vigour; and the energy and skill with which thenaval departments and arrangements for disembarkation were made in theBritish harbours, were such as to exort the admiration of the French historians (3) . In the middle of July, Sir Home Popham sailed for the Baltic toreceive on board the Russian contingent; while twelve thousand men, earlyin August, were assembled on the coast of Kent, and twelve thousand morewere preparing for the same destination . All the harbours of England resounded with the noise of preparation; it was openly announced in the news Vigorous papers that a descent in Holland was in contemplation; and thenumerous British cruisers, by reconnoitring every river and harEngland . bour along the Channel, kept the maritime districts in constantalarm from Brest to the Texel. The best defensive measures which their circumstances would admit were adopted by the Directory, and Brune, the French general, was placed at the head of the forces of both nations; but hecould only collect fifteen thousand French, and twenty thousand Dutch troopsto resist the invasion (4) .pedition inArchduke hastens to his aid, and checks the further pur.suit.preparations for the ex(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 259, 264. Jom. xii . 283, 286.(2) Jom. xii. 178, 179. Ann. Reg. 1799, 301 , and State Papers, 216, 217. Dum. ii , 348, 349.(3) Jom. xii . 180, 181 , Dum. ii. 349, 354.(4) Jom. xii . 182, 183. Ann. Reg. 301. Dum, ii .351, 352.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 75The expe- dition sails,the Dutch coast.Aug. 27.On the 13th August, the fleet, with the first division of the army,and lands on twelve thousand strong , set sail from Deal, and joined Lord Duncan in the North Sea. Tempestuous weather, and a tremendous surfon the coast of Holland prevented the disembarkation from being effected fora fortnight; but at length, on the 26th, the fleet was anchored off the Helder,in north Holland, and preparations were immediately made for a descent onthe following morning. At daylight on the 27th the disembarkationbegan, the troops led with equal skill and resolution by Sir RALPH ABERCROMBY, and the landing covered by the able exertions of the fleet under Admiral Mitchell; and never was the cordial co-operation of the land and seaforces more required than on that trying service . The naval strength of England was proudly evinced on this occasion; fifteen ships of the line, fortyfive frigates and brigs, and one hundred and thirty transport vessels coveredthe sea, as far as the eye could reach , with their sails. General Daendels, whowas at the head of a division of twelve thousand men in the neighbourhood,marched rapidly to the menaced point; and when the first detachment of theBritish, two thousand five hundred strong, was landed , it found itself assailedby a much superior force of Batavian troops; but the fire from the shipscarried disorder into their ranks, and they were driven back into the sandhillson the beach, from which, after an obstinate conflict , they were expelled before six in the evening, and the debarkation ofthe remaining divisions effected without molestation . In the night, the enemyevacuated the fort of the Helder, which was taken possession of next day bythe English troops. In this affair the loss of the different parties was singularly at variance with what might have been expected; that of the British didnot exceed five hundred, while that of the Dutch was more than thrice thatnumber (1) .Action at the Helder.Defeat of the Dutch.Capture of the Dutch fleet at the Texel.This success was soon followed by another still more important.The position at the Helder having been fortified, and a reinforcement of five thousand fresh troops come up from England, theBritish fleet entered the Texel, of the batteries defending which they hadnow the command by the occupation ofthe Helder, and summoned the Dutchfleet, under Admiral Story, consisting of eight ships of the line, three offiftyfour guns, eight of forty-four, and six smaller frigates, who had retired intothe Vlietu canal, to surrender. At the sight of the English flag, symptoms ofinsubordination manifested themselves in the Dutch fleet; the admiral, unable to escape, and despairing of assistance , surrendered without firing a shot;and immediately the Orange flag was hoisted on all the ships, and on thetowers and batteries of the Helder and Texel. By this important success theDutch fleet was finally extricated from the grasp ofthe Republicans, a circumstance of no small moment, in after times, when England had to contend,single-handed, with the combined maritime forces of all Europe (2) .are attackedthem withThe British The Russian troops not having yet arrived, the British commanLy the Re- der, who was only at the head oftwelve thousand men, remained onbut repulse the defensive, which gave the Republicans time to assemble theirgreat loss. forces; and having soon collected twenty-four thousand, of whomseven thousand were French, under the orders of VANDAMME , General Brune,who had assumed the command-in-chief, resolved to anticipate the enemy,and resume the offensive . On the 10th of September all the columns were inmotion; Vandamme, who commanded the right, was directed to move along( 1 ) Ann. Reg. 1799, 302. Jom. ii . 188, 189.Dum. ii. 365, 369.(2) Dum. ii . 369, 372. Ann. Reg, 1790, 303%Jom. xii. 190.76 HISTORY OF EUROPE.joined by the Rus sians, at length[CHAP. XXIX .the Langdyke, and make himself master of Ennsginberg; Dumonceau, with the centre, was to march by Schorldam upon Krabbenham, and thereforce thekey ofthe position; while the left was charged with the difficult task of chasing the enemy from the Sand-dyke, and penetrating by Kamp to Petten. The con- test, like all those which followed, was ofthe most peculiar kind; restrictedto dikes and causeys, intersecting in different directions a low and swampy ground, it consisted of detached conflicts at insulated points rather than anygeneral movements; and , like the struggle between Napoléon and the Aus- trians in the marshes of Arcola, was to be determined chiefly by the intrepidity of the heads of columns. The Republicans advanced bravely to theattack, but they were every where repulsed . All the efforts of Vandamme were shattered against the intrepidity of the English troops which guardedthe Sand-dyke; Dumonceau was defeated at Krabbenham, and Daendels compelled to fall back in disorder from before Petten . Repulsed at all pointsthe Republicans resumed their position at Alkmaer, with a loss of two thousand men, while that of the British did not exceed three hundred (1) . The English Instructed by this disaster as to the quality of the troops with which he had to deal , General Brune remained on the defensive atAlkmaer, while the remainder of the expedition rapidly arrived to advanced. the support of the British army. Between the 12th and the 15thSeptember, the Russian contingent, seventeen thousand strong, and seven thousand British, arrived , and the Duke of York took the command. TheEnglish general, finding himself now at the head of thirty-five thousand men, and being aware that extensive reinforcements were advancing to the supportof the Republicans from the Scheldt and the Meuse, resolved to move forwardand attack the enemy. As the nature of the ground precluded the employ- ment of large masses, the attacking force was divided into four columns. Thefirst, under the command of General Hermann, composed of eight thousand Russians and a brigade of English, was destined to advance by the Sand- dykeand the Slapperdyke against the left of Brune, resting on the sea; the second , under the orders of General Dundas, consisting of seven thousand men, of whom five thousand were English , was charged with the attack on Schorldamand the French centre; the third , under Sir James Pulteney, which required to advance along the Langdyke, which was defended by powerful intrench- ments, was intended rather to effect a diversion than make a serious attack ,and was not to push beyond Oude Scarpell, at the head of the Langdyke, unless in the event of unlooked-for success; while the fourth , consisting often thousand choice troops, under Sir Ralph Abercromby, was destined to turn the enemy's right on the Zuyder Zee ( 2) .the Russians Disaster of The action commenced at daybreak on the 19th September withon the right. a furious attack by the Russians, under Hermann, who speedilydrove in the advanced guard of the Republicans at Kamp and Groot, andpressing forward along the Sand- dyke, made themselves masters of Sharldamand Bergen, and drove back Vandamme, who commanded in that quarter,to within half a league of Alkmaer. But the assailants fell into disorder inconsequence of the rapidity of their advance, and Brune, having speedily moved up the division of Daendels and considerable reinforcements from hiscentre to the support of his left, Vandamme was enabled to resume the offen- sive, in consequence ofwhich the Russians were attacked at once in front andboth flanks in the village of Bergen, from whence, after a murderous conflict,(1 ) Dum. ii. 378, 380. Jom . xii , 192, 195. Ann.Reg. 1799, 303.(2) Ann. Reg. 1799, 304. Jom. xii . 198, 199.Dum. ii , 384, 385.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE . 77they were driven at the point of the bayonet. Their retreat, which at firstwas conducted in some degree of order, was soon turned into a total rout bythe sudden appearance of two French battalions on the flank of their column (1 ) . Hermann himself was taken prisoner, with a considerable part ofhis division, and General Essen, his second in command, who had advancedtowards Schorldam, was obliged to seek shelter , under cover of the Englishreserve, behind the Allied intrenchments of Zyp.While the Russians were undergoing these disasters on the right,the Duke of York was successful in the centre and left. Dundascarried the villages there, after an obstinate resistance; Dumonceauwas driven back from Schorldam, and two of his best battalions were madeprisoners. At the same time Sir James Pulteney having been encouraged, bythe imprudence of Daendels in pursuing too warmly a trifling advantage, toconvert his feigned attack into a real one, not only drove back the Dutch division, but made a thousand prisoners, and forced the whole line , in utter confusion, towards St. - Pancras, under the fire of the English artillery. Abercromby had not yet brought his powerful division into action; but everything promised decisive success in the centre and left of the Allies , whenintelligence was brought to the Duke ofYork of the disaster on the right, andthe rapid advance of the Republicans in pursuit of the flying Russians. Heinstantly halted his victorious troops in the centre, and marchedupon Schorl with two brigades of English and three Russian regiments, which was speedily carried , and if Essen could have ralliedhis broken troops, decisive success might yet have been attained .But all the efforts of that brave general could not restore order orrescue the soldiers from the state of discouragement into which they hadfallen; and the consequence was, that as they continued their retreat to theintrenchments of Zyp, the Republicans were enabled to accumulate theirforces on the Duke of York, who, thus pressed, had no alternative but toevacuate Schorl (2) , and draw back his troops to their fortified line. Inthis battle the Republicans lost 3,000 men in killed, wounded, and prisoners;but the British lost 500 killed and wounded, and as many prisoners , whilethe Russians were weakened by 3,500 killed and wounded, 26 pieces of cannon, and 7 standards.But the Russians continue their re treat, and the British are at length repulsed.Success of the British in the centre and left.Removal of While these events were in progress, the Dutch fleet was conveyed to the British harbours. It is remarkable that this measure England. gave equal dissatisfaction to the sailors on both sides. The Dutchloudly complained that their ships, instead of being employed in their owncountry, under Orange colours, should be taken as prizes to Great Britain;while the English sailors lamented, that a fleet which could not escape hadnot fallen into their hands as glorious trophies , like those at St. - Vincents orCamperdown. The officers on both sides were anxious to preserve a goodunderstanding between their respective crews; but the sailors kept up a sullen distrust; so much more easy is it to accommodate differences between rivalcabinets than heal the national animosity which centuries of warfare have spread among their subjects ( 3) . Holland, however, had no reason in the endto complain of British generosity; after a decided, though unwilling hostility of twenty years, she obtained a lavish accumulation of gifts in Flanders andJava from her ancient rival, such as rarely rewards even the steadiest fidelityof an Allied power.the Dutch fleet to(1) Jom. xii. 200, 203. Dum. ii . 387, 388. Ann.Reg. 1799, 304, 305.(2) Ann. Reg. 1799, 305, 306. Jom . xii. 199,205. Dum. ii. 387, 389.(3) Dum, ii . 381 , 382.78 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP . XXIX .renews the attack, andThe Duke of York was not discouraged by the issue of the attackon the 19th September. Having been reinforced , a few days after,is successful. by a fresh brigade of Russians and some English detachments, hearranged his army, as before, in four columns; and although the heavy rainsfor long prevented the projected operation from taking place, yet they wereenabled to resume the offensive on the 2d October. The recollection of thesuccess which had every where crowned their efforts in the preceding action,animated the English troops , while the Russians burned with anxiety to washout the stain which their disasters on that occasion had affixed to the Imperial eagles. The Allied army on this occasion was about thirty thousandstrong, and the Republicans nearly of equal force . At six in the morning the Oct. 2. attack was commenced at all points . The Russian division of Essen,anxious to efface its former disgrace, supported by the English division ofDundas, advanced to the attack in the centre with such impetuosity, that thevillages of Schorl and Schorldam were quickly carried , and the Republicansdriven in confusion to the downs above Bergen . An attack was there projected by the Duke of York; but Essen, who recollected the consequence ofthe former rashness of the Russians on the same ground, refused to movetill the advance of Abercromby on the right was ascertained; a circumstancewhich paralysed the success of the Allies in that quarter. Meanwhile, Abercromby, who commanded nine thousand men, advanced gallantly at the headof his troops along the Sand- dyke which adjoined the sea; and notwithstanding a hot fire of musketry and grape, by which he had two horses shotunder him, succeeded in forcing the French left, and expelling them fromthe sandhills , and downs on which they rested . On the left, Sir James Pulteney had made little progress, and his measures were confined to demonstrations; but as the English centre and right were victorious, and theyhad completely turned the French left, Brune retired in the night from thefield of battle, and took up a fresh position, abandoning Alkmaer and allhis former line. The loss sustained by the Republicans in this contest wasabove three thousand men and seven pieces of cannon; that of the Alliesabout fifteen hundred . Already the attention of the French was attracted bythe courage and address of the Highland regiments, who bravely fought up tothe knees in water, and rapidly overcame the strongest obstacles, in theirattack on the flank of the Republicans (1 ) .But although they had gained this success, the situation of theDuke of York's army was far from encouraging. The enemy's forcewas daily increasing, while for his own no further reinforcementscould be expected; the autumnal rains, which had set in with more thanusual severity, rendered the roads almost unpassable for artillery or chariots;the insalubrity of the climate at that period of the year was already beginningto affect the health of the soldiers; and none of the expected movements ofthe inhabitants or Batavian troops in favour of the house ofOrange had takenplace. In these circumstances it was evident that, unless some importantplace could be captured , it would be impossible for the Allies to retain theirfooting in North Holland , and Haarlem was pitched on as most likely to furnish the necessary supplies. To achieve the conquest of this important city,the Allied forces were put in motion to attack the French position which occupied the narrow isthmus between Beverwick and the Zuyder Zee, by whichit was necessary to pass to approach Haarlem, which was not more than threeleagues distant (2) .The Duke of YorkHis critical situation notwith standing.(1 ) Dum. ii . 85, 86. Jom. xii . 207, 211. Ann.Reg. 1799, 308.(2) Ann. Reg. 1799, 308, 309. Dum. ii , 308, 309.Jom, xii. 211, 212.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 79to the retreat ofThe action commenced at seven in the morning, and was obstinately contested during the whole day. In the centre the Allies were,in the first instance, successful; Essen bore down all opposition , and Palthod,who commanded the Republicans, was on the point of succumbing, whenBrune strengthened him with the greater part of a fresh division, and avigorous charge threw back the Allies in confusion towards their own position . In their turn, however, the victorious Republicans were charged, whendisordered with success , by an English regiment of cavalry, thrown intoconfusion, and driven back with great loss tó Kastricum, where they werewith difficulty rallied by Vandamme, who succeeded in checking the advanceofthe pursuers. The action was less obstinately contested on the right, asAbercromby, who commanded in that quarter, was obliged to detach a considerable part ofhis troops to reinforce Essen; while on the left the immenseinundations which covered the front of the Republican position, preventedPulteney from reaching the French right under Daendels. The loss on bothsides was nearly equal, amounting to about two thousand in killed , wounded,and prisoners. That of the English alone was twelve hundred men (1) .Which leads The barren honours of this well- contested field belonged to theAllies, who had forced back the French centre to a considerablethe British. distance from the field ofbattle; but it is with an invading army asan insurrection, an indecisive success is equivalent to a defeat. Haarlem wasthe object of the English general, without the possession of which he couldnot maintain himself in the country during the inclement weather which wasapproaching, and Haarlem was still in the hands of the Republicans . Theenemy's force was hourly increasing , and, two days after the action, six thousand infantry arrived to strengthen their already formidable position on theisthmus, by which alone access could be obtained to the interior of thecountry; and the total absence of all the necessary supplies in the corner ofland within which the army was confined, rendered it impossible to remainthere for any length of time. In these circumstances, the Duke of York, withthe unanimous concurrence of a council of war, resolved to fall back to theintrenchments at Zyp, there to await reinforcements or farther commandsfrom the British Cabinet; a resolution which was strengthened by the intelligence which arrived , at the same time, of the disasters which had befallenthe Russians at Zurich. On the day after the battle , therefore, the Allies retired to the position they had occupied before the battle of Bergen (2) .The British Brune lost no time in following up the retreating army. On thefirst retire, 8th the Republicans resumed their position in front of Alkmaer,capitulate. and several sharp skirmishes ensued between the British rearguard and the advanced posts of their pursuers. The situation of the DukeofYork was now daily becoming more desperate; his forces were reducedby sickness and the sword to twenty thousand men; the number of thosein hospital was daily increasing; there remained but eleven days' provisionfor the troops, and no supplies or assistance could be looked for from theinhabitants for a retreating army. In these circumstances he rightly judgedthat it was necessary to lose no time in embarking the sick, wounded, andstores, with such of the Dutch as had compromised themselves bytheir avowal of Orange principles and proposed a suspension of arms to General Brune, preparatory to the evacuation of Holland by the Allied troops.Some difficulty was at first experienced from the French insisting as a sineand at lastOct. 17.Oct. 6.Indecisive Action.(1) Jom, xii. 212, 216. Ann . Reg. 1799, 309.Dum, ii. 89.(2) Jom. xii . 215, 217. Dum. ii . 90, 91.Reg. 1799, 310.Ann.80 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX.qua non that the fleet captured at the Texel should be restored; but this the British commander firmly resisted , and at length the conditions ofthe evacuation were agreed on. The principal articles were, that the Allies should, without molestation, effect the total evacuation of Holland by the end of November; that eight thousand prisoners, whether French or Dutch,should be restored; and that the works of the Helder should be given upentire, with all their artillery. A separate article stipulated for the surren- der of the brave De Winter, made prisoner in the battle of Camperdown.Before the 1st of December all these conditions were fulfilled on both sides:the British troops had regained the shores of England, and the Russians were quartered in Jersey and Guernsey (1),Reflectionsaster on theSuch was the disastrous issue of the greatest expedition whichon this dis- had yet sailed from the British harbours during the war, and the nation. only one at all commensurate to the power or the character ofEngland. Coming, as it did, after the hopes of the nation had been highlyexcited by its early successes, and when the vast conquests of the Allies inthe first part of the campaign had led to a very general expectation of thefall ofthe jacobinal power in France, it produced the most bitter disappointment, and contributed , in a signal degree, both on the continent and athome, to confirm the general impression that the English soldiers had irrevocably declined from their former renown; that the victors of Cressy andAzincour were never destined to revive; and that it was at sea alone thatany hope for resistance remained to Great Britain against the power ofthe Republic. The Opposition, as usual, magnified the public disasters, andascribed them all to the rashness and imbecility of the Administration;while the credulous public, incapable of just discrimination, and ever governed by the event, overlooked the important facts that the naval power of republican Holland had been completely destroyed by the expedition; andthat in every encounter the English soldiers had asserted their ancient supe- riority over those of France; and, instead of ascribing the failure of theexpedition to its real causes, inadequacy ofmeans and the jealousies incidentto an Allied force unaccustomed to act together, joined the general chorus,and loudly proclaimed the utter madness of any attempts, by land at least,to resist the overwhelming power of France ( 2) . The time was not yetarrived when a greater commander, wielding the resources of a more courageous and excited nation, was to wash out these stains on the British arms,and show to the astonished world that England was yet destined to take thelead, even on the continent, in the deliverance of Europe, and that the bloodof the victors of Poictiers and Blenheim yet flowed in the veins of their des- cendants.Affairs ofthe battleWhile the campaign was thus chequered with disaster to theItalyafter north of the Alps, the successes of the Allies led to more durable of Novi. consequences on the Italian plains. The Directory, overwelmed bythe calamitous result of the battle of Novi, gave the command of both thearmies of Italy and Savoy to General Championnet, who could only assemble54,000 men under his banners, exclusive of 6000 conscripts, who guardedthe summits of the Alps. On the other hand, General Melas, who, after thedeparture of Suwarrow, had assumed the chief command, had 68,000 menunder his orders, independent of 15,000 in garrisons in his rear, and 7000(1) Ann. Reg. 1799, 218, 219. Dum. ii. 94, 96, (2) Ann, Reg. 1799, 312. Jom. xii . 221, 222.Jom, xii. 216, 219.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 81who marched towards the Arno and the Tiber. In despair at the unpromisingcondition of his troops, occupying the circular ridge of the mountains fromthe sources of the Trebbia to the great St.-Bernard , the French general atfirst proposed to repass the Alps, and after leaving such a force in the Maritime Alps as might secure the south of France from insult, proceed , with thebulk of his forces, to join General Thureau in the Valais. But the Directory refused to accede to this wise proposition , and instead, prescribed to theFrench general to maintain his position, and exert his utmost effortsfor the preservation of Coni, which was evidently threatened by the Impe rialists (1).rialists drawSept. 17.The Impe- The cautious and minute directions of the Aulic Council havinground Coni . completely fettered the Austrian general, his operations wereconfined to the reduction of this fortress, the last bulwark in the plain ofItaly still held by the Republicans, and justly regarded as an indispensablepreliminary to the conquest of Genoa, from its commanding the chief communications of that city with the plain of Piedmont. With this view,bothgenerals drew their troops towards Coni; the Austrians encircling its wallswith a chain of posts the plain, and the French accumulating their forcesto overlook it. In the desultory warfare which followed, the Imperialists were ultimately successful . Melas, with the centre, twenty thousandstrong, defeated Grenier at Savigliano, while Kray threw backtheir left through the valley of Suza to the foot of Mont Cenis. Atthe same time, the Republicans were equally unsuccessful in the valley ofAosta, where the united forces of Kray and Haddick expelled them successively from Ivrea and Aosta, and forced them to retire over the great St. - Bernard to Martigny (2) . Relieved by these successes from all disquietude forhis right flank, Melas gradually drew nearer to Coni, and began his preparations for the siege of that place.Pressed by the reiterated orders of the Directory, Championnetnow resolved to make an effort for the relief of Coni. His disposable force for this enterprise, even including the army ofthe Alpsunder Grenier, did not exceed forty-five thousand men; but by a vigorousand concentric effort, there was some reason to hope that the object might beeffected . St. -Cyr in vain represented to the Directory that it was the heightof temerity to endeavour to maintain themselves in a mountainous region ,already exhausted of its resources, and that the wiser course was to fall back,with the army yet entire, to the other side of the Alps, and there assembleit in a central position . How clear soever may have been the justice of thisopinion, they had not strength of mind sufficient to admit the loss ofItaly ina single campaign; and the French general set himself bravely about the difficult task of maintaining himself, with an inferior and dispirited army, onthe Italian side of the mountains ( 3) .Sept. 25.Sept. 29.Champion-.net is com pelled to attempt its relief.effect that Measures to With this view, the divisions of Victor and Lemoine, forming theobject. centre ofthe army, sixteen thousand strong, were directed to moveupon Mondovi; while St.-Cyr, with the right, received orders to descendfrom the Bocchetta, and effect a diversion on the side of Novi . The movement commenced in the end of September. Vico was taken by abrigade ofthe Republicans; but, finding the Imperialists too strongly postedat Mondovi to be assailed with success, Championnet contented himself withplacing his troops in observation on the adjacent heights; while St.-CyrSept. 28.(1 ) Jom. xii . 313, 317. Dum. ii . 262, 263. Arch.Ch. ii . 307, 308. St. - Cyr, ii , 10, 11 .(2 ) Arch. Ch. ii . 309, 310. Jom. xii . 318, 322 .Dum. ii, 263, 264. St.- Cyr, ii . 12, 15.(3) Dum, ii. 266, 267. St.- Cyr, ii . 15, 19.IV.682 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [CHAP. XXIX .Oct. 11.Oct. 12.gained a trifling advantage in the neighbourhood of Novi. But intelligencehaving at this time been received of the decisive victory of Masséna in Switzerland, more vigorous operations were undertaken. St.-Cyr,abandoning the route of Novi, threw himself towards Bracco on the rear ofthe Austrians, and attacked them with such celerity, that he made twelvehundred prisoners , and spread consternation through their whole line.Melas, thus threatened, concentrated the forces under his immediate command, consisting of thirty thousand men, in the finest condition,on the Stura; upon which a variety of affairs of post took place around Coni,with chequered success, which gradually consumed the strength of the Republican forces. There was an essential error in these measures on the partofChampionnet; for the Imperialists, grouped around the fortress where theyoccupied a central position, could at pleasure accumulate masses sufficientto overwhelm any attack made by the Republicans, whose detached columns,issuing from the mountains, and separated by a wide distance , were unableto render any effectual assistance to each other. Nevertheless, the greatabilities of St.-Cyr on the right wing obtained some brilliant advantages.On the 23d ofOctober, he put himself in motion, at the head of twelve thousand men, with only a few pieces of cannon and no cavalry, and defeatedthe Austrians at Pozzolo-Formigaro, and occupied Marengo, taking a thousand prisoners and three pieces of cannon. Alarmed at these repeated checkson his left, Melas withdrew the division of Haddick from the valley of Aosta,where the possession of the fort of Bard and the fall of snow in the GreatSt.-Bernard, relieved him from all disquietude, and with that reinforcementstrengthened his left wing on the Bormida (1).tions for adecisivePrepara- Meanwhile both parties gradually accumulated their forces for theimportant object which the one strove to effect, theother to prevent,battle. the delivery ofConi. The French had assembled thirty-five thousandmen for that purpose; but the central position of Melas long prevented them from obtaining any advantage; and in an attack of Grenier on the Austriancentre, he was repulsed with the loss of a thousand men. Having at lengthresolved on adecisive action , Championnet made his dispositions. One column Oct. 31. was to descend from Mont-Cenis by the valley of Perouse; anotherto advance by the left ofthe Stura; and a third to assail the enemy in front.By this means the French general hoped that , while he engaged the attentionof the Austrians in front he would, at the same time, turn both their flanks;forgetting that in such an attempt, with columns converging from such re- mote and divided quarters, the chances were that the Imperialists, fromtheir central position, would be able to defeat one column before anothercould arrive to its assistance (2).Battle of Genola, in which the French are defeated.Perceiving that the plan of his adversary was to attack him onall sides , Melas wisely resolved to anticipate his movement, andwith his concentrated masses assail one ofthe French divisions before the others could arrive to its assistance . By a rapid accumulation of forcehe could, in this way, bring above thirty thousand men, of whom six thousand were cavalry, to bear on the French centre, under Victor, who couldnot assemble above sixteen thousand to resist them. His dispositions wererapidly and ably made, and, on the morning ofthe 4th November,the Republicans were attacked at all points. Championnet was so far fromanticipating any such event, that his troops were already in march to effectNov. 4.(1 ) Dum. ii . 268, 273. Arch. Ch. ii . 312, 313.Jom, xii. 326, 335. St. -Cyr, ii . 25, 28.(2) Arch. Ch. ii , 313, 315. Jom. xii. 337, 341.Dum. ii . 273, 275. St. Cyr, ii , 39, 41.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 83ajunction with the right wing, under St. -Cyr, when they were compelled,bythe sudden appearance ofthe Imperialists in battle array, to halt and lookto their own defence. Assailed by greatly superior forces, Victor, notwithstanding, made a gallant defence; and such was the intrepidity of the Frenchinfantry, that for long the advantage seemed to lie on their side, until at noon,Melas, by bringing up fresh troops, succeeded in throwing them into confusion, and drove them back towards Valdigi . Hardly was this success gainedwhen news arrived that General Duhesme, with the Republican left, had carried the village of Savigliano in his rear; but, wisely judging that this was oflittle importance, provided he followed up the advantage he had gained, theAustrian general merely detached a brigade to check their advance, and continued to press on the retiring centre of the enemy. Having continued thepursuit till it was dark, he resumed it at daybreak on the following morning.The enemy, discouraged by the check on the preceding day, did not make avery vigorous resistance. Grenier and Victor, driven from a post they hadtaken up near Murazzo, were forced to seek safety in flight; a large part oftheir rearguard were made prisoners, and great numbers drowned in endeavouring to cross the Stura, and regain their intrenched camp. In this decisivebattle the loss ofthe Republicans was seven thousand men in killed , wounded,and prisoners, while that of the Imperialists did not exceed two thousand;and Championnet, with his army cut into two divisions, one of which retiredtowards Genoa, and the other to the Col di Tende, was obliged to seek safetyin the mountains, leaving Coni to its fate (1) .St.-Cyr near Success of While Championnet was thus defeated in the centre by the supeNovi. rior skill and combinations of his opponent, the talents of St.-Cyragain gave him an advantage on the Bormida. The Imperialists being thererestored to an equality with the Republicans, Kray attacked St. - Cyr nearNovi, and drove him back to the plateau in the rear of that city, so lately thetheatre of a bloody and desperate conflict; but all the efforts of the Austrianswere shattered against the invincible resistance of the French infantry in thatstrong position, and, after a bloody conflict, they were forced to retire, leaving five pieces of artillery in the hands of the enemy. St.-Cyr upon this resumed his position in front of Novi, and Kray fell back towards Alexandria , tobe nearer assistance from the centre of the army. But this success was morethan counterbalanced by fresh disasters in the centre and left. Onthe 10th, the division Ott attacked Richepanse at Borgo San-Dalmazzo, and ,after a gallant resistance, drove him into the mountains; while the other division of the Republicans was assailed at Mondovi, and after an obstinate combat, which lasted the whole day, forced to take refuge in the recesses of theApennines. The French were now thrown back, on the one side, to the foot of the Col di Tende, and in the valley of the Stura to their own frontiers;while on the other, Victor's division was perched on the summits ofthe Apennines at S.-Giacomo and S. -Bernardo. Nothing remained to interrupt thesiege of Coni (2) .Nov. 10 .Siege and The investment of this fortress was completed on the 18th Novemfall of Coni. ber, and the trenches opened on the 27th. The governor made abrave defence; but the ignorance and inexperience of the garrison were soon conspicuous, and a tremendous fire on the 2d of December having destroyedgreat part of the town, and seriously injured the works, he at length yieldedto the solicitations of the miserable inhabitants, and , to preserve the city(1) Jom. xii. 340, 348. Dum, ii . 282, 285. Arch.Ch. ii. 314, 317.(2) Arch. Ch. ii . 319, 321. Jom . xii. 348, 352.Dum, ii , 285, 287. St.-Cyr, ii , 42, 47.84 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX .Dec. 4. from total destruction , agreed to à surrender. The garrison ,3000 strong, with 500 sick and wounded, who had been left in the place, weremarched into the interior of Austria ( 1 ) .Dec. 6. Meanwhile St. -Cyr maintained himself with extreme difficulty inthe Apennines in front of Genoa. The city was in the utmost stateof agitation; famine began to be felt within its walls , and theFrench army, encamped on the higher ridges of the mountains,already suffered extremely from cold , want, and the tempests of autumn. Forlong their rations had been reduced to a fourth -part of their usual amount;but even this miserable pittance , it was foreseen , could not last many dayslonger. Encouraged by their pitiable condition , Kray made an attack on theiradvanced posts at Novi and Acqui, expelled them from those stations , formedthe blockade of Gavi , and forced back the Republicans to their old positionson the inhospitable summits of the mountains at the Bocchetta and CampoFreddo. Such was the panic which then seized the soldiers, that they couldnot be retained by their officers on that important pass, but, abandoning theintrenchments on its summit, -rushed down in tumultuous crowds to Genoa,exclaiming, " What can we do here? we shall soon perish of cold and famineon these desert mountains; we are abandoned , sacrificed: to France, toFrance! " In this extremity, St. -Cyr presented himself at the gates of thecity alone before the mutinous soldiery. "Whither do you fly, soldiers? ” —" To France, to France! " exclaimed a thousand voices.-" Be it so ," exclaimed he, with a calm voice and serene air; " if a sense of duty no longer retains you; if you are deaf to the voice of honour, listen at least to that ofreason, and attend to what your own interest requires. Your ruin is certainif you persist in your present course; the enemy who pursues you will destroy you during the confusion of a tumultuous retreat . Have you forgottenthat you have made a desert between your present position and France?No, your sole safety is in your bayonets; and if you indeed desire to regainyour country, unite with me in repelling far from the gates of this harbourthe enemy, who would take advantage of your disorder to drive you from thewalls where alone the necessary convoys or security can be found . " Rousedby these words to a sense of their duty, the soldiers fell back into their ranks,and loudly demanded to be led against the enemy (2) .Unsuccess ful attempt of the Im perialists upon Genoa into, winter whoIt was high time that some steps should be taken to arrest theprogress of the Imperialists; for they were now at the gates ofGenoa, and threatened the Republicans with immediate destruction.go The Austrians, under Klenau , had penetrated by the route of the quarters. Corniche as far as St. -Martin d'Albaro and Nervi , within sight ofthat city, while from the Bocchetta another column threatened to descendupon it. A heavy fall of snow, however, having prevented the Imperialistsfrom crossing the pass when it was deserted by the French , the rebellioustroops resumed their positions, and reoccupied the intrenchments; andSt. -Cyr, now secure on that side, having turned all his forces against Klenau,the Austrians, assailed at once on front and flank, with difficulty cut theirwaythrough by Torriglio , and regained the banks of the Stura, leaving twelvehundred prisoners in the hands of the enemy, where they soon after wentinto winter quarters (3) . Returned to Genoa, St. - Cyr had still a difficult taskto perform in quieting the discontents of the troops, whom long-continuedGallant con duct of St. Cyr in the Bocchetta Pass.(1) Dum. ii . 304, 305. Jom . xii . 354. Arch. Ch.ii . 323.(2) Dum. ii, 297, 298. St.-Cyr, ii . 68, 74. Hard ,vii. 321.(3) Jom. xii . 355, 356. Arch. Ch. ii . 324, 325.Dum. ii . 300, 302. St.- Cyr, ii . 76, 84, 99. Hard.vii . 321,1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 85privation had almost driven to desperation; but at length the long wishedfor sails whitened its splendid bay, and the Republicans, as the reward of their heroic exertions, tasted the enjoyment of plenty and repose.While these great events were passing in the basin of Piedmont,operations of minor importance, but still conducive, upon thewhole, to the expulsion of the French from the peninsula , took place in thesouth of Italy. The castle of St. -Angelo surrendered, in the end of October,to the Neapolitan forces, whom the retreat of Macdonald left at liberty to advance to the Eternal City; and the garrison of Ancona , after a gallant defenceof six weeks, four of which were with open trenches , capitulated on the 13thNovember to the Russians, on condition of being sent to France, and notserving till regularly exchanged . By this success the Allies were made masters of 585 pieces of cannon, 7000 muskets, three ships of the line, and sevensmaller vessels. The whole peninsula of Italy, with the exception of the intrenched camp at Genoa, and the mountain roads leading to it from France,was now wrested from the Republican arms (1) .Fall of Ancona.the respecat conthe cam paign.Position of The fall of Ancona terminated this campaign in Italy, the mosttive parties disastrous ever experienced by the French in that country. In theclusion of respective positions which they occupied might be seen the immense advantages gained by the Allied arms during its continuance.The Imperialists, whose headquarters were at Turin, occupied the whole plainof Lombardy and Piedmont, from the stream of the Trebbia to the torrentof the Ticino, the left, under Kray, being so cantoned as to cover the valleys of the Bormida and Scrivia; the right, under Haddick and Rohan, occupying the valleys of Domo d'Ossola and Aosta; and the centre, under Kaim,guarding the passes over the Alps and the important position of Mondovi.The Republicans, on the other hand, on the exterior of this immense circle ,occupied the snowy summits of the mountains, which stood the native guardians of the plain; the left , consisting of the divisions Grenier and Duhesme,occupying the Little St. - Bernard, the Mont Cenis, and the passes of the higherAlps; the centre, under Lemoine and Victor, the Col de Fenestrelles, andTende, and the passes of the Maritime Alps: while on the right, Laboissière and Watrin held the Bocchetta and other passes leading into theGenoese states (2) .Contrast between the Wider still was the difference between the comforts and resourcescomforts of of the two armies. Cantoned in the rich plains of Italy, on therialists and banks of the Po, the Imperialists were amply supplied with all thecomforts and luxuries oflife; while its navigable waters incessantlytheprivationsbrought up to the armythe stores and supplies necessary to restorethe losses of so active a campaign. On the side of the Republicans, again,thirty-eight thousand men, without magazines, or stores of provisions, were stationed on the desolate summits of the Alps and the Apennines, shiveringwith cold, exhausted with fatigue, and almost destitute of clothing. For fivemonths, they had received hardly any pay; the soldiers were without cloaks;their shoes were worn out, and wood was even wanting to warm their frigidbivouacs. Overwhelmed with the horrors of his situation , Cham Championnet. pionnet retired to Nice, where he died of an epidemic disorder,which soon broke out among the troops and swept off great multitudes; andhis death dissolved the small remnants of discipline which remained in thearmy. The soldiers tumultuously broke up their cantonments; crowds of deDeath ofof the French.(1) Jom. xii. 356, 361. Arch. Ch. ii. 326.&(2) . Jom. xii. 363, 365. Arch. Ch. ii . 327, 329.Dum ii. 307, 311.86 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX .serters left their colours and covered the roads to France, and it was only byone of those nervous flights of eloquence which touch, even in the greatestcalamities, every generous heart, that St. - Cyr succeeded in stopping the return of a large body which had left Genoa, and was proceeding on the roadto Provence. Alarmed at the representations which he drew of the disastrousstate of the army, the government, which had now passed from the feeblehands of the Directory into the firm grasp of Napoléon, took the most activesteps to administer relief; several convoys reached the troops, and Masséna,sent to assume the supreme command, succeeded, in some degree, in stopping the torrent of desertion and restoring the confidence of the army (1) .tween the Russians and AusJealousy be- At the same time, the campaign on the Rhine was drawing to aclose. Notwithstanding the brilliant successes of the Republicans trians. at Zurich, their forces in that quarter were not so numerous as toenable them, in the first instance, to derive any considerable fruit from theirvictory. But no sooner were they relieved, by the failure of the expeditionin North Holland, from all apprehension in that quarter, than they resolvedto concentrate all their disposable force on the Lower Rhine, of which the command was given to General Lecourbe, who had been so distinguished inthe mountain warfare of Switzerland . But that which the strength ofthe Republicans could not effect, the dissensions of their enemies were not long în producing. The Russians and Austrians mutually threw upon each otherthe late disasters; the latter alleging that the catastrophe at Zurich was allowing to the want of vigilance and skill in Korsakow; and the former replying, that if Suwarrow had been supported by Hotze, as he had a right to expect, when he descended from the St. -Gothard, all the misfortunes of thecentre would have been repaired , and a brilliant victory on his right wing dispossessed Masséna from his defensive position on the line of the Limmat.In this temper ofmind on both sides, and with the jealousy unavoidable be- tween cabinets of equal power and rival pretensions, little was wanting toblow up the combustion into a flame. A trivial incident soon produced this effect. Suwarrow, after he had rested and reorganized his army, proposed to the Archduke that they should resume offensive operations against the enemy,who had shown no disposition to follow up the successes at Zurich. His planwas to abandon the Grisons, blow up the works of Fort St. -Lucie, and advancewith all his forces to Wintherthur, where he was to form a junction with Korsakow, and attack the enemy in concert with the Imperialists. The Arch- Oct. 13, duke apprehended with too much reason that the assembling of allthe Russian troops on the banks of the Thur, in the centre of the enemy'sline, which extended from Sargans , to the junction of the Aar and Rhine,, would be both difficult and perilous; and therefore he proposed instead,Suwarrow that the corps of Korsakow should march by Stockach to join themarshal behind the lake of Constance, and that he himself shoulddetach a strong Austrian column to second the operations of the Russians in Oct. 14, Switzerland. Irritated at any alteration of his plans by a youngerofficer, the old marshal, already soured by the disastrous termination of thecampaign in Switzerland, replied in angry terms, on the following day, that his troops were not adapted for any farther operations in the mountains, andthat he himself would march to join Korsakow, and concert measures with him for the projected operations in Switzerland (2) . On the followretires into Bavaria.Oct. 30.(1) Dum. ii . 310, 311. Jom. xii. 363, 365. Arch.Ch. ii . 327, 329, St.-Cyr, ii . 98, 100.(2) This letter Suwarrow terminated with the following expressions: "I am a field- marshal as1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 87ing day, however, he changed his resolution; for, declaring that his troopsabsolutely required repose, and that they could find it only at a distancefrom the theatre of war, he directed them to winter quarters in Bavaria, between the Lech and the Iller, where they were soon after joined by the artillery which had come round by Verona and the Tyrol (1) .to a rupturecabinets ofSt. - Peters- burg.Which leads This secession of the Russian force was not produced merely bybetween the jealousy of the Austrians , or irritation at the ill success of the Vienna and Allied arms in Switzerland . It had its origin also in motives ofstate policy, and as such was rapidly communicated from the field-marshal's headquarters to the Cabinet of St. -Petersburg . The alliance betweenRussia and Austria, even if it had not been dissolved by the mutual exasperation of their generals, must have speedily yielded to the inherent jealousy oftwo monarchies, equal in power and discordant in interest. The war wasundertaken for objects which, at that time at least, appeared to be foreign tothe immediate interests of Russia; the danger to the balance of power by thepreponderance of France seemed to be removed by the conquest ofItaly, andany further successes of Austria, it was said , were only likely to weaken apower too far removed to be of any serious detriment to its influence, in order to enrich one much nearer, and from whom serious resistance to its ambition might be expected . The efforts for the preceding campaign , moreover,had been extremely costly, and in a great degree, notwithstanding the English subsidies , had exhausted the Imperial treasury. In these circumstances,the exasperation of the generals speedily led to a rupture between the cabinets, and the Russian troops took no further share in the prosecution of the war (2).Positions assumed by the Aus- trians whened .Oct. 10.Left to its own resources , however, the Austrian cabinet was farfrom being discouraged . TheArchduke Charles had collected eightyso abandon- thousand men between Offenburg and Feldkirch; but great as thisforce was, it hardly appeared adequate, after the departure of theRussians, to a renewal of active operations in the Alps, and therefore he kepthis troops on the defensive. Masséna, on his side in Switzerland, was toomuch exhausted by his preceding exertions to make any offensive movement.On the other hand, Lecourbe, whose forces on the Lower Rhine had beenraised by the efforts of the Directory to twenty thousand men, passed thatriver in three columns, at Worms, Oppenheim, and Mayence, and movedforward against Prince Schwartzenberg, who commanded the advanced guardofthe right wing of the Austrians, which occupied the line of the BergstrassOperations on the Lower Rhine.from Frankfort to Darmstadt. As the French forces were greatlysuperior, the Austrian general was compelled to retire, and afterevacuating Heidelberg and Manheim, to concentrate his troops tocover Philipsburg, which, however, he was soon obliged to abandon to itsownresources. The Archduke, though grievously embarrassed at the moment by the rupture with the Russians, turned his eyes to the menaced point, and,by rapidly causing reinforcements to defile in that direction, soon acquireda superiority over his assailant. The Republican advanced-guard was attackedand worsted at Erligheim; in consequence of which the blockade of Phi- Oct. 31. lipsburg was raised; but the French having again been reinforced,well as you; commander, as well as you, of an Im- perial army; old, while you are young; it is for you to come and seek me. " He was so profoundly -mortified with the defeat of the Russians at Zurich,that, when he reached his winter quarters, he took to bed, and became seriously ill; while the Emperor Paul gave vent to his indignation against the Anstrians in an angry article published in the Gazette of St. Petersburg.-HARD. vii 297, 298.(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 272, 274, 284, 285. Jom. xii.367, 379.(2) Jom. xii . 370, 371. Arch. Ch. ii , 272, 274.Dum . ii. 317,88 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXIX .Nov. 7.Dec. 2.it was again invested . The Archduke, however, having at length terminatedhis correspondence with Suwarrow, turned his undivided attentionto the menaced quarter, and directed a large part of the Imperial army toreinforce his right. These columns soon overthrew the Republicans,and Lecourbe was placed in a situation of such danger, that he had no means of extricating himself from it but by proposing an armistice to Starray, whocommanded the Imperialists, on the ground of negotiations being on footbetween the two powers for peace. Starray accepted it, under a reservationof the approbation of the Archduke; but his refusal to ratify it was of noavail; in the interval the stratagem had succeeded; three days had beengained, during which the Republicans had leisure to defile without molestation over the Rhine ( 1 ) .on the vast Reflections This closed the campaign of 1799, one of the most memorable ofthe whole revolutionary war. Notwithstanding the disasters bywhich its latter part had been chequered , it was evident that thepaign . Allies had gained immensely by the results of their operations.Italy had been regained as rapidly as it had been won; Germany, freed fromthe Republican forces , had rolled back to the Rhine the tide of foreign invasion; and the blood of two hundred thousand French soldiers had expiatedthe ambition and weakness of the Republican government. Not even in theglorious efforts of 1796, had the French achieved successes so important, orchained victory to their standards in such an unbroken succession of combats.The conquest of all Lombardy and Piedmont; the reduction ofthe great fortresses which it contained; the liberation of Naples, Rome, and Tuscany, werethe fruits of a single campaign . Instead of a cautious offensive on the Adige,the Imperialists now assumed a menacing offensive on the Maritime Alps;instead of trembling for the Tyrol and the Hereditary States , they threatenedSwitzerland and Alsace . The Republicans, weakened and disheartened , wereevery where thrown back upon their own frontiers; the oppressive system ofmaking war maintain war could no longer be carried on; and a revolutionarystate, exhausted by the sacrifices of nine years, was about to feel in its ownterritory a portion of the evils which it had so long inflicted upon others .Deplorable The internal situation of France was even more discouraging thansituation of might have been inferred from the external aspect of its affairs. Intruth, it was there that the true secret of their reverses was to befound; the bravery and skill of the armies on the frontier had long concealed,but could no longer singly sustain, the internal weakness of the state. Theprostration of strength which invariably succeeds the first burst of revolutionary convulsions, had now fallen upon France; and if an extraordinarycombination of circumstances had not intervened to extricate her from theabyss, there can be no doubt she would have sunk for ever. The ardour ofthe Revolution had totally subsided . Distrust and despondency had succeededto the enthusiasm of victory; instead of the patriotism of generous, hadarisen the cupidity of selfish minds. "The radical vice, " says General MathieuDumas, " of a government without a chief was now apparent; the courageand talents of the generals , the valour and intelligence of the soldiers , who,during this dreadful campaign, had sustained this monstrous species ofauthority, sapped by every species of abuse and the exhaustion arising fromthe excess of every passion, could no longer repair or conceal the faults ofthose at the head of affairs . Public spirit was extinguished; the resources ofthe interior exhausted; the forced requisitions could no longer furnish supinternalsuccesses gained by the Allies in the camthe Repub lic.(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 292, 305, Jom. xii . 375, 385, Dum. ii . 332, 348.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 89plies to assuage the misery of the soldiers; the veteran ranks had long sinceperished, and the young conscripts, destined to supply their place, desertedtheir standards in crowds, or concealed themselves to avoid being drawn;more than half the cavalry was dismounted; the state in greater danger thanit had ever been since the commencement ofthe war ( 1 ) ." The losses sustainedby the French during the campaign had been prodigious; they amounted toabove a hundred and seventy thousand men, exclusive of those who hadbeen cut off by sickness and fatigue ( 2) . In these circumstances, nothing waswanting to have enabled the coalition to triumph over the exhausted anddiscordant population of France, but union, decision , and a leader of paramount authority; nothing could have saved the Republicans from their graspbut their own divisions . These were not slow, however, in breaking out;and, amidst the ruinous jealousies of the Allies, that mighty conquerorarose, who was destined to stifle the democracy and tame the passions ofFrance, and bring upon her guilty people a weight of moral retribution ,which could never have been inflicted till the latent energies of Europe hadbeen called forth by his ambition.Causes of the rupture of the up,"The alliance between Austria and Russia," says the Archduke 66 Charles, blew like most coalitions formed between powers of Alliance. equal pretensions. The idea of a common interest, the illusion ofconfidence based on the same general views, prepares the first advances; difference of opinion as to the means of attaining the desired objects , soon sowsthe seeds of misunderstanding; and that envenomed feeling increases inproportion as the events of the war alter the views of the coalesced powers,derange their plans, and undeceive their hopes. It seldom fails to break outopenly when the armies are destined to undertake any operation in concert.The natural desire to obtain the lead in command, as in glory, excites therival passions both of chiefs and nations. Pride and jealousy, tenacity andpresumption, spring from the conflict of opinion and ambition; continualcontradictions daily inflame the mutual exasperation, and nothing but afortunate accident can prevent such a coalition from being dissolved beforeone of the parties is inclined to turn his arms against the other. In all thevarieties of human events, there are but two in which the co -operation ofsuch unwieldy and heterogeneous masses can produce great effects; the oneis, when an imperious necessity, and an insupportable state of oppression,induces both sovereigns and their subjects to take up arms to emancipatethemselves, and the struggle is not of sufficient duration to allow the ardouroftheir first enthusiasm to cool; the other, when a state, by an extraordinaryincrease of power, can arrogate to itself and sustain the right to rule theopinion of its allies, and make their jealousies bend to its determination .Experience has proved that these different kinds of coalitions produce different results almost all oppressive conquerors have been overthrown bythe first; the second has been the chief instrument in the enthraldom ofnations (3) . " In these profound remarks is to be found the secret both ofthelong disasters attending the coalition against France, of the steady rise andirresistible power of the alliance headed by Napoléon, and of his rapid andirretrievable overthrow. They should never be absent from the contemplation of the statesman in future times, either in estimating the probable resultof coalitions of which his own country forms a part, or in calculating on thechances of its resisting those which may be formed for its subjugation (4) .(1) Dum. ii . 335.(2) See"Etat des Pertes de l'Armée Française en 1799." HARD. vii . 473.(3) Arch. Ch. ii. 273.(4) With regret, the author must now bid adieu to the Memoirs of the Archduke Charles, so long90 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX.Comparison of the sage of thebySuwarThe passage of the St. -Bernard by Napoléon, has been the subjectof unmeasured eulogium by almost all the French historians; butnevertheless, in the firmness with which it was conducted, therow, and the difficulties with which it had to contend, and the resolution disSt.-GothardSt.-Bernardby Napoléon. played in its execution, it must yield to the Alpine campaign of theRussian hero. In crossing from Martigny to Ivrea, the first consul had noenemies to overcome, no lakes to pass, no hostile army to vanquish, after theobstacles of nature had been surmounted; the difficulty of the ascent and theroughness of the road constituted the only serious impediments to the march;but, in passing from Bellinzona to Altdorf by the St. - Gothard, Suwarrow hadto encounter not merely a road of greater length and equal difficulty, but toforce his way, sword in hand, through columns of the enemy, long trainedto mountain warfare, intimately acquainted with the country, under a leaderof pre-eminent skill in that species of tactics; and to do this with troops asignorant ofAlpine geography as those ofFrance would have been of the passesof the Caucasus . When he descended, like a mountain torrent, to Altdorf,overthrowing every thing in his course, he found his progress stopped by alake, without roads on its sides, or a bark on its bosom, and received theintelligence ofthe total defeat of the army with which he came to co-operateunder the walls of Zurich . Obliged to defile by the rugged paths of the Shachenthal to the canton of Glarus, he found himself enveloped by the victorious columns of the enemy, and his front and rear assailed at the same timebysuperior forces, flushed by recent conquest. It was no ordinary resolutionwhich in such circumstances could disdain to submit, and after fiercely turning on his pursuers, and routing their bravest troops, prepare to surmountthe difficulties of a fresh mountain passage, and, amidst the horrors of theAlps of Glarus, brave alike the storms ofwinter and the pursuit ofthe enemy.The bulk of men in all ages are governed by the event; and to such personsthe passage of the St. - Bernard, followed as it was by the triumph of Marengo,will always be the highest object of interest; but, without detracting from thewell-earned fame of the French general, it may safely be affirmed that thosewho know how to separate just combination from casual disaster, and canappreciate the heroism of valour when struggling with misfortune, willaward a still higher place to the Russian hero, and follow the footsteps ofSuwarrow over the snows ofthe St. -Gothard and the valley of Engi with moreinterest than either the eagles of Napoléon over the St.-Bernard, or the standards of Hannibal from the shores of the Rhone to the banks ofthe Po.The expedition to Holland was ably conceived, and failed only from theinadequacy of the force employed, and the inherent weakness incident tothe faithful guide in the German campaigns, as his invaluable annals do not come further down than the close of the campaign of 1799. Military history has few more remarkable works of which to boast.Luminous, sagacious, disinterested, severe in judg ing of himself, indulgent in criticising the conduct of others; liberal of praise to all but his own great achievements, profoundly skilled in the military art, and gifted with no common powers of narrative and description, his work is a model of candid and able military disquisition . Less vehement and for cible than Napoléon, he is more circumspect and consistent; with far inferior genius, he is distin guished by infinitely greater candour, generosity,and trustworthiness. On a fact stated by the Arch duke, whether favourable or adverse to his reputa tion, or a criticism made by him on others, the most perfect reliance may be placed . To a similar statement in the St.-Helena Memoirs implicit creditcannot be given, unless its veracity is supported by other testimony, or it is borne out, as is often the case, by its own self- evident justice and truth, In the Memoirs of these two great antagonists may be seen, as in a mirror, the opposite principles and talents brought into collision during the revolu tionary war; onthe one side, methodical judgment,candour, and honesty, without the energy requisite to command early advantage in the struggle; on the other, genius, vigour, invention , but none ofthe moral qualities essential to confer lasting success.Or, perhaps, a more profound or fanciful observer may trace in the German chief the fairest specimens of the great and good qualities which, in every age,have been the characteristic of the blue-eyed chil dren of the Gothic race; in the French, the most brilliant assemblage that ever occurred of the mental powers ofthe dark-haired Celtic family of mankind.1799. ] HISTORY OF Europe. 91insignifipart whichtookDeplorable an enterprise conducted by allied forces. It was the greatest arcance of the mament which had been sent from Great Britain during the war,England but yet obviously inadequate, both to the magnitude of the enterContinental prise and the resources of the state mainly interested in its success.struggle. In truth, the annals of the earlier years of the war incessantly suggest regret at the parsimonious expenditure of British force, and the greatresults which, to all appearance, would have attended a more vigorous effortat the decisive moment. "Any person," says Mr. Burke, " who was of age totake a part in public affairs forty years ago, if the intermediate space were expunged from his memory, would hardly credit his senses when he shouldhear, from thehighest authority, that an army of two hundred thousand menwas kept up in this island , and that in Ireland there were at least eighty thousand more. But how much greater would be his surprise, if he were told againthat this mighty force was kept up for the mere purpose ofan inert and passive defence, and that, by its very constitution, the greater part was disabledfrom defending us against the enemy by one preventive stroke or one operation of active hostility! What must his reflections be on learning further,that a fleet of five hundred men-of-war, the best appointed that this countryever had upon the sea, was for the greater part employed in the same systemof unenterprising defence? What must be the feelings of any one who remembers the former energy of England, when he is given to understandthat these two islands, with their extensive sea-coast, should be consideredas a garrisoned sea-town; that its garrison was so feebly commanded as neverto make a sally; and that, contrary to all that has been hitherto seen in war,an inferior army, with the shattered relics of an almost annihilated navy,may with safety besiege this superior garrison, and, without hazarding thelife of a man, ruin the place merely by the menaces and false appearances of9 an attack (1)? ”If this was true in 1797, when the indignant statesman wrote these cuttingremarks, how much more was it applicable in 1799, when France was reducedto extremities by the forces of Austria and Russia, and the extraordinaryenergy of the Revolution had exhausted itself? The Archduke Charles, indeed, has justly observed, that modern history presents few examples of greatmilitary operations executed in pursuance of a descent on the sea-coast; andthat the difficulties of the passage and the uncertainty of the elements, present the most formidable obtacles in the way of the employment of considerable forces in such an enterprise ( 2); but experience in all ages has demonstrated that they are not insurmountable, and that from a military force, thussupported, the greatest results may reasonably be expected, if sufficientenergy is infused into the undertaking. The examples of the overthrow ofHannibal at Zama, of the English at Hastings, of the French at Cressy andAzincourt, and of Napoléon in Spain and at Waterloo, prove what can beeffected, even by a maritime expedition , if followed up with the requisite vigour. And, unquestionably, there never was an occasion when greater resultsmight have been anticipated from such an exertion than in this campaign.Had sixty thousand native English, constantly fed by fresh supplies from theparent state, been sent to Holland, they would have borne down all'opposition, hoisted the Orange flag on all the fortresses of the United Provinces, liberated Flanders, prevented the accumulation of force which enabled Massénato strike his redoubled blows at Zurich, hindered the formation of the armyofreserve, and intercepted the thunder of Marengo and Hohenlingen.(1 ) Burke on a Regicide Peace, Works, viii. 374. (2) Arch. Ch. ii . 165.92 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXIX .rapid fall ofpower in 1799.Canse of the The rapid fall of the French military power in 1799, was the na- the French tural result of the sudden extension ofthe frontiers of the Republicbeyond its strength , and affords another example of the truth ofthe maxim, that the more the ambition of a nation in a state offermentationleads to its extension , the more does it become difficult for it to preserve itsconquests (1 ) . Such a state as France then was, with a military power extending from the mouth of the Ems to the shores of Calabria, and no solidfoundation for government but the gratification ofambition, has no chance ofsafety but in constantly advancing to fresh conquests. The least reverse, bydestroying the charm of its invincibility , and compelling the separation ofitsarmies to garrison its numerous fortresses, leaves it weak and powerless in the field, and speedily dissolves the splendid fabric. This truth was experienced by the Directory in 1799; it was evinced on a still greater scale, andafter still more splendid triumphs, by Napoléon in 1813. It is power slowlyacquired and wisely consolidated , authority which brings theblessings ofcivilisation and protection with its growth, victories which array the forces ofthevanquished states in willing and organized multitudes under the standardsof the victor, which alone are durable. Such were the conquests of Rome inthe ancient world, such are the conquests of Russia in Europe, and Englandin India, in modern times . The whirlwinds of an Alexander, a Timour, or aNapoléon, are in general as short- lived as the genius which creates them .The triumphs flowing from the transient ebullition of popular enthusiasm,sink with the decay of the passion from which they spring. Nothing is durable in nature but what has arisen by slow degrees; nothing in the end obtains the mastery of nations but the power which protects and blesses them.(1) Jom. xii . 386.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 93CHAPTER XXX.FROM THE ACCESSION OF NAPOLÉON TO THE OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO .NOVEMBER, 1799 - MAY, 1800.ARGUMENT.Napoléon's Letter, proposing Peace to the British Government-Lord Grenville's AnswerM. Talleyrand's Reply-Debates on this Proposal in Parliament-Arguments of the Oppo- sition for an immediate Peace-And of Mr. Pitt and the Government for refusing to treatParliament resolve to continue the Contest-Reflections on this Decision of the Legislature -Supplies voted by the British Parliament-Land and Sea forces employed -Mr. Dundas's India Budget-The Union with Ireland passes the Parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland- Its leading Provisions-Views of the Leaders on both sides of Parliament on this great Change-Great Prosperity of the British Empire at this period --Vast Change of Prices- Statistical Details-Bad Harvest of 1799, and consequent Scarcity in 1800 -Great efforts of Government to relieve it, and noble patience of the people-Measures of England and Aus- tria for the Prosecution ofthe War-Treaties entered into for that purpose with Austria and Bavaria-Military Preparations of the Imperialists-Discontented state of the French affi- liated Republics -Measures of Napoléon to restore Public Credit in France-Pacification of la Vendée-Iniquitous Execution of Count Louis Frotte-Napoléon effects a Reconciliation with the Emperor Paul-His energetic Military Measures-Revival of the Military Spirit in France-His steps to suppress the Revolutionary Fervour of the People-He totally extin- guishes the Liberty of the Press-And fixes his Residence at the Tuileries-Commencement ofthe Etiquette and Splendour of the Court there-Recall of many Exiles banished since the 18th Fructidor-Establishment ofthe Secret Police-Napoléon's hypocritical éloge on Wash- ington-Comparison of his system of government with that established by Constantine in the Byzantine empire-Commencement of his great designs for Architectural Embellishment at Paris -Suppression of the fête on 21st January, and elevation of Tronchet-Correspon- dence between Napoléon and Louis XVIII-General improvement in the Prospects ofFrance.THE first step of Napoléon, upon arriving at the consular throne, was tomake proposals of peace to the British government. The debate on that subject in Parliament is the most important that occurred during the war, andforms the true introduction to the political history of Europe during the nine- teenth century.Dec. 25. The letter of Napoléon to the King of England, couched in his1799. usual characteristic language, was in these terms: " Called by thewishes of the French nation to occupy the first station in the Republic, Ithink it proper on entering into office to make a direct communication toyour Majesty.posingBritish go- vernment.Napoléon's "The war which for eight years has ravaged the four quarters ofLeiter pro- the globe, is it destined to be eternal? Are there no means of compeaceto the ing to an understanding? How can the two most enlightened nations of Europe, powerful and strong beyond what their independence and safety requires, sacrifice to ideas of vain greatness the benefits ofcommerce, prosperity, and domestic happiness? How has it happened thatthey do not feel that peace is of the first necessity as well as the truest glory?" These sentiments cannot be foreign to the heart of your Majesty, whoreign over a free nation with the sole desire of rendering it happy. You willsee in this overture only the effect of a sincere desire to contribute efficaciously, for the second time, to a general pacification , by a step speedy, implying confidence, and disengaged from those forms which, however neces-94 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXX.sary to disguise the dependence of feeble states, prove only in those whichare strong the mutual desire of deceiving each other." France and England may, by the abuse of their strength still for a time,to the misfortune of nations, retard the period of their exhaustion; but I willventure to say , the fate of all civilized nations is attached to the terminationof a war which involves the whole world. "ville's an swer.Lord Gren To this letter the following answer was returned by Lord Grenville, the English minister of foreign affairs:-"The King has given frequent proofs of his sincere desire for the re-establishment ofsecure and permanent tranquillity in Europe. He neither is, nor has been,engaged in any contest for a vain and false glory. He has had no other viewthan that of maintaining against all aggression the rights and happiness ofhis subjects. For these he has contended against an unprovoked attack;and for the same objects he is still obliged to contend: Nor can he hope thatthis necessity could be removed by entering at the present moment into anegotiation with those whom a fresh revolution has so recently placed in theexercise ofpower in France; since no real advantage can arise from such negotiation to the great and desirable object of a general peace, until it shall distinctly appear that those causes have ceased to operate which originallyproduced the war, and by which it has been since protracted, and in more than one instance renewed . The same system, to the prevalence of whichFrance justly ascribes all her present miseries, is that which has also involved the rest of Europe in a long and destructive warfare, of a nature long sinceunknown to the practice of civilized nations ." For the extension of this system, and for the extermination of all established governments, the resources of France have, from year to year, andin the midst ofthe most unparalleled distress, been lavished and exhausted.To this indiscriminate spirit of destruction, the Netherlands, the United Provinces, the Swiss Cantons, his Majesty's ancient allies, have been successivelysacrificed . Germany has been ravaged; and Italy, though now rescued fromits invaders, has been made the scene of unbounded rapine and anarchy.His Majesty himself has been compelled to maintain an arduous and burdensome contest for the independence and existence of his kingdoms."While such a system continues to prevail, and while the blood andtreasure of a numerous and powerful nation can be lavished in its support,experience has shown that no defence but that of open and steady hostilitycan be availing. The most solemn treaties have only prepared the way forfresh aggression; and it is to a determined resistance alone that is now duewhatever remains in Europe of security for property, personal liberty, socialorder, or religious freedom. For the security, therefore, of these essentialobjects, his Majesty cannot place his reliance on the mere renewal ofgeneralprofessions ofpacific dispositions . Such dispositions have been repeatedly heldout by all those who have successively directed the resources of France to thedestruction of Europe; and whom the present rulers have declared to havebeen, from the beginning and uniformly, incapable of maintaining the relations of peace and amity."Greatly indeed will his Majesty rejoice if it shall appear that the dangersto which his own dominions and those of his allies have so long been exposedhave really ceased: whenever he shall be satisfied that the necessity for resistance is at an end; that, after the experience of so many years of crimesand miseries, better principles have ultimately prevailed in France; and thatall the gigantic projects of ambition, and all the restless schemes of destruction which have endangered the very existence of civil society, have at length1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 95been finally relinquished . But the conviction of such a change, howeveragreeable to his Majesty's wishes, can result only from experience and the evidence of facts."The best and most natural pledge of its reality and permanence wouldbe the restoration of that line of princes, which for so many centuries maintained the French nation in prosperity at home and consideration and respectabroad. Such an event would at once have removed, and will at any timeremove, all obstacles in the way of negotiation or peace. It would confirm toFrance the unmolested enjoyment of its ancient territory; and it would giveto all the other nations in Europe, in tranquillity and peace, that securitywhich they are now compelled to seek by other means. But desirable as suchan event must be, both to France and the world, it is not to this mode exclusively that his Majesty limits the possibility of secure and solid pacification.His Majesty makes no claim to prescribe to France what shall be the form ofher government, or in whose hands she shall vest the authority necessary forconducting the affairs of a great and powerful nation. He looks only to thesecurity of his own dominions and those of his Allies, and to the generalsafety of Europe. Whenever he shall judge that such security can in any manner be attained , as resulting ther from the internal situation of thecountry from whose internal situation the danger has arisen , or from suchother circumstances, of whatever nature, as may produce the same end, hisMajesty will eagerly embrace the opportunity to concert with his Allies themeans of a general pacification ( 1 ) . Unhappily no such security hithertoexists; no sufficient evidence of the principles by which the new governmentwill be directed; no reasonable ground by which to judge of its stability (2) . ”These able state papers are not only valuable as exhibiting the arguments(1) Parl. Hist. xxxiv. 1799.(2) To this it was replied by M. Talleyrand , the French minister for foreign affairs: " Very far from France having provoked the war, she had, it must be recollected, from the very commencement ofthe Revolution, solemnly proclaimed her love of peace, her disinclination for conquests, her respect for the independence of all governments; and it is not to be doubted that, occupied at that time entire ly with her own internal affairs, she would have avoided taking any part in those of Europe, and would have remained faithful to her declarations."But from an opposite disposition, as soon as the French Revolution had broken out, almost all Eu rope entered into a league for its destruction . The aggression was real, long before it was public;internal resistance was excited , its opponents were favourably received, their extravagant declama.tions were supported, the French nation was in sulted in the person of its agents, and England set,particularly, this example, by the dismissal of the minister accredited by her; finally, France was, in fact, attacked in her independence, and her hon our, and in her safety, long before war was declared."Thus it is to the projects of dismemberment,subjection, and dissolution, which were prepared against her, and the execution of which was several times attempted and pursued, that France has aright to impute the evils which she has suffered,and those which have afflicted Europe. Such pro jects for a long time, without example with respect toso powerful a nation, could not fail to bring on the most fatal consequences. Assailed on all sides,the Republic could not but extend universally the efforts of her defence, and it is only for the main tenance of her own independence that she has made use of those means which she possessed in her own strength and the courage of her citizens. As long as she saw that her enemies obstinately refused to"reeognise her rights, she counted only upon the energy of her resistance, but as soon as they were obliged to abandon the hope of invasion, she sought for means of conciliation, and manifested pacific intentions; and if these have not always been efficacious; if, in the midst of the critical circumstances of her interual situation, which the Revolution and the war have successively brought on, the former depositaries of the executive power in France have not always shown as much modera tion as the nation itself has shown courage, it must,above all, be imputed to the fatal and persevering animosity with which the resources of England have been lavished to accomplish the ruin of France."But if the wishes of his Britannic Majesty, in conformity with his assurances, are in unison with those of the French Republic for the re-establish ment ofpeace, why, instead of attempting the apo logy ofthe war, should not attention be paid to the means of terminating it? The First Consul ofthe French Republic cannot doubt that his Britannic Majesty must recognise the right of nations to choose the form of their government, since it is from the exercise of this right that he holds his crown; but he cannot comprehend how, after ad mitting this fundamental principle, upon which rests the existence of political societies, he could annex insinuations which tend to an interference in the internal affairs ofthe Republic, and which are not less injurious to the French nation and its go vernment, than it would be to England and his Majesty, if a sort of invitation were held out in favour of that Republican form of government, of which England adopted the forms about the middle of the last century, or an exhortation to recall to the throne that family whomtheir birth had placed there, and whom a Revolution had compelled to descend from it. [ Parl. Hist. xxxiv. 1199, 1202.]-96 [CHAP. XXX, HISTORY OF EUROPE.Jan. 14 ,1800.M. Talleyadvanced by the opposite parties in this memorable contest , butas containing an explicit and important declaration of the object rand's reply. uniformly pursued by Great Britain throughout its continuance.The English ministry never claimed a right to interfere in the internal affairs of France, or dictate to her inhabitants the form of government or race ofsovereigns they were to choose; the object of the war is there expressly de- clared to have been, what it always was, defensive. It was undertaken, notto impose a government upon France, but to prevent its imposing one upon other nations; not to partition, or circumscribe its territory, but oppose abarrier to the inundation of infidel and democratical principles, by whichthe Republic first shook the opinions of the multitude in all the adjoining states, and then, having divided their inhabitants, overthrew theirindependence. The restoration of the Bourbons was held forth as the modemost likely to remove these dangers; but by no means as an indispensablepreliminary to a general pacification , if adequate security against them couldin any other way be obtained. Of the reality of the peril, the existence ofthe Batavian, Ligurian, Cisalpine , Helvetian, Roman, and Parthenopeianrepublics, most of whom had been revolutionized in a state of profoundpeace, afforded ample evidence; and it was one which increased rapidlyduring any interval of hostilities, because it was then that the point ofthe wedge was most readily inserted by the revolutionary propagandists intoan unsuspecting people .sal inDebates on The debates, however, which followed in both Houses of Parliathis propo- ment on this momentous subject, were still more important, as liament. unfolding the real views of the contending parties, and forming thetrue key to the grounds on which it was thereafter rested on both sides .On the part of the Opposition , it was urged by Mr. Fox and Mr. Erskine,"that now was the first time when the house were assembled in a new epochof the war; that, without annexing any epithet to it, or adverting to its unparalleled calamities, it could not be denied that a new era in any possiblewar, or which led to a nearer prospect of peace, was a most critical and auspicious period. That the real question was, whether the House of Commonscould say, in the face of a suffering nation and a desolated world, that a lofty,imperious, declamatory, insulting answer to a proposition professing peaceand conciliation , was the answer which should have been sent to France, orto any human government. That though he might not be able to determinewhat answer, in the circumstances of the country, should have been sent,they could, without the possibility of being mistaken, pronounce that theanswer given was odiously and absurdly wrong. As a vindication ofthe war,it was loose, and in some parts unfounded; but as an answer to a specificproposition , it was dangerous, as a precedent, to the best interests of mankind.It rejected the very idea of peace, as if it were a curse; and held fast to war,as an inseparable adjunct to the prosperity of nations .of the Oppoimmediate peace.Arguments " The French Revolution was undoubtedly, in its beginning, asition for an great and awful event, which could not but extend its influencemore or less to other nations . So mighty a fabric of despotism andsuperstition, after having endured for ages, could not fall to the ground without a concussion which the whole earth should feel; but the evil of such aRevolution was only to be averted by cautious internal policy, and not byexternal war, unless it became impossible, from actual and not speculativeaggression, to maintain the relations of peace. The question was not, whetherthe tendency of the Revolution was beneficial or injurious, but what was ourown policy and duty as connected with its existence? In Mr. Burke's words,1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 97applied to the American Revolution, the question is not, whether this condition ofhuman affairs deserves praise or blame, but what, in God's name, areyou to do with it?"" When war was first proclaimed by this country, after the death of Louis,it was rested on the late atrocious act perpetrated at Paris. ' Then, as now,it was provoked, and peace rejected upon general and unjustifiable objections-speculative dangers to religion and government, which, supposingthem to have existed , with all their possible consequences, were more likelyto be increased than diminished by the bitterness of war. At that time, ministers were implored not to invite war upon principles which made peacedependent upon systems and forms of government, instead of the conduct ofnations; upon theories which could not be changed , instead of aggressionswhich might be adjusted . France had then, and for a long time after, a stronginterest in peace; she had not then extended her conquests; but Europe combined to extinguish France, and place her without the pale of the socialcommunity; and France, in her turn, acted towards Europe on the sameprinciples. She desolated and ravaged whatever countries she occupied, andspread her conquests with unexampled rapidity. Could it be expected thatso powerful a nation , so assailed , should act merely on the defensive , or that,in the midst of a revolution which the confederacy of surrounding nationshad rendered terrible, the rights of nations would be respected? Ambitiousprojects, not perhaps originally contemplated, followed their steps; and theworld was changed with portentous violence , because the government ofGreat Britain had resolved , that, ifchanged at all , it should revert to establishments which had reached their period and expired ." In 1795, without any pacific proposition from France, when the government of France was not a month old , at a time when the alarm was at itsheight in England, and the probable contagion of French principles, by theintercourse of peace, was not only the favourite theme of ministers, but madethe foundation of a system by which some of our most essential liberties wereabridged-even these ministers invited the infant, democratic, Jacobin, regicide republic of France to propose a peace. On what principle, then, couldpeace now be refused when the danger was so much diminished, because theresistless fury ofthat popular spirit which had been the uniform topic of declamation had not only subsided , from time and expansion , but was curbed,or rather extinguished, by the forms of the new government which invited us,to peace? If Bonaparte found that his interests were served by an arrangement with England, the same interests would lead him to continue it. Surrounded with perils, at the head of an untried government, menaced by agreat confederacy, of which England was the head, compelled to press heavilyupon the resources of an exhausted people, it was not less his interest to propose than it was ours to accept peace."It is impossible to look without the most bitter regret on the enormitieswhich France has committed . In some ofthe worst of them, however, theAllies have joined her. Did not Austria receive Venice from Bonaparte? and is not the receiver as bad as the thief? Has not Russia attacked France? Didnot the Emperor and the King of Prussia subscribe a declaration at Pilnitzwhich amounted to a hostile aggression? Did they not make a public declaration, that they were to employ their forces, in conjunction with the otherkings of Europe, to put the King of France in a situation to establish, in perfect liberty, the foundations of a monarchical government equally agreeableto the rights of sovereigns and the welfare of the French? ' and, whenever theother princes should co-operate with them, did they not then, and in that66IV.798 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX .case, declare their determination to act promptly, and by mutual- consent toobtain the end proposed by all of them?' Can gentlemen lay their hands ontheir hearts, and not admit that the fair construction of this is, that wheneverthe other powers should concur, they would attack France, then at peacewith them , and occupied only in domestic and internal regulations?"The decree of19th November 1792, is alleged as a clear act of aggression,not only against England, but all the sovereigns of Europe. Much weightshould not be attached to that silly document, and it has been sufficiently explained byM. Chauvelin , when he declared that it never was meant to proclaimthe favour ofFrance for insurrection, but that it applied to those people onlywho, after having acquired their liberty by conquest, should demand the assistance of the Republic. Should not a magnanimous nation have been satisfied with this explanation; and where will be the end of wars, if idle andintemperate expressions are to be made the groundwork of bitter and neverending hostilities?" Where is the war, pregnant with so many horrors, next to be carried?Where is it to stop? Not till you establish the House of Bourbon! -and thisyou cherish the hope of doing, because you have had a successful campaign.But is the situation of the Allies, with all they have gained, to be comparedwith what it was after Valenciennes was taken? One campaign is successfulto you; another may be so to them; and in this way, animated by the vindictive passions of revenge, hatred , rancour, which are infinitely more flagitious than those of ambition and the thirst of power, you may go on for ever,as, with such black incentives, no end can be foreseen to human misery. Andall this without an intelligible motive, merely that you may gain a betterpeace a year or two hence. Is then peace so dangerous a state, war so enviable, that the latter is to be chosen as a state of probation, the formershunned as a positive evil (1 )?"And of Mr. Pitt and thefor refusing to treat.On the other hand, it was contended by Lord Grenville and Mr.government Pitt, " that the same necessity which originally existed for thecommencement and prosecution, still called for perseverance inthe war. The same proneness to aggression, the same disregard to justice,still actuated the conduct of the men who rule in France. Peace with anation by whom war was made against all order, religion , and morality,would rather be a cessation of resistance to wrong than a suspension of armsin the nature of an ordinary warfare. To negotiate with established governments was formerly not merely easy , but in most circumstances safe; but tonegotiate with the government of France now would be to incur all therisks of an uncertain truce, without attaining the benefits even of a temporary peace. France still retains the sentiments, and is constant to the viewswhich characterised the dawn of her Revolution . She was innovating, sheis so still; she was Jacobin, she is so still; she declared war against all kings,and she continues to this hour to seek their destruction. Even the distantrepublic of America could not escape that ravaging power, and next to astate of active and inveterate war were the relations of those two commonwealths for a long time. The Republic, indeed , has frequently published herdisinclination to conquest; but has she followed up that declaration by anyacts indicating a similar disposition? Have we not seen her armies march tothe Rhine, seize the Netherlands, and annex them to her dominions? Havewe not witnessed her progress in Italy? Are not the wrongs of Switzerlandrecent and marked? Even into Asia she has carried her lust for dominion,(1) Parl, Hist, xxxiv. 1291 , 1398.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 99severed from the Porte, during a period of profound peace, a vast portion ofits empire, and stimulated ' Citizen Tippoo' to engage in that contest which ultimately proved his ruin?"The Republic has proclaimed her respect for the independence of allgovernments. How have her actions corresponded with this profession?Did not Jacobin France attempt the overthrow of every government? Didshe not, whenever it suited her purpose, arm the governors against thegoverned, or the governed against the governors? How completely has shesucceeded, during a period of profound peace which had been unbroken forcenturies , in convulsing the population, and so subduing the independenceof Switzerland? In Italy, the whole fabric of civil society has been changed,and the independence of every government violated . The Netherlands, too ,exhibit to mankind monuments of the awful veneration with which the Republic has regarded the independence of other states. The memorable decreeof November 1792, has not slept a dead letter in their statute-book. No, ithas ever since been the active energetic principle of their whole conduct,and every nation is interested in the extinction of that principle for ever."Every power with whom the Republic has treated, whether for the purpose of armistice or peace, could furnish melancholy instances of the perfidy ofFrance, and of the ambition, injustice, and cruelty of her rulers . Switzerland concluded a truce with the Republic; her rulers immediately excitedinsurrections among her cantons , overthrew her institutions , seized her fortresses , robbed her treasures, the accumulation of ages , and , to give permanence to her usurpations, imposed on her a government new alike in formand substance. The Grand Duke of Tuscany was among the earliest sufferersby a treaty of peace with the Republic. In every thing he strove to conformto the views of France; her rulers repeated to him her assurances of attachment and disinclination to conquest; but at the very time that the honour ofthe Republic was pledged for the security of states, he saw the troops ofhisally enter his capital, and he himself was deposed and a democracy given tothe Florentines. The King of Sardinia opened the gates of his capital to theRepublican arms, and , confiding in the integrity of the French government,expected to be secured in his dominions by the treaty which guaranteed histitle and his rights, and communicated to France equal advantages. Hewas, however, in a state of peace, invaded in his dominions, forced to fly tohis insular possessions, and Turin treacherously taken possession of by theRepublican troops. The change in the Papal government was another part ofthe same system. It was planned by Joseph Bonaparte in his palace . Heexcited the populace to an insurrection; and effected the revolution in thecapital at the head of the Roman mob. To Venice their conduct was stillmore atrocious . After concluding an armistice with the Archduke Charles,Bonaparte declared that he took the Venetians under his protection, andoverturned the old government by the movements excited among the people; but no sooner was the national independence in this way destroyed,than he sold them to the very Imperial government against whose allegedoppression he had prompted them to take up arms. Genoa received theFrench as friends; and the debt of gratitude was repaid by the governmentbeing revolutionized, and, under the authority of a mock constitution, thepeople plundered , and the public independence subverted."It is in vain to allege that these atrocities are the work offormer govern ments, and that Bonaparte had no hand in them . The worst of these acts ofperfidy have been perpetrated by himself. If a treaty was concluded andbroken with Sardinia, it was concluded and broken by Bonaparte. If peace100 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX.6was entered into and violated with Tuscany, it was entered into and violatedby Bonaparte. If Venice was first seduced into revolutionary revolt, andthen betrayed and sold to Austria, it was by Bonaparte that the treachery wasconsummated. If the Papal government was first terrified into submission,and then overturned by rebellion , it was Bonaparte who accomplished thework. If Genoa was convulsed in a state of profound peace, and then sacrificed, it was by Bonaparte that the perfidious invasion was committed . IfSwitzerland was first seduced into revolution, and then invaded and plundered, it was by the deceitful promises and arts of Bonaparte that the trainwas laid. Even the affiliated republics and his own country have not escapedthe same perfidious ability. The constitution which he forced on his countrymen, at the cannon's mouth, on the 13th Vendémiaire, he delivered upto the bayonets of Augereau on the 18th Fructidor, and overturned with hisgrenadiers on the 18th Brumaire. The constitution of the Cisalpine republic,which he himself had established , was overthrown by his lieutenant Berthier.He gained possession of Malta by deceitful promises, and immediately handedit over to the Republic. He declared to the Porte that he had no intention totake possession of Egypt, and yet he avowed to his army that he conqueredit for France, and instantly roused the Copts into rebellion against the Mamelukes. He declared to the Mussulmans that he was a believer in Mahomet ( 1) , thus demonstrating that, even on the most sacred subjects, truth wasset at nought when any object was to be gained by its violation . Nay, hehas, in his official instructions, openly avowed this system; for, in his instructions to Kléber, he declares , You may sign a treaty to evacuate Egypt,but do not execute the articles, and you may find a plausible excuse for thedelay in the observation, that they must be sent hometo be submitted to theDirectory.' What reliance can be placed on a power which thus uniformlymakes peace or truce a stepping- stone to farther aggressions; and systematically uses perfidy as an allowable weapon for circumventing its enemies?And what is especially worthy of observation, this system is not that of anyone man; it has been the principle of all the statesmen,without exception, who have governed France during the Revolution; a clear proof that itarises from the force of the circumstances in which they are placed, and theruinous ascendance of irreligious principles in the people; and that the intentions ofthe present ruler of the country, even if they were widely differentfrom what they are, could afford no sort of security against its continuance."France would now derive great advantages from a general peace. Hercommerce would revive; her seamen be renewed , her sailors acquire experience; and the power which hitherto has been so victorious at land, wouldspeedily become formidable on another element. What benefit could it bringto Great Britain? Are our harbours blockaded , our commerce interrupted,our dockyards empty? Have we not, on the contrary, acquired an irresistible preponderance on the seas during the war, and is not the trade of theworld rapidly passing into the hands of our merchants? Bonaparte wouldacquire immense popularity by being the means ofbringing about an accommodation with this country; if we wish to establish his power, and permanently enlist the energy of the Revolution under the banners of a militarychieftain, we have only to fall into the snare which he has so artfully prepared . In turbulent republics, it has ever been an axiom to maintain in-(1 ) This was strictly true. " They will say I am a Papist," said Napoléon. " I am no such thing. Iwas a Mahometan in Egypt. I would become a Ca- tholic here for the good of the people. I am nobeliever in any particular religion; but as to the idea of a God, look up to the Heavens, and say who made that?"-See THIBAUDEAU Sur le Consulat, 153.1799.]HISTORY OF EUROPE.101ternal tranquillity by external action; it was on that principle that the warwas commenced by Brissot and continued by Robespierre, and it is not likelyto be forgotten by the military chief who has now succeeded to the helm of affairs." It is in vain to pretend that either the Allied powers or Great Britain werethe aggressors in the terrible war which has so long desolated Europe. In investigating this subject, the most scrupulous attention to dates is requisite.The attack upon the Papal states, by the seizure of Avignon in August 1791 ,was attended by a series of the most sanguinary excesses which disgraced theRevolution; and this was followed , in the same year, by an aggression againstthe whole empire, by the seizure of Porentrui, part of the dominions of theBishop of Basle. In April 1792, the French government declared war againstAustria; and in September of the same year, without any declaration ofwar,or any cause of hostility, and in direct violation of their promises to abstainfrom conquest, they seized Savoy and Nice, upon the pretence that nature haddestined them to form a part of France. The assertion that this war was rendered necessary by the threatening alliance formed at Pilnitz , is equally devoid of foundation; that celebrated declaration referred only to the state ofimprisonment in which Louis XVI was kept, and its immediate object was toeffect his deliverance, if a concert among the European powers could bebrought about for that purpose, leaving the internal state of France to bedecided by the King when restored to his liberty , with the free consent ofthestates ofthe kingdom, without one word relative to its dismemberment. Thiswas fully admitted in the official correspondence which took place betweenthis country and Austria; and as long as M. Delessart was minister of foreignaffairs in France, there was a great probability that the differences would beterminated amicably; but the war party excited a tumult in order to dispossess him, as they considered, in Brissot's words, that ' war was necessaryto consolidate the Revolution. ' Upon the King of France's acceptance of theconstitution, the emperor notified to all the courts of Europe that he considered it as his proper act, and thereby the convention of Pilnitz fell to theground; and the event soon proved the sincerity of that declaration, for whenwar was declared by the French in 1792, the Austrian Netherlands were almost destitute of troops, and soon fell a prey to the Republicans.Great Britain at this time, and for long after, entertained no hostile designs towards France. So far from it , on 29th December 1792, only a monthbefore the commencement of hostilities, a note was sent by Lord Grenville tothe British ambassador at St. - Petersburg, imparting to Russia the principleson which we acted , and the terms on which we were willing to mediate forpeace, which were, ' the withdrawing the French arms within the limits oftheir territory, the abandoning their conquests, the rescinding any acts injurious to the sovereignty or rights of other nations, and the giving, in some unequivocal manner, a pledge oftheir intention no longer to foment troublesor excite disturbances against other governments. In return for these stipulations, the different powers ofEurope might engage to abandon all measuresor views of hostility against France, or interference in its internal affairs .'Such were the principles on which we acted; and what, then, brought on the war with this country? The insane decrees of 19th November and 15th December 1792, which amounted to a declaration of war against all governments,and the attack on our Allies the Dutch, and the opening of the Scheldt, inopen prosecution of the new code ofpublic law then promulgated by the Republic."The fundamental principle of the revolutionary party in France always102 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP . XXX .has been an insatiable love of aggrandisement, an implacable spirit of des- truction against all the civil and religious institutions of every other country. Its uniform mode of proceeding was to bribe the poor against the rich,by proposing to transfer into new hands, on the delusive notion of equality,and in breach of every principle of justice, the whole property of the country; the practical application of this principle was to devote the whole ofthat property to indiscriminate plunder, and make it the foundation of a revolutionary system of finance , productive in proportion to the misery and deso- lation which it created . It has been accompanied by an unwearied spirit ofproselytism, diffusing itself over all the nations of the earth; a spirit whichcan apply itself to all circumstances and all situations; hold out a promise of redress equally to all nations; which enables the teachers of French liberty to recommend themselves to those who live under the feudal code of theGerman empire, the various states of Italy, the old republicans of Holland,the new republicans of America, the protestants of Switzerland, the Catholics of Ireland , the Mussulmans of Turkey, and the Hindoos of India; the nativesof England, enjoying the perfection of practical freedom, and the Copts of Egypt, groaning under the last severity of Asiatic bondage. The last and distinguishing feature is a perfidy which nothing can bind; which no ties oftreaty, no sense of the principles generally received among nations, no obli- gation, human or divine, can restrain. Thus qualified , thus armed for des- truction, the genius of the French Revolution marched forth the terror anddismay of the world . Every nation has in its turn been the witness, manyhave been the victims, of its principles; and it is left now for us to decidewhether we will compromise with such a danger, while we have yet resourcesto supply the sinews of war, while the heart and spirit of the country is yet unbroken, and while we have the means of calling forth and supporting apowerful co-operation in Europe. Cur igitur pacem nolo-quia infida est,quia periculosa, quia esse non potest (1 )? ”Feb. 3, 1800. The House, upon a division , supported the measures of Administration by a majority of two hundred and sixty-five to sixty-four.Reflectionscision ofInjudging of this decision ofthe British government, which formedon this de- the true commencement of the second period of the war, that inParliament. which it was waged with Napoléon, it is of importance to recollectthe circumstances in which he was placed , and the nature of the governmentwhich he had assumed . France had not ceased to be revolutionary, but itsenergies were now, under a skilful and enterprising chief, turned to militaryobjects . He was still, however, borne forward upon the movement, and themoment he attempted to stop , he would have been crushed by its wheels.No one was more aware of this than the First Consul. " The French government," said Napoléon in 1800, " has no resemblance to those which surroundit. Hated by all its neighbours, obliged to restrain many different classes ofmalecontents within its bosom, it stands in need of action, of éclat, and, byconsequence, of war, to maintain an imposing attitude against so many enemies."-" Your government, " replied Thibeaudeau, " has no resemblance toone newly established . It assumed the toga virilis at Marengo; and, sustained by a powerful head and the arms of thirty millions of inhabitants, itsplace is already sufficiently prominent among the European powers."-" Doyou really think that sufficient? " replied Napoléon; " it must befirst ofall,(1) Parl , Hist. xxxiv. 1206 , 1349.It is impossible, in this abstract, to give any idea ofthe splendid and luminous speeches made on this memorable occasion in the British Parliament. Theyare reported at large in Hansard, and throw more light on the motives and objects of the war than any other documents in existence.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 10366or it will perish. " -" And to obtain such a result, you see no other methodthan war?"-" None other, citizen (1 ) . "—" His fixed opinion from the commencement," says Bourrienne, was, that if stationary he would fall; thathe was sustained only by continually advancing, and that it was not sufficientto advance, but he must advance rapidly and irresistibly."-" My power,"said he, "depends on my glory, and myglory on thevictories which Igain. Mypower would instantly fall, if it were not constantly based on fresh glory andvictories . Conquest made me what I am: conquest alone can maintain me init. A government newly established has need to dazzle and astonish; whenits éclat ceases , it perishes. It is in vain to expect repose from a man who isthe concentration of movement (2) .”Such were Napoléon's views; and that they were perfectly just, with reference to his own situation , is evident from the consideration that a revolutionary power, whether in civil or military affairs, has never yet maintainedits ascendency in any other way. But these being his principles, and the independence of England forming the great stumbling-block in his way, it isevident that no permanent peace with him was practicable; that every accommodation could have been only a truce; and that it never would be proposed, unless in circumstances when it was for his interest to gain a shortbreathing-time for fresh projects of ambition (5) . The event completelyproved the justice of these views, and forms the best commentary on theprophetic wisdom of Mr. Pitt . Every successive peace on the continent onlypaved the way for fresh aggressions; and at length he was precipitated uponthe snows of Russia, by the same invincible necessity of dazzling his subjectsby the lustre of additional victories which was felt in the commencement of his career. 66 His power, without and within," says Marshal St.-Cyr, " wasfounded solely on the éclat of his victories. By intrusting himself withoutreserve to fortune, he imposed upon himself the necessity of following it tothe utmost verge whither it would lead him. Unheard- of success had attended enterprises, the temerity of which was continually increasing; butthence arose a necessity to keep for ever awake the terror and admiration ofEurope, by new enterprises and more dazzling triumphs. The more colossalhis power became, the more immeasurable his projects required to be, inorder that their unexpected success should keep up the same stupor in theminds of the vulgar. Admiration, enthusiasm, ambition, the emotions onwhich his dominion was founded, are not durable in their nature; they mustbe incessantly fed with fresh stimulants; and, to effect that, extraordinaryefforts are requisite. These principles were well known to Napoléon; and thence it is that he so often did evil, albeit knowing better than any one thatit was evil, overruled by a superior power, from which he felt it was impossible to escape. The rapid movement which he imprinted on the affairs of Europe was of a kind which could not be arrested; a single retrograde step,a policy which indicated a stationary condition , would have been the signalof his fall. Far, therefore, from making it subject of reproach to Napoléon,that he conceived an enterprise so gigantic as the Russian expedition, he is(1) Thibaudeau, Consulat, 393.Bour. iii. 214.(3 ) This accordingly was openly avowed by Na- poléon himself. "England," said he in January 1800, " must be overturned. As long as my voice has any influence, it will never enjoy any respite, Yes!yes! war to the death with England for ever-ay,till its destruction. " [ D'Abr. ii . 179, 180. ] He admits, in his own Memoirs, that when he made these proposals to Mr. Pitt, he had no sericus inten- tion of concluding peace. " I had then," said he," need of war: a treaty of peace which would have derogated from that of Campo Formio and an- nulled the creations of Italy, would have withered every imagination . Mr. Pitt's answer accordingly was impatiently expected. When it arrived, itfilled me with a secret satisfaction . His answer could not have been more favourable. From that moment I foresaw that, with such impassioned antagonists, I would have no difficulty in reaching the highest destinies."-NAP. in MONTH, i . 33, 34.104 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX.rather to be pitied for being placed in a situation where he was overruled bynecessity; and this furnishes the true answer to those who would ascribe tochance, the rigour of the elements, or an excess of temerity, what was intruth but the inevitable consequence of the false position in which for fifteenyears France had been placed (1 ) . " It is this law of the moral world whichrendered durable peace with that country, when headed by a revolutionarypower, impossible; and which was ultimately destined to inflict an awfulretribution on its guilt and its ambition.Experience, therefore , has now proved that Mr. Pitt's view of the character of the revolutionary war was well founded; and that the seizure of the consular throne by Napoléon , only gave a new and more dangerous direction tothat restless and insatiable spirit which had arisen from the convulsionswhich the Revolution had produced . Justice requires that it should be declared, that, in espousing the cause of the enemy on this occasion , and uniformly palliating the crimes of the popular party in that country, the English Opposition were led , by the spirit of party , to forget equally the dutiesof patriotism and the dictates of reason. No hesitation need be felt by an English writer in expressing this opinion, because the ablest of the liberal partyin France themselves admit that their partisans in this country fell into thisenormous error. " Nothing, " says Madame de Staël, " was more contrary to Bonaparte's nature, or his interest, than to have made peace in 1800. Hecould only live in agitation; and if any thing could plead his apology with those who reflect on the influence of external circumstances on the humanmind, it is, that he could only breathe freely in a volcanic atmosphere. Itwas absolutely necessary for him to present, every three months, a new object of ambition to the French, in order to supply, by the grandeur and variety ofexternal events, the vacuum occasioned by the removal of all objects of domestic interest . At that epoch, unhappily for the spirit of freedom in England, the English Opposition, with Mr. Fox at their head, took an entirely false view of Napoléon; and thence it was that that party, previously so estimable, lost its ascendant in the nation . It was already too much to have de fended France under the Reign of Terror; but it was, if possible, a still greater fault to have considered Bonaparte as identified with the principles of freedom, when in truth he was their deadliest enemy (2) . "-" The eloquentdeclarations of Mr. Fox, " says General Mathieu Dumas, " cannot invalidatethe facts brought forward by Mr. Pitt and Lord Grenville as to the origin of the war. The Girondists alone were the cause of its commencement. Thenames of those impostors who, to overturn the monarchical throne of France,prevailed on the King to declare that fatal war, should be consigned to an execrable celebrity; they alone brought down on Europe and their country adeluge of calamities ( 3) . ”War being thus resolved on, the most vigorous measures weretaken, both by Parliament and the executive, to meet the dangerswith which it might be attended. Parliament voted the sum ofL.500,000 to the crown, for the purpose of immediately aiding Austria in thearmaments which she had in contemplation, and Mr. Pitt stated that a loanof L.2,500,000 to the Emperor would be advanced ( 4) . The budget broughtforward by the chancellor of the exchequer exhibited a most flattering picture of the public credit, and proved that , notwithstanding the immense expenditure of the eight preceding campaigns, the national resources were stillThe Parlia ment re solve on war.(1 ) St.-Cyr, Hist. Mil. iii. 3, 4.(2) Mad. de Staël, Rév. Franç. ii . 268, 270.(3) Dum. iv. 308, 312.(4) Parl . Hist. xxxiv. 1439,1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 105unimpaired (1) . The extraordinary fact which he mentioned, that, in theeighth year of the war, a loan of eighteen millions and a half had been obtained at the rate of four and three-fourths per cent, proved the enduringcredit of the government and the almost boundless extent of the wealth ofSupplies England; but both that great financier and the British public,voted by the misled by the fallacious brilliancy of present appearances, over- liament. looked the grievous burden which the contraction of debt in thethree per cents, in other words, the imposition of a burden ofL.100 for everyL.60 advanced, was ultimately to produce upon the national resources.Land and sea-forces The land forces of Great Britain in this year amounted to 168,000voted . men, exclusive of 80,000 militia; and for the service of the fleet,120,000 seamen and marines were voted. The ships in commission were noless than 510, including 124 of the line. From a table laid before Parliamentin this year, it appeared that the whole troops, exclusive of militia , whichhad been raised for the service of the state during the eight years from 1792to 1800, had been only 208,000; a force not greater than might have beeneasily levied in a single year, out of a population then amounting to nearlysixteen millions, in the three kingdoms; and which, if ably conducted andthrown into the scale, when nearly balanced , between France and Austria,would unquestionably have terminated the war at the latest in two campaigns (2).(1 ) The Budget stood thus:→Land and Malt Tax,Lottery,Duties on Exports and Imports,Income Tax , ·Surplus ofConsolidated Fund,Loan by Exchequer Bills,Lent by Bank without interest,Loan for Great Britain,Receipt-Ways and Means.L,2,750,000 200,000 1,250,000 5,300,000 5,512,000 3,000,000 3,000.000 18,500,000Navy,Army,Expenditure.L.39,512,000L. 12,619.000 11 370,000 Miscellaneous,Interest on Exchequer Bills,Deficiencies of year 1799,Deficiency ofMalt Tax and Land do.Exchequer Bills,Do. for 1798,Vote of credit,Subsidies to Germans and Russians,Annual grant for National Debt,Unforeseen emergencies,To provide forthe interest of this loan, amounting in all to L.21,500,000, Mr. Pitt laid on some trifling taxes on spirits and tea, amounting in all to L.350,000,the interest on the bulk of the debt being laid as a charge on the income tax.The interest paid on the loan was only 4 per cent; a fact which he justly stated as extraordinary in the eighth year of the war. The interest on the public debt at this time was L.19,700,000, and on Exchequer Bills, etc. , L.1,983,000,in all.Civil List,Civil Expenses,. Charges of management,Other charges on consolidated Fund,L. 21,683,000 898,000 647,000 1,779,000 239,000750.000 816,000 440,000 350,000 2,500,000 1,075,000 3,000,000 3,000,000 200,000 1,800,000L.37,920,000Total National Expenditure in 1800. •25,246,000L.63,166,000-See Parl. Hist. xxxiv. 1515, and Ann. Reg. App. to Chronicle for 1800, pp. 151 , 152.(2) James, ii . App. No. 8. Ann. Reg. 1800, 160;and 144, App. to Chron.The number of troops raised yearly from the commencement of the war for the regular army, was106 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP.XXX.India bud Mr Dundas' Several domestic measures of great importance took place in this get. session of Parliament. The bank charter was renewed for twentyone years, there being twelve years of the old charter still to run; in consi deration of the advantages of which , the directors agreed to give the publica loan of L.3,000,000 for six years without interest; the suspension of theHabeas Corpus act was continued by a great majority in both houses of Parliament; and Mr. Dundas brought forward a full account of the affairs ofIndia ( 1 ) . The union of Ireland with Great Britain was, after a stormy debate in both houses of Parliament in Dublin, carried by a large majority, chieflythrough the powerful abilities, cool courage, and vigorous efforts of LORDCASTLEREAGH, who then gave the first specimen of that indomitable firmnessand steady perseverance which were afterwards destined, on a greater stage,to lead the coalition against France to a glorious issue in the campaign of1814.This great measure, however, was not carried without the most violent op position, both in the Irish Peers and Commons; and it left the seeds of ananimosity between the two islands, which, fostered by religious rancour anddemocratic passion , produced melancholy effects in after times upon the tranquillity and strength of the empire (2).May 24.1800,Irelandpasses the Parliament of Great Britain andBy the treaty of Union, the Peers for the united Imperial ParUnion with liament were limited , from Ireland, to twenty-eight temporal andfour spiritual peers, the former elected for life by the Irish peerage,the latter by rotation; the commoners fixed at one hundred . The Ireland Churches of England and Ireland were united, and provision madefor their union, preservation , and the continuance of their discipline, doctrine, and worship for ever. Commercial privileges were fairly communicated; the national debt of each was imposed as a burden on its own finances,and the general expenditure ordered to be defrayed, for twentyyears after the Union, in the proportion of fifteen to Great BritainIts leading provisions.as follows-a wofu! picture of the ignorance which then prevailed as to the means of combating a revo lutionary power; —1793,1794,1795,1796,1797,1798,1799,1800,17,038 38,561 40,460 16,336 16,096 21,457 41,316 17,124Total in eight years, . 208,388Whereas, the French, with a population of 28,000,000, raised in 1792, 700,000, and in 1793,1,500,000 soldiers. Prussia, with a population ofRevenue.L.6,259,600 2,004.993 346.110Interest on debt,Other charges,.Bengal,Madras,Bombay,Surplus.•7,000,000, raised in 1813 nearly 200,000 men. -See Ann. Reg. 1800 , 144, App. to Chronicle. The popu lation of Great Britain, according to the census of 1800, was 10,942,000, that of Ireland probably 5,000,000.L.8,610,703 7,807,065Deficiency,Commercial Profits,Deduct territorial loss,Annual Surplus,L.803,638 L.7,58,135 875,295 117,160 L.71,657•(1 ) From which it appeared that the total revenue in 1798-9 was L.8,610,000, the local charges L.7,807,000, and the interest of debt and other charges L.875,000, leaving a deficiency in territo rial revenue of L. 71,000; to cover which there were the commercial profits, amounting to L.630,000;leaving a general balance in favour of the company of 1.558,000 yearly.The revenue and expenditure were thus di vided:•Charges.L.3,952,847 2,857,519 996,699L.7,807,065L.629,657 71,657L.558,000 See Parl. Hist. xxxv. 15.(2) Parl. Hist. xxxiv. 1471; xxxv. 14, 15. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112, 116.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 107leaders onon this greatand two for Ireland . The laws and courts of both kingdoms were maintainedon their present footing, subject to such alterations as the united Parliamentmight deem expedient. This important step was carried in the British HouseofCommons by a majority of308 to 26, and in the Lords by 75 to 7 (1) .Views of the The debates on this subject in the British Parliament, which,both sides of although highly important in English, are not of sufficient momentParliament for quotation in European history, are chiefly remarkable for the change. complete blindness of all parties to the real and ultimate consequences of the measure which was adopted . Mr. Pitt was most desirous toshow that the influence ofthe crown would not be unduly augmented by theIrish members in the House of Commons ( 2); while Mr. Grey contended that,"ultimately at least, the Irish members will afford a certain accession offorce to the party of every administration , and therefore forty of the mostdecayed boroughs should be struck off before the Union takes place . He accordingly moved, that it should be an instruction to the House to guard against theincrease of the influence ofthe crown in the approaching Union (3) . To us,who know that by the aid of the Irish members, and their aid alone, evenafter the franchise had been raised from forty shillings to ten pounds by theDuke of Wellington, the great democratic change on the British constitutionof 1852 was carried (4) , these speculations as to the ultimate consequences ofthe Union are singular monuments of the difficulty which even the greatestintellects experience in prognosticating the consequences of any considerablechange in the frame of government. In truth, the decisive addition which theIrish members furnished to the democratic party of the empire on the firstgreat crisis which occurred , adds another to the numerous examples whichhistory affords ofthe extreme peril of applying to one country the institutions or government of another, or of supposing that the system of representation which the habits of centuries have moulded to a conformity with theinterests ofone state, can be adopted without the utmost hazard by anotherin an inferior stage of civilization , inheriting from its forefathers a moreardent temperament, or under the influence of more vehement passions .Ever since the great financial crisis of 1797, and the limitation ofBritish em- cash payments by the act of that year, followed by the issue of period. two and one pound notes by the Bank of England , which immediately ensued , the prosperity of the British empire had been steadily andrapidly increasing. The expenditure ofabove sixty millions a-year by government, either in the current expenses or the payment of interest on debt, andthe increase of the issues by the bank from eleven millions to above fifteenduring that period ( 5 ) , had produced a most extraordinary effect on thenational industry. Prices of every species of produce had rapidly and steadilyGreat pros- perity ofthepire at this(1) Parl. Hist. xxxv. 31. 150 , 195.(2) Parl. Hist. xxxv. 47.(3) Ibid. 101.(4) English and Scotch members for the Reform Bill on its first division, • 266 Against it, 251-15 Ireland, against it,For it,37 53-16Thus it was the admission of the Irish members which effected that great alteration in the English constitution.(5) Bank of England notes in circulation last quarter, of1797,1798, •1799, •1800,Five pounds.L.10,411,700 10.711,690 12,335,920 13,338,670 -See Ann. Reg. 1800 , p. 148 , App . to Chronicle.Two and one pounds . Total.L. 1,230,700 L.11,642,400 1,730,380 12,442,070 1,671,040 13,006,960 2,062,300 15,400,970108 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX.risen; that of grain in 1800, exclusive of the effects ofthe scarcity of that year,was double what it had been in 1792, and every other article had advancedin a similar proportion (1 ) . The consequence was, that the industrious classes were, generally speaking, in affluent circumstances; immense fortunes rewarded the efforts of commercial enterprise;the demand for labour , encouraged by the employment of nearly four hundredthousand soldiers and sailors in the public service, was unbounded; and eventhe increasing weight of taxation , and the alarming magnitude of the debt,were but little felt amidst the general rise of prices and incomes which resulted from the profuse expenditure and lavish issue of paper by government (2) .Bad of 1799 harvest , andscarcity inOne class only, that of annuitants, and all others depending on aconsequent fixed income, underwent, during those years, a progressive decline1800. ofcomfort, which was increased in many cases to the most poignantdistress by the high prices and severe scarcity which followed the disastrousharvest of 1799. The attention of Parliament was early directed to the meansof alleviating the famine of that year. Six reports were made by the Commonsand two by the Lords on the dearth of provisions; but the government,although severely pressed by the public suffering, steadily resisted all thoseharsh or violent measures which procure a present relief at the expense ofVast change of prices.(1 ) Highest and lowest price of grain in five years, ending respectively 1790, -from 51s . 11d. to 39s. 2d.1795,-from 74s. 2d. - 42s. 11d.1800,-from 113s. 7d. 50s. 3d.-See MUNDELL's Industrial Situation of Great Britain, 53.Statistical details.(2) According to Mr. Pitt's statement in 1800, the British exports, imports, shipping, ton nage, and revenue in the under-mentioned years stood as follows:Imports.On an average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1793,On an average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1801 ,Exports.On an average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1793,Manufactures.Foreign goods.On an average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1801 ,Manufactures,Foreign goods,Shipping in 1788,1792,1800,Do. Do. Do. Do. Do. Do.Do.1797,1798,•Year ending 5th Jan. 1793,. do. 1794,do. 1795,do.do.do.1799,1800,-See Parl. Hist. xxxv. 1563.•do.do."Shipping, etc. Ships.13,827 16,079 18,877Permanent taxes, exclusive ofwar taxes: —••••-1796,1797,1798,1799,1800,•••Gross receiptfrom taxes •Tonnage.1.363,000 1,540,145 1,905,438••••L.18,685,000 25,259,000L.14,771,000 5.468,000L.20,239,000L.20,085,000 12,867,000L.32,952,000Seamen .107 925 118,286 143,661L. 14,284,000 13,941,000 13,858,000 13,557,000 14,292,000 13,332,000 14,275,000 15,743,00023,076.000 30,175,000 34,750,000 33,535,0001799. ]HISTORY OF EUROPE.109Great efforts of govern.ment to re lieve it, and noble pa tience ofthe people.future confidence in the cultivators. An act was passed to lowerthe quality of all the bread baked in the kingdom; the importationof rice and maize encouraged by liberal bounties; distillation fromgrain stopped, and by these and other means an additional supply,to the enormous amount of 2,500,000 quarters, was procured for the use ofthe inhabitants (1) . By these generous and patriotic efforts, joined to theadmirable patience and forbearance of the people, this trying crisis wassurmounted without any of those convulsions which might have been anticipated from so severe a calamity during a period of almost universal war;and in the latter part of the year, England, so far from being overwhelmedby its reverses, was enabled to present an undaunted front to the hostility of combined Europe.andtion ofthe war.Measures of Deprived by the secession of Russia of the power from whom theyAustria for had derived such efficacious assistance in the preceding campaign,the prosecu- Austria and England made the utmost efforts to prosecute the warwith vigour. By their united influence, the German empire wasprevailed upon to sign a treaty, binding the states who composed it to furnisha contingent of three hundred thousand men for the common cause; but veryfew ofthe electors obeyed the requisition , and the troops of the empire wereof hardly any service in the succeeding campaign. To stimulate their languidDec.4, 1799. dispositions, a vigorous circular was, in the beginning of December,sent by the Archduke Charles to the anterior circles of the empire,in which he strenuously urged the formation of new levies, and pointed out,in energetic terms, the futility of the idea that any durable peace was practicable with a country in such a state of revolutionary excitement as France,and the vanity of supposing that, by concentrating all the powers of government in the hands of a victorious chieftain, it was likely to be either lessformidable or more pacific . But although that great general was indefatigablein his endeavours to put the Imperialists on a respectable footing, and makethe most active preparations for war, he was far from feeling any confidencein the issue of the approaching contest, now that Russia was withdrawn onthe one side and Napoléon was added on the other; and he earnestly counselled the Austrian cabinet to take advantage of the successes of the latecampaign, and the recent changes of government in France, by concludingpeace with the Republic. The cabinet of Vienna, however, deemed itinadvisable to stop short in the career of success; and not only refused totreat with Napoléon, who had proposed peace on the basis of the treaty ofCampo Formio, but deprived the Archduke, who had so candidly stated hisopinion, of the command ofthe army in Germany, and conferred it on GeneralKray. Notwithstanding the great abilities of the latter general, this changeproved extremely prejudicial to the Imperial fortunes: the Archduke wasadored by the soldiers, and his retirement not only shook their confidence in(1 ) The resources obtained in this way are thus detailed in the sixth report of the Commons:Quarters.Importation of wheat from Jan. 1 to Oct, 1 ,Do. offlour from America,of flour from Canada,of rice, equal to.Do. Do. Stoppage of starch, equal to Do. of distilleries,Use of Coarse Meal,Retrenchment..170,000 580,000 30,000 630,000 40,000 360,000 400,000 300,0002,510,000110 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP . XXX .themselves, but cooled the ardour of the circles in the south of Germany, towhom his great achievements in the campaign of 1796 were still the subjectof grateful recollection . He retired to his government of Bohemia, fromwhence he had the melancholy prospect of a series of reverses, which possibly his talents might have prevented, whereby the monarchy was broughtto the brink of ruin (1 ) .1800.March 16, By a treaty, signed on the 16th March, the Elector of Bavariaagreed to put twelve thousand men in the pay of Great Britain , tobe employed in the common cause; and by another treaty with the Elector ofMentz and the Duke of Wirtemburg, each of these petty states agreed to furApril 30, 1800. nish six thousand men, paid by the same power for the same purpose. These troops , however, could not be organized in sufficient time to takea part in the early operations of the campaign , and they formed at best but apoor substitute for the sturdy Russian veterans, who were retiring towards the northern extremity of Germany, equally exasperated at their allies and their Treaties en- tered into for this pur- pose with Austria and Bavaria.enemies. By another and more important treaty, signed at Vienna,onthe 28th June, the Emperor agreed to raise his forces, both in Germany and Italy, to the greatest possible amount, and the two powers bound themselves each not to make a separate peace without theconsent of the other; in consideration of which England engaged not only toadvance a subsidy of L.2,000,000 sterling to the Imperial treasury, but toaugment as much as practicable the German and Swiss troops in the Britishpay in the German campaign ( 2) .Military Justly proud of the glorious successes of the preceding campaign,preparations which, in so far as its troops were concerned, had been almostperialists . unchequered , and relying with confidence on its superb armies,two hundred thousand strong, in Germany and Italy, the cabinet of Viennaresolved on continuing the contest . But the military preparations which theymade were not commensurate to the magnitude of the danger which was tobe apprehended, since the First Consul was placed at the head ofthe Frenchgovernment. Their armies in Germany were raised to ninety-two thousandmen, exclusive of the Bavarian and Wirtemburg contingents; but this vastbody was scattered over an immense line, from the source of the Rhine to thebanks of the Maine, while the centre, in the valley of the Danube, where thedecisive blows were to be struck , was so weakened that no respectable forcecould be collected to make head against the French invasion . The army underMelas in Italy, was, by great exertions, augmented to ninety-six thousandmen; the Aulic Council, seduced by the recent conquest of that country,having fallen into the great mistake of supposing that the vital point of thewar was to be found in the Maritime Alps or on the banks of the Var, whereasit lay nearer home, on the shores of the Danube and the plains of Bavaria.No levies in the interior were made; few points were fortified , the government sharing in the common delusion that the strength of France wasexhausted, and that it would without difficulty be brought to reasonableterms of accommodation in the ensuing campaign. The foresight of theArchduke Charles alone had surrounded Ulm with a formidable intrenchedcamp, which proved of the most essential service after the first disasters ofthe campaign, and retarded for six weeks the tide of Republican conquest inthe heart of Germany (3).(1) Dum. iii. 14, 16. Jom. xii. 12, 16. Arch . Ch.ii . 334. Ann. Reg. 1800, 168.(2) Ann. Reg. 1800, 240, 243. State Papers.(3) Arch. Ch. ii . 334. Dum. iii . 14, 16. Jom, xiii .11, 12. Nap. i . 185.1799.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 111Discontent- ed state ofAffiliatedThe Republics with which France had encircled her frontier hadthe French either been conquered by the Allies, or were in such a state ofRepublics. exhaustion and suffering as to be incapable of rendering any effectual aid to the parent state. The Dutch groaned in silence under a yoke whichwas every day becoming more oppressive: the democratic party looked backwith unavailing regret to the infatuation, with which they had thrown themselves into the arms of a power which used them only as the instruments ofits ambition; while the commercial aristocracy, finding the trade of theUnited Provinces destroyed, abandoned every species of enterprise, andquietly awaited in retirement the return of more prosperous days. By atreaty, concluded on the 5th January , 1800, Holland agreed to pay six millions to France, and obtained in return only the restitution of the effects ofthe clergy and emigrants who had possessions in the United States . So violentwas the hatred at France among its inhabitants, that a loan ofa million sterling,whichNapoléon endeavoured to negotiate among the capitalists ofAmsterdam,totally failed. Switzerland was in a still more discontented state . Without anyregard to the rights ofthe allied republic, Masséna had imposed a forced loanon Berne, Basle, and Zurich; and as the Swiss magistrates courageouslyresisted this act of oppression , an intrigue was got up by the democraticparty, and the councils were attempted to be dissolved by military force. Theconspiracy failed , and Colonel Clavel, who had been appointed to execute it,was compelled to take refuge in France; but the violent party spirit whichthese proceedings left in Switzerland , deprived it of any weight in theapproaching contest, and prepared the way for its total subjugation byNapoléon ( 1) .Napoléon tolic credit inMeasures of To make head with such feeble auxiliaries against the unitedrestore pub- force of Austria and England , with a defeated army, an exhausted France. treasury, and a disunited people, was the difficult task whichawaited the First Consul; but he soon showed that he was equal to theattempt. The first step which he took to accomplish the gigantic undertaking,was to introduce some degree of order into the finances, which the cupidityand profligacy of the Republican government had reduced to the most deplorable state. A deficit of 600,000,000 francs, or L.24,000,000 sterling,existed in the revenue of the preceding year; and recovery of arrears hadbecome impossible from the universal penury and misery which prevailed.The remnant of the public funds, though deprived of two- thirds of their amount, were still at eight per cent, not more than a thirty-eighth part oftheir value in 1789, at the commencement of the Revolution. The public treasury was empty; sufficient funds were not to be found in it to fit out acourier. Payments of every description were made in bills or paper securitiesof some sort, which had already largely anticipated all the legal receipts ofgovernment. The armies were supported only by forced requisitions of horses, food, and clothing, which had become as oppressive as during theReign of Terror. To avoid the forced loans and arbitrary taxation of thewealthier classes, expenditure of every sort had altogether ceased among thebetter description of citizens; and in France, after ten years of revolution,the concealment of treasure had become as common as in the pachalics ofTurkey. Amidst the universal dismay, extortion , pillage, and corruption were general among the servants ofgovernment. Places, clothing, provisions,stores; every thing, in short, was sold to satisfy their cupidity; and while every office was openly put up to sale, enormous fortunes were amassed bothby the elevated and inferior agents of corruption (2) .(1) Jom. xiii . 19, 28.(2) Jom. xiii. 27, 29. Bour. iii , 241. Nap, i. 106.112 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXX.The establishment of a firm and powerful government arrested these disorders, and re-established the finances as if by enchantment. The capitalistsof Paris , long inaccessible to the demands for loans by the revolutionary government, came forward with 12,000,000 of francs; the sale of the estates ofthe house of Orange produced 24,000,000 more; national domains to a greatextent found purchasers from the increasing confidence in government; and,instead of the forced loans from the opulent classes , which had utterly annihilated credit, and by the flagrant injustice with which they were leviedrecalled the worst days ofthe Reign of Terror, a new tax of twenty-five percent on real property, though a burden that would be deemed intolerable inany state which had tasted of the sweets of real freedom, gave general satisfaction, and soon produced a large increase to the revenue. Atthe same timethe foundations of a sinking fund and a national bank were laid , the publicforests put under a new and rigorous direction , monthly remittances fromthe collectors of taxes established , and the measures commenced which werecalculated to revive public credit after a prostration of ten years ( 1) .Pacification The pacification of la Vendée was the next object of the First of la Vendée. Consul. The law of hostages and the forced requisitions had revived the civil war in that country, and sixty thousand men were in the field;but it was a different contest from the terrible burst which, seven years before, had proved so disastrous to the Republican arms. The devastation ofthe country and destruction of the population by that bloody strife, had annihilated the elements of resistance on any considerable scale; and mereguerilla bands, seldom amounting to two thousand men, traversed the fieldsin different directions, levying contributions, and held together as much bythe love of pillage as indignation at oppression. Through the intervention of Hyde Neuville, an able young man of an ardent disposition , who neverthelesswas not misled by the dictates of passion, a negotiation was opened with the leaders of the insurgents; and although they paid but little attention to thefirst proclamations of Napoléon, yet being soon convinced by the tenor of hisadministration , that a more equitable system than that of the Revolution wasabout to commence, they gradually listened to his proposals. At the sametime, the approach of formidable forces from all quarters, convinced themthat they had now a more difficult antagonist to deal with than the weakthough tyrannical Directory. Chatillon and d'Autichamps were the first to give the example of submission; and soon after Suzanet and the Abbé Bernier concluded, at Mount Luçon, a treaty highly honourable to themselves Jan. 17, 1801. for the termination of hostilities. The able and heroic Count Louis Iniquitous de Frotte was not equally fortunate. He had written a letter to theRepublican chief, proposing a general pacification of the Chouans,and was at the place of conference, when the negotiation was pro tracted beyond the time assigned for the acceptance of terms of peace by the Royalists. He was then perfidiously seized , along with all his followers, onthe ground of a letter he had written to an aide-de-camp during the negotiation, and brought before a military tribunal, by which they were immeexccution of Count Louis Frotte.(1 ) Nap. i. 107, 110. Jom. xiii . 28.The injustice committed by these forced loans is one ofthe most striking instances of the monstrous effects ofthe democratic ascendency which, by the Revolution of 18th Fructidor, had obtained in France. They were laid indiscriminately on all pro perty, movable and immovable, and were founded 1. On the amount of the direct contribution;and, 2. on an arbitrary base. Every one who paid 500 francs was taxed at four-tenths ofhis income;all who paid 4000 francs and upwards, at its whole amount. The arbitrary base was founded on the opinion of a jury, who were entitled to tax the re lations of emigrants or any persons of noble birth at any sum they chose. The effects of so iniquitous asystem may be conceived. Property disappeared, or was concealed as studiously as in the dynasties of the East. Every branch of the public revenue was drying up from the extinction of credit. -See N▲POLÉON, i. 107, note.1799. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 113diately ordered to be executed . They underwent the sentence next day, andmet death with the most heroic courage, standing erect, with their eyes unbandaged. One of the aides- de- camp was only wounded by the first fire; hecoolly ordered the men to fire again, and fell pierced to the earth . The unhappy aide-de-camp whose unfortunate discovery of the letter had occasioned this catastrophe, was seized with such despair that he blew out his brains. This murder is a lasting stain on Napoléon's administration. Frottewas not taken in arms, but perfidiously seized by a company of Republicans,when under an escort of the national troops and engaged in a negotiation fora final pacification; but he was deemed too able to be permitted to survive,even in that age of returning clemency; and the intercepted letter, thoughimprudent, contained nothing which could warrant the captive's execution.It must be added , however, in justice to Napoléon, that it contained expressions extremely hostile to the First Consul, and that, at the earnest solicitation of his secretary Bourrienne, he had actually made out an order for hispardon, which, from some delay in the transmission , unfortunately arrived too late to save the hero's life. About the same time he generously pardonedM. Defeu, a brave emigrant officer taken in arms against the state, and doomedby the cruel laws of the Republic to instant death (1) .Georges, Bourmont, and some others, maintained for a few weeks longer inBritanny a gallant resistance; but, finding that the inhabitants were weary ofcivil war, and gladly embraced the opportunity of resuming their pacific occupations, they at length came into the measures of government, and wereFeb. 23 , 1801. treated with equal clemency and good faith by the First Consul,to whom they ever after yielded a willing and useful obedience. In the endof January, General Brune announced by proclamation that the pacificationof la Vendée was complete, and on the 23d of the following month a generaland unqualified amnesty was published. The Vendean chiefs were receivedwith great distinction by Napoléon at Malmaison, and generally promoted toimportant situations (2). The curate Bernier was made Bishop of Orléans,and intrusted afterwards with the delicate task of conducting the negotiationconcerning the concordat with the Papal government. The rapid and complete pacification of la Vendée by Napoléon, proves how much the long duration of its bloody and disastrous war had been owing to the cruelty andoppressions of the Republican authorities .effects re Napoléon The next important step of Napoléon was to detach Russia comConcilia pletely from the alliance of Great Britain; an attempt which wasmuch facilitated by the angry feelings excited in the mind of the with the Emperor Paul.Emperor Paul and his generals by the disastrous issue of the preceding campaign, and the rising jealousy of the maritime power of GreatBritain, which had sprung up from fortuitous events in the minds oftheNorthern powers, and in the following year led to the most important results.Aware of the favourable turn which affairs in the Baltic had recently taken,Napoléon lost no opportunity of cultivating a good understanding with theRussian Emperor; and, by a series of adroit acts of courtesy, succeeded atlength, not only in obliterating all feelings of hostility, but establishing themost perfect understanding between the two cabinets. Napoléon sent backall the Russian prisoners in France, seven thousand in number, who hadbeen taken at Zurich and in Holland, not only without exchange, but equipped anew in the Russian uniform. This politic proceeding was not lost on(1) Bour. iv. 8, 10. Beauch, iv, 498, 504. (2) Nap. i. 129, 133. Jom. xiii . 29, 31. Dum. iii .19, 21. Ann. Reg. 1800, 166.IV.8114 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX.measures.the Czar, who had been already dazzled by the lustre of Napoléon's victoriesin Italy and Egypt; a contest of civilities and courtesies ensued, which soonterminated in the dismissal of Lord Whitworth from St.- Petersburg, and thearrival of Baron Springborton, the Russian ambassador , at Paris ( 1 ) . TheBritish vessels were soon after laid under embargo in the Russian harbours,and that angry correspondence began, which was shortly terminated by thearray of all the powers of the North in open hostility against Great Britain .His energe The military measures of Napoléon were equally energetic . Upon tic military the refusal of Great Britain to treat, he issued one of his heart-stirring proclamations which were so well calculated to rouse the ardent spiritof the French people. He told them that the English minister had rejectedhis proposals of peace; that to command it he had need ofmoney, of iron,and soldiers, and that he swore not to combat but for the happiness of Franceand the peace of the world . This animated address, coupled with the magicthat encircled the name of Napoléon, produced an amazing effect. Victoryseemed about again to attend the Republican standards, under the auspicesof a leader to whom she had never yet proved faithless; the patriotic ardourof 1793 was in part revived, with all the addition which the national strengthhad since received from the experience of later times . The first class of theconscription for the year 1800 was put in requisition, without any exemption either from rank or fortune; this supply put at the disposal of government one hundred and twenty thousand men. Besides this, a still moreefficient force for immediate service, was formed by a summons of all theveterans who had obtained furlough or leave of absence for the eight preceding years, and who, unless furnished with a valid excuse, were requiredagain to serve; a measure which procured a supply of thirty thousand experienced soldiers. At the same time, the gendarmerie were put on a betterfooting; and various improvements effected , particularly in the artillerydepartment, which greatly augmented the efficiency of that important arm ofthe public service. Twenty-five thousand horses, bought in the interior,were distributed among the artillery and cavalry on the frontier, and all thestores and equipments of the armies repaired with a celerity so extraordinary, that it would have appeared incredible, if long experience had notproved, that confidence in the vigour and stability of government operatesas rapidly in increasing , as the vacillation and insecurity of democracy doesin withering the national resources (2) .Revival of Far from experiencing the difficulty which had been so severelythe military felt by the Directory in retaining the soldiers to their colours, the France. consular government was powerfully seconded by the patrioticefforts of all classes. Several brilliant corps of volunteers were formed; andthe ranks rapidly filled up by veterans hastening to renew their toils undera leader to whom fortune had hitherto proved so propitious. In consequence, the government soon found itself at the head of two hundred andfifty thousand men to commence hostilities in Italy and Germany, whileabove one hundred thousand conscripts were rapidly learning the rudimentsof war at the depôts in the interior, and before six months might be expected to join the armies on the frontier (3) .But it was not merely in such praiseworthy efforts for the security andpacification of France, that the energies of the First Consul were employed.He already meditated the re-establishment of the monarchy, and early(1) Jam. xiii. 13, 14. Bour, iii , 269, 270. Ann.Reg. 1800, 234.(2) Dum. iii . 23, 25. Jom. xiii . 33, 35.(3) Jom, xiii . 35. Dum. iii . 24, 25.1800. ] 115 HISTORY OF EUROPE.commenced that system of misleading the people by false epithets, anddazzling them by splendid pageants, which was intended to prepare themfor the lustre of the throne, and induce them to concur in the reconstructionofall the parts ofthe social edifice which it had been the object of the Revolution to destroy.sures to exrevolution.of the peoHis mea- To accomplish this object, he applied himself to what he wastinguish the well aware is at all times, but especially during the decline of reary fervour volutionary fervour, the ruling principle of human nature, viz. ,ple. self-interest. All the officers ofstate, all the members of the legislature were endowed with ample salaries; even the tribunate, which professed to be the barrier of the people against the encroachments of government, received above L.50,000 a-year among its eighty members, being atthe rate ofnearly L.700 a-year to each individual who composed it; a verylarge allowance in a country where the highest civil fnnctionaries, theheads of the law and church, received only from L.300 to L.600 annually (1 ) .From the very first he commenced the demolition of all those ensigns andexpressions which recalled the idea of the liberty and equality, from thestrife of which his redoubtable power had arisen. The image of the Republic, seated and holding a spear in her hand, which was at the top of all theofficial letters at the commencement of the consulship, was suppressed.Some doubt existed in the first instance as to which of the consuls shouldtake the chair, and Sièyes openly asserted his pretensions to it, in virtueas well of his seniority as his great services in the cause of freedom; butNapoléon cut the matter short by stepping into the chair himself, and thejealousy of the elder consul was soon removed by the grant of the largeproperty out of the park of Versailles which has been already mentioned.At the same time, the habiliments and ensigns of authority were changed;the Greek and Roman costumes, which recalled the ideas of equality latelyso much in vogue, were abolished and replaced by the military dress; theFirst Consul appeared on all occasions in uniform, with boots and spurs,and all the inferior military functionaries followed his example. The levees,which he held almost daily, were crowded with officers in full dress; andthe court of the first magistrate of the Republic was noways distinguishablefrom the headquarters of its greatest general. At the same time, the institution of sabres and fusils of merit, as a testimony of reward tomilitary distinction, already shadowed out to the discerning eye the Legionof Honour, and the re-establishment of titles of rank and a hereditary nobility; while the daily reviews with all the pomp and splendour of war,in the Place du Carrousel, accustomed the people to those magnificentpageants which were destined to conceal from their gaze the chains of theempire (2) .Dec. 1799.Dec. 24,1799.These measures were all steps, and not unimportant ones, to there-establishment of monarchical authority. But they were the(1 ) The civil list under the First Consul was fixed at the following sums:2,400,000 francs.1,312,000 75,000Legislative Body,Tribunate,Archives,Three Consuls,Council ofState,Their Secretaries,Six Ministers,Minister of Foreign Affairs,•See BOURRIENNE, iii. 242.(2) Thib, 2, 3. Bour. iii. 243, 255, 256. Nop. i . 243.1,800,000 675,000 112,500 360,000 90,0006,824,500 francs, or L. 275,000116 HISTORY OF EUROPE . [ CHAP. XXX.suppresses the libertyprelude only to more important changes. In December, 1799, an importantarrêt was published , which, on the preamble-" That a part ofthe journalsHe totally printed at Paris are instruments in the hands of the enemies ofthe Republic; and that it is the first duty of the government toof the press. watch over its security," decreed, " That the minister of policeshould not suffer to be printed, during the continuance of the war, anyjournals but the following. " Then followed a list of thirteen journals, thusinvested with the monopoly of Paris; and from it were only excluded “ thoseexclusively devoted to science, the arts, literature , commerce, or advertisements." It was decreed, by a separate article , that " any journal amongthose retained which inserted any thing contrary to the sovereignty of thepeople, should be immediately suppressed. " This clause, inserted to blindthe people to the real tendency of the measure, received in the sequel , aswas foreseen at the time, the most liberal interpretation , and was applied,contrary to its obvious meaning, to sanction the extinction of all journalscontrary to the consular government. Thus early commenced the systemof Napoléon for the coercion of the press; a system which received , duringthe remainder of his reign, such ample developement; and which, as Madamede Staël justly remarks, converted that great engine, generally consideredas the palladium of liberty, into the most powerful instrument of bondage,by perpetually exhibiting a series of false and delusive pictures to the humanmind, and excluding all others from the view ( 1 ) .He fixes his The next step of Napoléon was to fix his residence in the Tui residence at leries, and sleep in the ancient apartment of the kings of France.This great change, however, required considerable caution in itsaccomplishment; it was so palpable an approach towards royalty, that itmight shock the feeling of the people, and endanger the newly establishedauthority. Slowly, and with profound dissimulation, therefore, he proceededin his advances. A fine statue of Brutus was first placed in one of the galleries ofthe palace; it was thought the most ardent Republicans could apprehend nothing from a change which commenced with honour done to thehero who had slain a tyrant. Orders were next given to repair and put inorder the royal apartments in the Tuileries, and under the veil of thesewords great changes were effected . The bonnets rouges were all effaced;the statues which were to adorn the great gallery chosen by Napoléonhimself; he selected among the ancients, Démosthènes and Alexander,Brutus and Cæsar; among the moderns, Gustavus Adolphus, Turenne,Condé, Prince Eugène, Marlborough, Marshal Saxe, Frédéric , Washington,Dugommier, Dampierre, and Joubert. At length, the translation of theConsuls from the Luxembourg to the Tuileries took place: the royal apartments were destined for Napoléon , those in the pavilion of Flora for the otherConsuls . The cortége set out fromthe Luxembourg, surrounded by a splendid .train of officers and three thousand chosen troops, among whomthe famousregiment of Guides was peculiarly conspicuous. Napoléon, with the twoother Consuls , was drawn in a magnificent chariot by six white horses, thesame which the Emperor of Austria had given him after the treaty of CampoFormio; he bore in his hand the splendid sabre presented to him by thesame sovereign on that occasion . The cabinet ministers followed in theircarriages, the only ones which were to be seen on the occasion , for totransport the council of state they were obliged to have recourse to hackney coaches; such was the miserable destitution in which the Revolution(1) De Stael, ii . 281 , Bour. iii . 254.the Tuile ries.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 117had left the highest civil functionaries of France (1 ) . The real luxury of thatperiod consisted in the splendour of the troops, whose brilliant uniformsand prancing chargers formed a painful contrast to the meanness andsimplicity of the civil authorities —last and sad effect of revolutionaryconvulsions, to cast to the earth every thing but the ensigns of militaryprowess.Feb. 19,1800.From the opening into the Carrousel, from the quay of the Tuileriesto the gate of the palace, the procession passed through a doubleline of guards: a royal usage, which offered a singular contrast to the inscription on the guard-house by which it passed-" 10th August, 1792—Royalty is abolished in France, and will never be re-established . " No soonerhad he arrived at the foot ofthe great stair, than Napoléon , allowing the otherConsuls to ascend to the presence chamber, mounted on horseback, and ,amidst incessant cries of " Vive le Premier Consul!" passed in review abovetwenty thousand men. Murat was on his right, Lannes on his left; the brilliantstaff who surrounded him bore on their visages the marks of the sun of Italyor the sands of Egypt. When the banners of the ninetieth , the forty- third ,and thirtieth demi-brigades, which exhibited only bare poles riddled withshot and surmounted by tatters black with powder, were carried past, hebowed with respect to the monuments of military valour. Enthusiastic acclamations rent the skies; and such was the universal transport, that whenthe review was concluded, and the First Consul ascended to the audiencechamber and took his station in the centre of the room, his colleagues werereduced to the rank of pages following his train. On that day royalty was intruth re-established in France, somewhat less than eight years after it hadbeen abolished by the revolt of the 10th August ( 2) .Commenceetiquettedour of acourt.No sooner was the First Consul established at the Tuileries, than mentof the the usages, dress, and ceremonial of a court were at once resumed.and splen- The antechambers were filled with chamberlains, pages, andesquires; footmen in brilliant liveries filled the lobbies and staircases; the levees were conducted with as much splendour as the dilapidatedstate of most fortunes would permit; and a drawing-room, composed chieflyof the wives of the young generals who had been the companions of Napoléon,and presided over by the grace and good-breeding of Josephine, already revived to a certain degree the lustre of a court. Napoléon was indefatigable inhis attention to these matters. He deemed the colour of a livery, the cut of acourt-dress not beneath his notice, endeavouring in every way to dazzle theeyes of the vulgar, and efface all recollection of the Republic before it wasformally abolished by the authority of government ( 3) . For the same reason ,he revived the use of silk stockings in dress , and re-established the balls ofthe opera, an event which was so great an innovation on the manners of the(1 ) Bour. iii. 320, 321. Goh. ii . 15, 19. Thib. 2.(2) 318, 323. Thib. 2, 3.On the night of his entry into the Tuileries, Na- poléon said to his secretary, " Bourrienne, it is not enough to be in the Tuileries, we must take mea- sures to remain there. Who has not inhabited this palace? It has been the abode of robbers, of mem- bers ofthe Convention. Ah! there is your brother's house, from which, eight years ago, [ See vol. i . 159]we saw the good Louis XVI besieged in the Tuile- ries and carried off into captivity. But you need not fear a repetition ofthe scene . Let them attempt it with meifthey dare. " [ Bour.iv.] .(3) The King of Prussia was among the first torecognise the consular government, and Napoléon was highly gratified when an aide-de- camp, whom he dispatched to Berlin, was admitted to the honour of dining at the royal table. M. Lucchesini, in Oc- tober, 1800, was charged with a special mission to the court ofthe Tuileries from the Prussian govern- ment. The First Consul received him at St. Cloud,and was at the balcony when he arrived . He was much struck with the decorations which he bore,and the rich livery of the servants who attended him and he was heard to exclaim, “ That is im- posing; we must have things of that sort to dazzle the people. "-See THIBAUDEAU, 14—15.118 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXX.Republic that it created quite a sensation at that period. But Napoléon, inpursuing these measures, knew well the character of the French . "Whilethey are discussing these changes, " said he, " they will cease to talk nonsenseabout my politics, and that is what I want. Let them amuse themselves, letthem dance; but let them not thrust their heads into the councils of government. Commerce will revive under the increasing expenditure of the capital .I am not afraid of the Jacobins; I never was so much applauded as at the lastparade. It is ridiculous to say that nothing is right but what is new; we havehad enough of such novelties . I would rather have the balls of the opera thanthe saturnalia of the Goddess of Reason (1) . "Recall of many emi- grants ex- iled since 18th FructiAbout the same time an arrêt was published, which took off thesentence of banishment against a great number of those who hadbeen exiled by the result of the 18th Fructidor. It was only prodor. vided that they should be under the surveillance of the police, andreside at the places appointed for each respectively in the decree. Among thepersons thus restored against an unjust sentence, were many of the mosteminent citizens of the Republic: Carnot, Barthélemy, Boissy- d'Anglas,Portalis, Villoul, Joyeuse, and above forty others. He immediately made useof the most eminent of them in the service of the state: Carnot was appointedminister at war in the absence of Berthier, and contributed in a powerfulmanner to the glorious issue of the succeeding campaign. Barrère also wasrecalled, and was so desirous to receive employment, that he wrote a longletter justifying his conduct to the First Consul; but the latter never couldbe persuaded to take into his service that hardened Republican. Those proscribed bythe Directory were thus early admitted into favour; at a subsequentperiod he received with equally open arms the Royalists and the victims ofthe Revolution; the only faction against which to the last he was inveteratewas the remnant of the Jacobin party, who retained throughout all hisreign the resolution of their character and the perversity of their opinion (2).Establish- ment of the secret police.At the time when Napoléon was placed on the consular throne heorganized his secret police, intended to act as a check on the publicone of Fouché. Duroc was at first at the head of this establishment,to which Junot, as governor of Paris, soon after succeeded . So early did thisgreat leader avail himself of this miserable engine, unknown in constitutionalmonarchies, the resource of despots, inconsistent with any thing like freedom, but the sad legacy bequeathed to succeeding ages by the convulsionsand devastation of the Revolution . The spies and agents of this police andcounter-police soon filled every coffee-house and theatre in Paris; they overheard conversations, mingled in groups, encouraged seditious expressions,were to be found in saloons and palaces, and rendered every man insecure,from the monarch on the throne to the captive in the dungeon. Lately appointed governor of Paris, Junot had a multitude of inferior agents in hispay to watch the motions of Fouché, and he, in his turn, carried corruptioninto the bosom of the consular family, and, by liberally supplying funds forher extravagance, obtained secret information from Joséphine herself (3) .This miserable, system had survived all the changes to which it gave birth;the formidable engine, organized in the heart of Paris, with its arms extending over all France, is instantly seized upon by each successive faction which(1 ) Bour. iii. 263, 264, 319, 326 , 327. Thib. 15 .D'Abr. ii. 265 , 280.(2) Bour. iii. 264, 267.(3) Bour, iii 295, 303.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 119rises to the head of affairs; the herd of informers and spies is perpetratedfrom generation to generation , and exercises its prostituted talents for behoofofany government which the armed force of the capital has elevated tosupreme power; the people, habituated to this unseen authority, regard itas an indispensable part of regular government; and system, which wasthe disgrace of Roman servitude in the corrupted days of the empire, isengrafted on a government which boasts of concentrating within itself all thelights of modern civilisation (1) .eulogy onNapoléon's " Augustus knew well," says Gibbon, " that mankind are gohypocritical verned by names; and that they will in general submit to realWashington. slavery, if they are told that they are in the enjoyment of freedom ." No man understood this principle better than Napoléon. While hewas preparing, by fixing his residence in the royal palace, the appointmentsofthe legislature by the executive, the suppression of the liberty of the press,and the establishment of a vigilant police for the overthrow of all the principles of the Revolution, he was careful to publish to the world proclamations which still breathed the spirit of democratic freedom. Shortly beforehis installation in the Tuileries, intelligence arrived of the death ofDec. 14 , 1799. Washington, the illustrious founder of American independence.He immediately published the following order of the day to the army:"Washington is dead! That great man has struggled with tyranny; he consolidated the liberty of his country. His memory will be ever dear to theFrench people, as to all free men in both hemispheres, who, like him andthe American soldiers , have fought for liberty and equality. As a mark ofrespect, the First Consul orders, that for ten days black crape shall be suspended from all the standards and banners of the Republic. " Thus, by theskilful use of high-sounding names and heart-stirring recollections, did thisWho died,Comparison of his sys tem of go vernment with that established"(1) The circumstances of the Roman empire, as remodelled by Constantine,afford a striking analogy to those of France when Napoléon ascended the throne; and it is curious to observe by Constan- how exactly the previous destruction tine in the ofthe nobility and higher classes in Byzantine the two countries paved the way, by empire. necessary consequence, for the same despotic institutions. " The Patrician families,says Gibbon, " whose original numbers were never recruited till the end ofthe commonwealth, either failed in the ordinary course of nature, or were ex tinguished in so many foreign or domestic wars.Fewremained who could derivetheir genuine originfrom the foundation of the city, when Cæsar and Augustus, Claudius and Vespasian, created a com petent number of new Patrician families. But these artificial supplies, in which the reigning house was always included, were rapidly swept away bythe rage of tyrants, by frequent revolutions, the change ofmanners, and the intermixture of nations. Little more was left, when Constantine ascended the throne, than a vague and imperfect tradition that the Patricians had once been the first amongthe Ro.mans. To form a body of nobles whose influence may restrain, while it secures the authority of the monarch, would have been very inconsistent with the character and policy ofConstantine; but had he seriously entertained such a design, it might have exceeded the measure of his power to ratify, by an arbitrary edict, an institution which must expect the sanction of time and opinion . He revived, in deed, the title of patricians; but he revived it as apersonal, not an hereditary distinction. They yielded only to the transient authority ofthe annual consuls;but they enjoyed the pre-eminence over all the great officers of state. This honourable rank was bestowed on them for life, and as they were usually favourites and ministers at the imperial court, the true etymo logy of the word was perverted by ignorance and flattery, and the patricians of Constantine were re verenced as the adopted fathers of the emperor and the republic." The police insensibly assumed the license of reporting whatever they could observe of the con duct, either of magistrates or private citizens, and were soon considered as the eyes of the monarchand the scourge ofthe people. Under the warm influence of a feeble reign, they multiplied to the incredible number of 10,000, disdained the mild though fre quent admonitions ofthe laws, and exercised in the profitable management of the posts a rapacious and insolent oppression. These official spies, who cor responded with the palace, were encouraged with reward and favour anxiously to watch the progress of every treasonable design, from the faint and la tent symptoms of disaffection , to the actual prepa ration of open revolt. Their careless or criminal violation of truth and justice was covered bythe consecrated mask of zeal; and they might securely aim their poisoned arrows at the breast either ofthe innocent or the guilty, who had provoked their re sentment or refused to purchase their silence, Afaithful subject of Syria, perhaps, or Britain, was exposed to the danger, or at least to the dread, of being dragged in chains to the court of Milan or Constantinople, to defend his life and fortune against themalicious charges ofthese privileged informers ."This might pass for a description of the Conserva tive Senate and police of Napoléon. -Sce GIBBON,ch, xvii .120 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXX.great master of the art of dissimulation veil his advances towards absolutepower, and engraft an enthusiastic admiration for his despotic government on the turbulent passions which had been nourished by the Revo lution (1 ).Commence ment of hisfor architeclishment atThe mind of Napoléon was equally great in every thing whichgreat designs it undertook . He had early conceived an admiration for architectural embel - tural decoration, which his residence among the stately monumentsParis. of Egypt had converted into a chastened and elevated passion . Hispresent situation , as chief of the French government, gave him ample roomfor the indulgence of this truly regal disposition, and he already began toconceive those great designs for the embellishment of Paris and improvement of France, which have thrown such durable lustre over his reign. Theinconceivable activity of his mind seemed to take a pleasure in discoveringnew objects for exertion; and at a time when he was conducting the diplomacy of Europe, and regulating all the armies of France, he was maturing plans for the construction of roads, bridges, and canals through all itswide extent, and setting on foot those great works which have given suchsplendour to its capital . He early selected M. Fontaine and M. Périer as theinstruments of his designs, and, aided by the suggestions of these able architects, the embellishment of the metropolis proceeded at an accelerated pace.The formation of a quay on the banks of the Seine, opposite to the Tuileries,near the Quai Voltaire, first removed a deformity which had long been felt inlooking from the windows of the palace, and the clearing out of the Place duCarrousel next suggested the idea of uniting the Louvre and Tuileries, andforming a vast square between those two sumptuous edifices. At first it wasproposed to construct a building across the vacant area, in order to concealthe oblique position in which they stood to each other; but this idea wassoon abandoned , as Napoléon justly observed, that " no building, how majestic soever, could compensate for a vast open space between the Louvreand Tuileries." The construction of a fourth side, for the great square opposite to the picture gallery, was therefore commenced, and the demolition ofthe edifices in the interior soon after began; a great undertaking, which thesubsequent disasters ofhis reign prevented him from completing, and whichall the efforts of succeeding sovereigns have not been able as yet to bring toa conclusion. The Pont- des-Arts, between the Louvre and the Palace of theInstitute, was commenced about the same time, and the demolition of theconvents of the Feuillans and Capucines made way for the Rue de Rivoli,which now forms so noble a border to the gardens of the Tuileries . Malmaison at this time was the favourite country residence ofthe First Consul; buthe already meditated the establishment of his court at St. -Cloud , and theapartments ofthat palace began to be fitted up in that sumptuous style whichhas rendered them unequalled in all the palaces of France (2) .of theelevation ofSuppression The First Consul did not as yet venture openly to break with theon 21st Ja- Republican party, but he lost no opportunity of showing in whatnuary, and estimation he held their principles. On occasion of the establish Tronchet. ment of the Court of Cassation , the supreme tribunal of France, hesaid to Bourrienne, -" I do not venture as yet to take any decided stepagainst the regicides; but I will show what I think of them. To- morrow Ishall be engaged with Abrial in the formation of the Tribunal of Cassation.Target, who is its president, declined to defend Louis XVI: Whom do you(1 ) Thib. 2, 3. Bour. iii . 278. (2) Thib, 2, 3. Bour. iv. 46, 56.I1WI1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 121suppose I am about to name in his place? Tronchet, who so nobly dischargedthat perilous duty. They may say what they choose; my mind is made up. "Tronchet accordingly received the appointment so richly deserved by hisheroic conduct. The commemoration of the murder of Louis XVI was at thesame time suppressed , and concerts of sacred music were permitted on Sundays at the Opera. Thus, though the Republican calendar was still observed,an approach was made to the ancient mode of measuring time in the publicamusements ( 1) .Correspon- Louis XVIII at this time wrote several letters to Napoléon, in66which he expressed the high esteem in which he held his character, and offered him any situation which he chose to fix onunder the government, if he would aid in re-establishing thethrone ofthe Bourbons. Napoléon replied in firm but courteous terms, declining to have any connexion with the exiled family (2) . He clearly foresaw,with admirable sagacity, all the difficulties which would attend the restoration of that unfortunate family, and felt no inclination to make way for such an event. " The partisans of the Bourbons, " said he, are much mistaken ifthey imagine that I am the man to play the part of Monk. I am not insensibleto the hazard to which France may be one day exposed from my deceasewithout issue, as my brothers are evidently unfit for such a throne; but consider the absurdity of the propositions which they have made to me. Howcould we secure so many new interests and vested rights against the effortsof a family returning with eighty thousand emigrants, and all the prejudicesof fanaticism? What would become of the holders of national domains, andall those who had taken an active part in the Revolution? The Bourbonswould conceive they had conquered by force; all their professions and promises would give way before the possession of power. My part is taken; noone but a fool would place any reliance upon them ( 3) . "provement General im- Thus, on all sides, the prospects of France rapidly brightened unin the pros. der the auspices ofNapoléon . To the insecurity, distrust, and terrorwhich had paralysed all the efforts of patriotism under the Direcpects of France..dence be tween Na poléon and Louis XVIII.(1 ) Bour. iv. 68, 70.(2) The letter of Louis XVIII was in these terms:Feb. 4. " For long, general, you must have known the esteem in which I hold you. If you doubt my gratitude, fix upon the place you desire for yourself; point out the situations which you wish for your friends. As to my principles, they are those of the French character. Clemency on principle accords with the dictates of reason."No-the victor of Lodi , Castiglione, and Arcola,the conqueror of Italy and Egypt can never prefer a vain celebrity to true glory. But you are losing the most precious moments. We could secure the happiness of France. I say we, for I require Bona parte for such an attempt and he could not achieve it without me. General, Europe observes you glory awaits you, and I am impatient to restore peace to my people."Napoléon replied:Sept. 24. 1800. I have received, sir, your letter.I thank you for the obliging expressions which it contains regarding myself."You should renounce all hope of returning to France. You could not do so, but over the bodies of one hundred thousand Frenchmen . Sacrifice your interest to the repose and happiness of France.History will duly appreciate your conduct in so doing." I am not insensible to the misfortunes ofyourfamily, and shall learn with pleasure that you are surrounded with every thing which can secure the tranquillity ofyour retreat."This answer was not dispatched for seven months after the receipt ofthe letter from Louis, and when the Congress of Luneville was about to open. -See BOURRIENNE, iv. 77-79.Not disconcerted with this repulse, the Bourbon family endeavoured to open a negotiation with Na poléon, through the Duchess of Guiche, a lady of great beauty and abilities, who found no difficulty in penetrating to Joséphine, and conveying to her the propositions of the exiled family, which were,that he should, on restoring them, be made Con stable of France and receive the principality of Corsica . Napoléon no sooner heard of it than he ordered the fascinating duchess to leave Paris in twenty- four hours; an order which gave great sa tisfaction to Joséphine, who already had become somewhat uneasy at the proximity of so charming a personage. It had been proposed that a splendid pillar should be erected on the Place du Carrousel,surmounted by a statue of Napoléon crowning the Bourbons. " Nothing was wanting," said Napoléon,"to such a design except that the pillar should be founded on the dead body ofthe First Consul. ".LAS CAS. i . 289, 290, and CAPEFIGUE, i , 140.(3) Bour, iv. 72, 83. Capefigue, Ilist , de la Res.tauration, i . 137, 141.122 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXX.tory, succeeded confidence, energy, and hope; genius emerged from obscurityto take an active part in public affairs; corruption and profligacy ceased topoison every branch of administration . There is nothing more striking inEuropean history than the sudden resurrection of France under the government of this great man, or more descriptive of the natural tendency of humanaffairs to right themselves after a period of disorder, and the general disposition ofall classes , when taught wisdom by suffering, to resume that place insociety for which they were destined by nature, and in which one theexertions can add to the sum of general felicity.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 123CHAPTER XXXI.CAMPAIGN OF MARENGO,FROM THE OPENING OF THE CAMPAIGN TO THE ARMISTICE OF ALEXANDRIA,MARCH- JULY, 1800.ARGUMENT.Disposition ofthe French Armies at the Opening of the Campaign-Formation of the French Army of Reserve-Forces of the Imperialists-Plan of the Austrians for the Campaign-And of the First Consul-Position of Kray's Forces in Germany-And of Moreau's Troops-First Movements ofthe French General -Irresolution of the Austrian Generals in consequenceMoreau advances against their Centre-Battle of Engen-Victory of the French-Its great Results-Retreat of Kray-Battle of Moeskirch- It at length terminates in the Defeat of the Imperialists-Perilous Situation of St. - Cyr on the following day-Affair of Biberach-Kray retreats to the Intrenched Camp at Ulm-Advantages of that Position - Kray keeps the Field with part of his Force-Great Strength ofthe Intrenched Camp- Measures of Moreau to dis lodge him from it-Vigorous stroke of the Austrian General against the Left Wing of the French-Increasing Perplexity of Moreau-He in vain moves round to Augsburg-He next advances on the Left Bank of the Danube-Imminent risk of the French Left-At length Mo reau cuts off his Communications-The Passage of the Danube is effected by the French Severe Action at Hochstedt-Kray is at length obliged to evacuate Ulm and reaches Nord lingen -Moreau occupies Munich- Kray crosses the Danube and descends the right bank to Landshut-And falls back behind the Inn-Operations against the Prince of Reuss in the Tyrol-Feldkirch is carried by the Republicans -Armistice of Parsdorf in Germany-Ex treme suffering of the French on the Summit of the Maritime Alps-Masséna is appointed to the Command-Napoléon's Proclamation to these Troops- Energetic Measures taken to restore order-Positions of the Austrians-Description of Genoa-Measures taken for its Blockade by Land and Sea-Successful Attack of the Imperialists on the French Position Suchet is separated from the main body and driven back towards France-Desperate and successful Sortie of Masséna-His disposition for re-opening his Communications with Suchet-Austrian Measures to prevent it, which prove successful-Continued Successes of the Imperialists-Masséna is finally driven into Genoa-Defeat of Suchet by Elnitz- Who is driven over the Var into France-General Attack by Ott on the French Positions round Genoa-Which, at first successful, is finally repulsed by Masséna- Successful Sally of the French-Which leads to another, in which they are defeated and Soult made prisoner- Siege is converted into a Blockade-Extreme want of the Inhabitants-A fresh Sortie is defeated-Agonies endured by the Inhabitants- Masséna at length surrenders-Mélas sets out to meet Napoléon-Allies advance to Nice- Description of Suchet's Position on the Var-Attack by the Austrians on it, which is repulsed-Fresh Attack, and final Repulse of them-Forma tion of the Army of Reserve by Napoléon-Skilful Measures taken to conceal its StrengthDescription of the Passage of the St. -Bernard -Napoléon resolves to hazard the Passage Measures taken for the crossing of the Artillery-Passage of the Mountains- Comparisonof the Passage of the Alps by Hannibal, Napoléon , Suwarrow, and Macdonald-The Army is stopped in the Valley of Aosta by the Fort of Bard -Great Skill with which the Obstacle was evaded by the French Engineers- Passage of the St. - Gothard and Mount Cinis bythe Wings of the Army of Reserve-Melas in haste concentrates his Army-Different Plans which lay open to Napoléon-He resolves to occupy Milan-His Advance into Lombardy, and Capture of that City-He spreads his Forces over Lombardy, and addresses a Proclamation to his Soldiers-Napoléon advances to meet Melas, who concentrates his forces at Alexandria The French Vanguard comes up with the Austrians at Montebello-Desperate and Bloody Action there, in which the Austrians are worsted- Position of the French Army in the Pass at Stradella between the Apennines and the Po-Disastrous Retreat of Elnitz from the Var-Gallant Resolution of Melas to cut his way through Napoléon's Army-Arrival of Desaix from Egypt at Napoléon's Headquarters-Preparatory Movements of both parties - Forces assembled on both sides -Battle of Marengo-Early Success of the Austrians-The French Reserves are brought into action under Desaix-After a gallant Charge he, too, is defeated Decisive Charge of Kellermann converts a Rout into a Victory-Final Defeat of the Aus124 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.trians-Loss sustained on both sides -Mèlas proposes a Suspension of Arms-Armistice of Alexandria-Its immense Results-Is faithfully observed by the Austrians-Napoléon returns to Milan-And then to Paris-Reflections on this Campaign- Great Changes in human affairs are never owing to trivial causes-Extraordinary Resurrection of France on the accession ofNapoléon- Causes of the Disasters of the Campaign to the Imperialists -Important Effect of Central Fortifications in a State-Merits of Napoléon in the Campaign-And of the Austrian Commanders-Inexpedience of receiving Battle in the Oblique Order-Inactivity of Aber- cromby's Corps at this crisis considered,Disposition of themies at thethe camarmy of reserve .THE French forces were disposed, previous to the commencementFrench ar- of hostilities, in the following manner:-The army of Italy, whichopening of occupied the crest of the Alps from the neighbourhood of Genoa topaign. Mont-Cenis, was thirty-six thousand strong, of which twenty- eightthousand were assembled in Liguria, from the Trebbia to the Col di Tende,to guard the passes of the Apennines and protect Genoa from the Imperialforces, which weregrouped in the plain round the walls of Alexandria. Thesetroops, however, were for the most part in the most miserable condition;their spirits were depressed by a campaign of unprecedented disaster, their clothing was worn out, their feet bare, their artillery broken down, theircavalry dismounted, and it required all the efforts of St.-Cyr and their otherofficers during the winter to retain them at their colours (1).Formation of The army of Germany, which was afterwards called the army ofthe French the Danube, was 128,000 strong, including 16,000 cavalry , of whichimmense force 103,090 men, including 14,000 horse, could be reliedon for active operations. An army of reserve of 50,000 men was at the sametime formed, the head-quarters of which were nominally at Dijon, but thebulk of the force was in reality disposed at Geneva, Lausanne, and the othertowns which lay between the Jura and the Alps. This reserve was destinedeither to support the army of Italy or that of Germany, as circumstances required, and it was formed of 20,000 veteran troops, brought from Holland ,under Brune, to la Vendée, which the pacification of that district rendereddisposable for offensive operations, and 30,000 conscripts, directed to thatquarter from the central depôts. These troops traversed France, with drumsbeating and colours flying, in the finest order, and their splendid appearancecontributed much to revive the martial ardour of the people, which the disasters ofthe preceding campaigns had so seriously impaired . Berthier receivedthe command of this army, and gave up the portfolio of minister of war toCarnot, whomNapoléon sought out in exile to fill that important situation (2) .On the other hand , the Imperialists had collected 96,000 men inPiedmont and at the foot of the Maritime Alps, besides 20,000, whowere dispersed in garrisons in the states ofVenice, Lombardy, and Tuscany.Their forces in Germany were still more considerable , amounting to 92,000men, including 18,000 superb cavalry, and they were followed by above 400pieces of artillery. This was independent of the troops of Bavaria and theminor states in the English pay, which amounted to 20,000 more, making inall 112,000 men. This great force, however, was scattered over an immenseline, 200 miles long, from the Alps to the Maine, insomuch that, in the valleyof the Danube, which was the decisive point of the whole, as it at once led tothe Hereditary States, Kray could only assemble 45,000 men to resist the75,000 which Moreau could direct against that point. The great error of theAustrians in this campaign consisted in supposing that Italy was the quarterwhere the decisive attack was to be made, and collecting in consequence theForces of the Impe- rialists.(1 ) Jom. xiii. 48. St.- Cyr, Hist. Mil. ii . 84, 102. (2) Jom. xiii. 111. Dum. iii . 25, 27. St.- Cyr, i .102.1800.]HISTORY OF EUROPE. 125greater part of their reserves in that country; whereas the valley of the Danubewas the place where danger was really to beapprehended, and where theprincipal forces of the Republicans were collected. But they were deceivedby the great successes of the preceding campaign; they were ignorant or incredulous of the rapid change produced on the French armies by the seizureof supreme power by Napoléon; and were dreaming of conquests on the Varand in Provence, when their redoubtable adversary was already meditatingstrokes in the heart of Bavaria (1 ) .Plan ofthe The plan of the Austrians was to resume the offensive vigorously Austrians. in Italy, where the great numerical superiority of Melas, as well asthe warlike and experienced quality of the troops he commanded, promisedthe most important results; to throw Masséna back into Genoa, and capturethat important city; drive the French over the Maritime Alps, and carry thewar into the heart of Provence. To co-operate with this design, an Englishexpedition, having twelve thousand troops on board, was to proceed to theMediterranean, and aid the Imperialists either in the south of France or theMaritime Alps. This being the quarter where active operations were to beundertaken, the war in Germany was intended to be merely defensive, andrather to occupy a considerable army ofthe enemy on the Rhine than to makeany serious impression on his territories in that quarter (2).First Con sul.And of the On his side, Napoléon determined to prosecute the war vigorouslywhere the Austrians proposed only to pursue defensive measures,and to liberate Italy by the blows struck at the Hereditary States in the heartof Germany. The possession of Switzerland, like a central fortress, gave theFrench the advantage of being able to take the line of the enemy's operations in rear, either in Italy or Swabia. Napoléon had intrusted the commandof the army of Germany to Moreau, a generous proceeding towards so formidable a rival , but which his great military talents , and the unboundedconfidence of the soldiers of the army of the Rhine in his capacity, as well asthe important services which he had rendered to the First Consul on the18th Brumaire, rendered indispensable. The plan which he proposed to hisgreat lieutenant was to assemble all his forces in the neighbourhood of Schaffhausen, cross the Rhine by four bridges near that town, move directly in animposing mass on Ulm, and thus turn the left ofthe Imperialists , and take inrear all the Austrians placed between the Rhine and the defiles of the BlackForest. By this means he hoped that the army, in a week after the openingof the campaign, would be at Ulm, and such of the Imperialists as escapedwould have no alternative but to throw themselves into Bohemia, leavingVienna and the Hereditary States to their fate . That these brilliant anticipations were not chimerical, is proved by the result of the campaigns of 1805and 1809; and so strongly was Napoléon impressed with their importance,that he at one time entertained the project of putting himself at the head ofthe army of the Danube, and directing the army of reserve to its support,-which would have brought a force of a hundred and eighty thousand men tobear upon the Austrian line in Germany. But Moreau would not submit tothe indignity of acting as second in command to his formér rival (3); and thedisposition of his troops was too republican , and their attachment to theirgeneral too strong, to render it prudent to run the risk of revolt in so powerful an army, even for the sake of the greatest external advantages. An angry?(1) Arch. Ch. ii . 334. Nap. i . 185 , 161. Jom . xiii .52, 113. St - Cyr, ii . 108, 137 .(2) Nap. i . 162. Jom. xiii. 41 , 42.(3) He said, " I have no notion of secing a littleLouis XIV at the head of my army. If the First Consul takes the command, I will send in my re signation. "-ST.- Cvâ, ii . 103, Hist. Mil.126 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.discussion took place between the two generals, which terminated in theretention of the supreme command by Moreau, and the adoption of a modified plan for the campaign in Germany, in lieu of the brilliant but hazardousone projected by the First Consul; and in consequence Napoléon resolved todirect the army of reserve to Italy, and in person renew the struggle on thescene ofhis former triumphs on the plains of Piedmont ( 1 ) .At this period the army of the Rhine was far from cordially supporting thegovernment of the First Consul . Independent of the republican principleswith which, in common with all the other French troops, they were more orless imbued, they were in a peculiar manner jealous of the audacious generalwho had placed himself at the head of affairs, and seized the sceptre whichthey thought would have been more worthily held by his more disinterestedrival. Any attempt to displace Moreau from the command of this great armywould probably have led to a collision, which might have proved fatal to theinfant authority of Napoléon (2) .Kray's forces inPosition of Field- marshal Kray had his headquarters at Donauschingen; buthis chief magazines were in the rear of his army, at Stockach , En- Germany. gen, Moeskirch , and Biberach. The right wing, twenty-six thousand strong, under the command of Starray, rested on the Maine; its headquarters were at Heidelberg, and it guarded the line of the Rhine from theRenchen to the Maine. The left, under the orders ofthe Prince of Reuss, wasin the Tyrol; it consisted of twenty-six thousand men, besides seven thousand militia, and occupied the Rheinthal and the shores of the lake of Constance. The centre, forty-three thousand strong, under the command ofKray in person, was stationed behind the Black Forest in the environs ofVillingen and Donauschingen; its advanced posts occupied all the passes ofthatwoody range, and observed the course of the Rhine from the lake of Constance to the neighbourhood of Kehl; while fifteen thousand men, underKeinmayer, guarded the passes from the Renchen to the Valley of Hell, andformed the link which connected the centre and right wing ( 3) . Thus,though the Imperialists were nearly one hundred and ten thousand strong,they were stationed at such a distance from each other as to be incapable ofrendering any effectual aid in case of need; and were rather to be regardedas three separate armies, the largest of which could not bring above fortythousand men into the field at any one point.Moreau's Positions of The French army, at the opening of the campaign, was also ditroops. vided in three corps. The right, thirty-two thousand strong, underLecourbe, occupied the cantons of Switzerland from the St. -Gothard to Basle,won at the expense of so much blood in the preceding campaign, from theImperialists; the centre, under Gouvion St. -Cyr, who was transferred to thatcommand from the army of Genoa, consisted of twenty-nine thousand men,and occupied the left bank of the Rhine, from New Brisach to Plobsheim; theleft, under Sainte- Suzanne, twenty-one thousand strong, extended fromKehl to Haguenau. Independent of these, Moreau himself was at the head ofa reserve, consisting of twenty-eight thousand men, which was assembled inthe neighbourhood of Basle, and which, if added to either of the divisions ofthe army, would give it a decided preponderance over that of the enemy towhich it was opposed. Thus Moreau could, by uniting the reserve and centre,bring nearly sixty thousand men to bear upon the Austrian force of fortythousand in the same quarter; an immense advantage, which was speedily(1 ) Nap. i. 163, 164. St. - Cyr, ii . 103 , 104. Jom.xiii. 36, 37. Dum. iii . 84, 85. Bul. Feldzug, Ma- rengo, 17, 18 .(2 ) St.-Cyr, ii. 102. Dum. iii . 84, 85, 86.(3) St.-Cyr, ii . 107, 108. Jom. xiii , 112, 113.Nap. i. 161 , 162.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 127turned to the best account by that able commander. Besides these greatforces, the French general had at his disposal the garrisons of the fortresses ofSwitzerland , Landau, and Spires; the division of Mayence, commanded byLaval, and the troops of the fifth and twenty-sixth military divisions , forming an aggregate of thirty-two thousand men additional, which might betermed the reserves of the army; while the possession of the bridges of Kehl,New Brisach (1 ), and Basle, gave him the means of crossing the Rhine whenever he deemed it most advisable .· First move It was part ofthe plan of Napoléon to detach sixteen thousand menments ofthe under Moncey, from Lecourbe's wing stationed in Switzerland, in General. order to take a share in the great operations which he meditated inthe Italian plains; and therefore it was of importance that Moreau should early resume the offensive, both in order to take advantage of his numericalsuperiority before that detachment took place, and operate as a diversion tothe army ofItaly, which it was foreseen would soon be hard pressed byMelasin the mountains of Genoa. Orders, therefore , were transmitted to him toopen the campaign without delay, and every thing was ready for a forwardmovement by the 24th April. The plan finally arranged between Moreau andthe First Consul was to make a feint on the left against the corps ofKeinmayerand the enemy's right; and having thus drawn their attention to that quarter,accumulate all his disposable forces against the Imperial centre, and overwhelmit by a concentration of the French left wing, centre, and reserve. By thismeans he hoped to break through the Austrian line of defence with a preponderating force, and, after a single battle, cut off their communicationwith the Tyrol and Italy, and force them back, after losing their magazinesat Moeskirch and Engen, to a disadvantageous defensive on the banks of theDanube (2).The better to conceal this able design , Moreau , for some days before thearmy was put in motion, made the greatest demonstrations against the enemy's right. Every thing was prepared for the head-quarters at Colmar, andit was publicly announced that the reserve was to be directed against Kein -mayer and the Valley of Hell . Meanwhile, the columns moved to the diffeApril 25. rent points assigned to them, and on the 25th , at daybreak, SainteSuzanne crossed the bridge ofKehl, at the head of sixteen thousand men, anddrove in the advanced posts of Keinmayer towards the entrance ofthe BlackForest. On the same day, the centre crossed at NewBrisach, under the ordersof St. -Cyr, and advanced towards Freyburg. Kray upon this moved a considerable part of his centre and reserves to the support ofKeinmayer;but Sainte-Suzanne having thus executed his feint, suddenly remeasured hissteps , recrossed the Rhine at Kehl, and advanced by forced marches to NewBrisach, where he crossed again and formed a second line in the rear of St.Cyr. On the 25th, Moreau also crossed at Basle with the reserve, and movedin the direction ofLauffenburg (3).April 27.of the Ausrals in conIrresolution These different and apparently contradictory movements, threwtrian Gene- the Austrian generals into the greatest perplexity. Uncertain where sequence. the storm was likely really to burst, they adopted the ruinous resolution of guarding equally every point; and still inclining to the belief thatthe right and the Valley of Hell were really threatened, they retained thirtythousand men, under Starray and Keinmayer, on the right, and twenty-five thousand on the left in the rocks of the Voralberg, while their centre and(1) Jom. xiii . 110-111 . St.-Cyr, ii , 109-110.(2) Nap. i . 165. Jom. xiii . 116, 117. Dum, iii.93, 94.(3) St.-Cyr. ii. 120, 129. Dum, iii. 94, 99, Jom.xiii, 120, 125.128 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.April 28 and 29.reserve, now reduced to forty thousand men, were menaced by an attack bySainte-Suzanne, Moreau, and St. -Cyr, at the head of seventy thousand com- batants . The two following days were employed in concentratinghis forces between Kehl and Freyburg; and the better to distract theenemy, Lecourbe soon after crossed the Rhine, with the right wing, at Paradisand Richlingen, and, after throwing a bridge over at Stein, advanced towardsEngen and Stockach. On the same day, the inaccessible fort of Hohenstohel May 1. capitulated without firing a shot, and the left of Lecourbe enteredinto communication with Moreau and St. -Cyr. Thus the whole French army,with the exception oftwo divisions of the left wing which observed Keinmayerand Starray, were converging towards the Imperial magazines at Engen andMoeskirch, which it was evident could not be saved but by a battle foughtagainst most unequal odds (1).Moreau ad- vances against their centre.Ably profiting by the great advantages already gained, Moreau di- rected Lecourbe to move towards Stockach, in order to turn thecentre of the enemy and cut off their communication with the leftwing under the Prince of Reuss, while he himself, with the centre, reserve,and part of Sainte Suzanne's corps, moved directly upon the town of Engen,May 2. which it was anticipated would not be abandoned without a struggle, on account of the valuable magazines which it contained. Kray, on hispart, assembled all the disposable force he could command in front of Engen, where he resolved to give battle , to gain time for the evacuation of hismagazines upon Moeskirch . But while he was concentrating his forces in thatcentral position, the Prince of Lorraine, who formed the communicationbetween the Austrian centre and left wing, and was retiring with inferiorforces before Lecourbe, was suddenly assailed by the French advanced guard,under Molitor, and the cavalry of Nansouty, and entirely routed . Three thousand prisoners and eight pieces of cannon were the immediate results of thisbrilliant affair; but it became still more important by the capture of Stockach , with all its magazines, directly in rear of the position of Kray in frontof Engen (2).Battle of On the same day on which this important success was gained on Engea. the right, the French centre, under Moreau in person , encounteredthe Austrian main body in the vast plain which lies before that town. Kray,with forty thousand men, was there in position, and the cavalry, above ninethousand strong, presented the most imposing spectacle, drawn up in echellon in front of the town. His design was to attack in front himself, at thehead ofthe reserve and part of the centre, while St. -Cyr, with his division,was directed to turn the left of the enemy. But that general being five leaguesin the rear, could not come up until a late hour of the day; and Moreau, apprehensive lest , if the attack were delayed, the enemy would retreat, commenced the action himself at the head of thirty-two thousand men. The chiefefforts of the French general were directed to gain possession of a plateau onthe right ofthe Imperialists, which would both command their line ofretreatand facilitate his own junction with St.-Cyr, but he encountered the moststubborn resistance. Kray had skilfully availed himself of all the advantageswhich the ground afforded him in that quarter; and for long all the effortsof the Republicans were unable to drive back their opponents from the vineyards and wooded heights, which they had occupied in force, and surmounted with a numerous artillery. At length, the French carried the peak(1 ) Nap. i . 166. Jom . xiii. 125, 129. Dum, iii ,98, 101. St.-Cyr, ii , 131 , 137,(2) Nap. i . 167. Jom. xiii . 132, 133. Dum, iii .107, 109. St.-Cyr, ii . 157, 158.1800.] 129 HISTORY OF EUROPE.of Hohenhowen, the most elevated point on the field of battle, and the Imperialists retired to the village of Ehingen. To restore the combat, the Austrian general strongly reinforced that important post, while Moreau broughtup his reserve to expel the enemy from it . At first the Republicans were successful, and the village was carried; but Kray having charged in person atthe head of the Hungarian grenadiers, they were driven out with great slaughter, and fled to the plain in the greatest confusion . Moreau instantly advancing to the spot, succeeded in restoring a certain degree of order , and in partregained the ground which had been lost, but the Hungarians continued tohold the village, and at nightfall all the avenues to it were still in their possession (1).Victory ofIts greatMeanwhile the division of Richepanse, which had established itselfthe French. on the peak of Hohenhowen, was exposed to a furious attack fromthe Austrian right; the summit of the mountain resembled a volcano, whichvomited forth fire in every direction; and it was easy to see, from the intensity of the light, which, as the twilight approached, illuminated the heavensin that direction , that it was only by the greatest efforts that he could maintain his ground. At seven o'clock, however, the vanguard of the corps ofSt.-Cyr, which had met with the greatest difficulties in the course of itsmarch, and had been compelled to fight his way against Nauendorf's divisionthrough strong defiles , arrived in the field, and soon after began to take apart in the action . The combat now became more equal, and though the fireof artillery on both sides continued extremely violent, it was evident thatthe enemy fought only to gain time to withdraw his stores and ammunition.In fact, at this hour the Austrian general received intelligence of the defeatof the Prince of Lorraine and the capture of Stockach, which threatened hisline of communications (2) . He therefore drew off his forces in the directionof Liptingen and Moeskirch, where he formed a junction with that prince,who had retreated with the remains of his division in the same direction .The loss of the Austrians in this battle was above seven thousandresults. men, and that of the French was as great, but the moral consequences of the success with which it terminated to the Republicans, wereincalculable. It at once raised the spirit of the army, and produced that confidence in themselves, which is the surest prelude to still greater success .Kray finding that the intentions of the enemy were now fully proclaimed, andthat he had on his hands the whole strength of the French army, made theutmost efforts when too late to concentrate his forces. Keinmayer was advancing with the greatest expedition by the Valley of Hell , while Starray hadreceived orders to hasten to the decisive point, leaving only six thousand inthe neighbourhood of Manheim to observe the enemy's forces in that quarter. Moreau having received intelligence of this intended concentration offorce, resolved to make the most of his present advantages, and attack theAustrians before they received any farther reinforcements. On the Kray. 4th, the Imperialists retired to a strong position in front of Moeskirch; the whole front of their line was covered by a great ravine, whichdescends from Hendorf to Moeskirch, and its left by the Ablach, a rocky stream.which flows in a rapid course into the Danube; the cavalry, and a reserveof eight battalions of grenadiers, were stationed on the heights of Rohrdorf.Powerful batteries commanded the chaussée which approached the village,and by their concentric fire seemed to render all access impossible. In thisRetreat of( 1 ) Dum, iii. 110, 114. Jom. xiii, 134, 139.St. Cyr, ii . 156 , 161 .(2) Dum. iii . 114, 116. Jom, xiii . 139, 141. St Cyr, ii. 158, 179.IV.9130 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.Battle offormidable position were collected forty thousand foot soldiers, and twelvethousand splendid cavalry, besides above two hundred pieces of cannon ( 1) .Though Moreau had ordered Lecourbe to join him with all hisMoeskirch. disposable force, in order to take a part in the general action whichwas approaching, yet he had not contrived matters so as to bring all his forcesinto the field at the same time. The consequence was, that Lecourbe, withthat portion of his corps which had not taken a part in the action of the preceding day, first commenced the attack. He advanced with the greatestintrepidity to the assault of his old antagonist the Prince of Lorraine; but hewas received by so tremendous a fire from the cross batteries which Kray hadestablished on the heights, that his artillery was instantly dismounted, andhe himself compelled to take refuge in the neighbouring woods to avoid themerciless storm. Moreau, upon this, brought forward the division Lorges,and attacked the position by its left and the village of Hendorf; but theattacking columns having been assailed by the enemy's masses, who suddenlydebouched from behind their batteries, were thrown into confusion andentirely routed. Encouraged by this success, Kray made a sally with his rightwing, and advanced into the plain; but it was received in so resolute a manner by the French left, that he was not only compelled to retire, but thevictorious Republicans recovered all the ground they had lost, and the village was carried by their pursuing columns, who entered pell-mell with thefugitives. At the same time, Vandamme, with the Republican right, advancedagainst the Imperial left, and attacked the village ofMoeskirch; the Austriansdefended it with the utmost resolution, and it was taken and retaken severaltimes at length Lecourbe formed his division into four columns, whichadvanced simultaneously to the attack (2) . Nothing could resist their impetuosity; they rushed down the sides of the ravines, up the opposite banks,and chased the Imperialists from the plateau, while Molitor drove them outof Moeskirch, and their victorious columns met in the centre of the town.It at length Kray, seeing his left forced , skilfully executed a change of position in the de- in the very middle of the battle . He drew back his left from theImperialists. plateau which had been so obstinately disputed, and took up aposition parallel to the Danube, with his centre still resting on the plateau ofRohrdorf. This new position brought him on the flank of the division ofLorges, who was unsupported on that side. Kray instantly saw his advantage,and charged the exposed division , which was overthrown, and driven back insuch confusion that nothing but the opportune arrival of Delmas with sixfresh battalions prevented the French line being entirely broken throughat that point. Both parties now made the utmost efforts; the Austrians toimprove the advantage they had gained, the French to re-establish their line.Moreau executed a change of front, arranging his army parallel to that oftheenemy, and during the progress of this new formation, the French divisionDelmas was furiously assailed, but all the efforts of the Imperialists wereunable to break his admirable infantry. Still, however, Kray redoubled hisefforts, and charged himself at the head of his reserve against the division ofBastoul; Moreau also brought up reinforcements, and the combat continuedfortwo hours with various success , till at length the arrival of Richepanse withafresh division induced the Austrian general to retire, which was done beforenightfall in the best order to the heights of Bucherni and Rohrdorf (3) .feat oftheIn this action, so obstinately contested on both sides, the loss to the con-(1) Jom. xiii. 144, 145. Dum. iii , 124, 125. (3) St.- Cyr, ii . 195, 197. Dum. iii . 129, 131 .(2) Jom. xiii . 146, 150. Dum. iii , 126 , 130. St.- Jom. xiii. 150, 155.Cyr, ii. 190, 191 .1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 131tending parties was nearly equal, amounting to each to about six thousandmen. The Austrians retained at the close of the day the plateau ofRohrdorf;the French slept on great part of the field of battle . But all the moral advantages of a victory were on their side; and as, on the following day, theImperialists retired across the Danube-they in reality achieved the objectfor which they contended . The success was balanced chiefly in consequenceof the non-arrival of St.-Cyr with his division , who lingered at Liptingen; hadhe come up and taken a part in the action, it would probably have terminatedin a total defeat , the more disastrous to the Imperialists that they fought withtheir backs to the Danube. The cause of this inactivity in so able an officer,is to be found in the nature of the first instructions he had received fromMoreau, and the intercepting of the couriers which conveyed the second orders to hasten to the decisive point (1 ) .Perilous si- tuation ofthe ing day.Following out the only orders he had received, St. -Cyr, on theSt. -Cyr on succeeding day, was leisurely moving parallel to the Danube,between that river and the Austrian army, when he came unawaresupon their whole force drawn up in a small but strong position in front ofthe bridge of Sigmaringen. The ground they occupied would barely havesufficed for the deploying of a single division , being formed by a bend of theDanube, the base of which fronting the enemy, was covered by a formidablearray of artillery, behind which the army was posted in seven lines almostforming a close column, and protecting in this manner the passage of theirstores over the river. Upon the approach of the French the surprise wasequal on both sides; Kray, much alarmed, and apprehending an immediateattack, drew up his rearguard in battle-array, and disposed the artillerywhich had crossed as well as that which remained in their front, in such amanner as to enfilade all the roads by which the position might be apMay 6. proached. St. -Cyr also paused; with the half of his division , whichalone had come up, he did not venture to attack the whole Austrian army,but he insulted them by a battery of twelve pieces, which was pushed forwardwithin cannon shot; and so weakened was the spirit of the Imperialists, thatthey replied to this fire only by a discharge from their numerous batteries ,instead of issuing from their lines and sweeping the pieces off by a charge oftheir powerful cavalry. There can be little doubt that if Moreau , insteadof lingering at Moeskirch on the field of battle, had followed the traces oftheenemy, joined St. -Cyr, and attacked them when backed by the Danube inthis extraordinary position, he would have succeeded in destroying a largepart of their army; but that general, with all his great qualities, had not thevigour in following up a success , which formed the leading characteristic ofhis more enterprising rival (2) .Affairs of At Sigmaringen the Austrian general was joined by Keinmayer Biberach. with his whole division; and with this augmented force he recrossedthe Danube and moved towards Biberach. He had resolved to retire to theshelter of the intrenched camp at Ulm; but his object in this movement wasto cover the evacuation of the great magazines at Biberach upon that place.Thither he was followed by the French army, and on the morning of the 9thMay 9. May their advanced posts found eighteen thousand Austrians postedat the entrance of the remarkable defile which leads to that town. This rearguard was posted for the most part on a series of formidable heights behindBiberach, which could be approached only by passing through that town, and(1 ) Memorial du Depoldi la Guerre, v. 92. St.- Cyr, ii . 199, 201. Dum. iii. 129, 131. Jom . xiii.(2) Nap. i . 169, 170. Dum. iii . 131. St.- Cyr, ii.203, 205.151, 156.132 HISTORY OF EUROPE.. [CHAP. XXXI.to the in trenched camp at Ulm .afterwards traversing a road which ran through a morass . An advancedguard, consisting of ten battalions and as many squadrons, with eight piecesof cannon, was placed in front of Biberach, at the entrance of the defile; thisposition, apparently so hazardous, was necessary to cover the evacuation ofthe great magazines which that town contained, preparatory to the concentration of the whole army in the intrenched camp of Ulm. This advancedguard was attacked by St.-Cyr with such superior forces, that they werespeedily routed, and driven in the utmost disorder across the morass. Biberach was so rapidly carried that the Austrians had not time to destroy theirKray retreats magazines, which fell in great part entire into the hands ofthevictors . Transported with ardour, the French dragoons and lighttroops traversed the town and crossed the defile on the other side,notwithstanding a heavy and concentrated fire from the Austrian batteries;such was the intimidation produced by their audacity, that the Imperialistsfired by platoons upon the light troops, as they would have done upon a regular line, instead of combating them with the same species of force . In thisaffair Kray lost fifteen hundred prisoners, besides a thousand killed andwounded, and five pieces of cannon; but he gained time by it for the evacuation of his magazines at Memmingen, which were transported in safety to theintrenched camp at Ulm ( 1 ) . There his army was all collected in two daysafterwards, eighty thousand infantry and twelve thousand horse were assembled; and after a campaign of unexampled activity, though only fifteendays' duration, the Republicans found their victorious columns on the banksof the Danube.In retiring to Ulm, Kray separated himself from his left wing,twenty-five thousand strong, in the Tyrol, and the detached corpson the Maine; but the advantages of that central position were suchas amply to counterbalance these circumstances. The intrenched camp occupying both banks of the Danube and the heights of St.-Michel, and connectedwith the fortress, was ofthe most formidable description. The town and tétede-pont on the river were armed with a hundred and forty pieces of heavycannon; the redoubts of the camp were complete, and lined with a proportional quantity of artillery: and not only were the magazines in the placemost ample, but the extent ofthe works rendered all idea ofa regular blockadeout of the question . By remaining in this defensive position , the Austriangeneral not only preserved entire his own communications and line of retreatbyDonawert and Ratisbon, but threatened those of his adversary; who, if heattempted to pass either on the north or south, exposed himself to the attackof a powerful army in flank. Securely posted in this central point, the Imperialists daily received accessions of strength from Bohemia and the Hereditary States; while the French, weakened by the detachments necessary topreserve their communications, and observe the Prince of Reuss in the Tyrol,soon began to lose that superiority which, by the skilful concentration oftheirforce, they had hitherto enjoyed in the campaign (2) .Great ad vantage of that posi tion.The difficulty ofdislodging the Imperialists from this formidable position,was much augmented by the necessity to which Moreau at this period wassubjected, of detaching nearly twenty thousand men under Moncey to crossthe Alps by the St. -Gothard, and take a share in the projected operations ofthe First Consul in Italy. This great detachment restored the balance between the contending parties, and the spirit of the Austrians at the same time(1 ) St. - Cyr, ii . 222, 228. Jom, xiii. 164, 169.Dum. iii. 138, 142. Nap. i. 171.(2) Nap. i . 171 , 172. Jom. xiii . 310, 313. Dum.iii . 145, 149. St.-Cyr, ii . 234, 235.E1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 133Kray keeps fieldhis force.was so much revived by the sight of their vast forces within thewith part of intrenched camp, and the great resources which they found inthe place, that Kray no longer hesitated to keep the field; and detached the corps of Starray and Keinmayer, which had suffered least in thepreceding operations, to the left bank of the Danube and the confluence ofthe Iller. Moreau accordingly found himself extremely embarrassed, and sixweeks were employed in the vain attempt to dislodge a defeated army fromthis stronghold; a striking proof of the prophetic wisdom of the ArchdukeCharles in its formation, and the importance of central fortifications in arresting the progress of an invading enemy (1).strength of the in- trenched camp .Great As the efforts of Austria and Russia during the seven years' warwere shattered against the intrenched camp of Frederick at Burtzelwitz , so this important position seemed to be the ne plus ultraof the Republican operations in this campaign. It was hopeless to attempt toconquer so strong a position by main force; and it was no easy matter to seeby what movement the Austrian general could be compelled to abandon it.For Moreau to pass on , leaving eighty thousand men supported by impregnable fortifications in his rear, was impossible, as it would immediately haveled to the intercepting his communications with France; while to attempt thepassage of the Danube in presence of such a force , would have been in thehighest degree perilous. The Austrians soon reaped the benefits of this admirably chosen stronghold ( 2); the soldiers, lodged in excellent quarters ,rapidly recovered their strength; while the morale of the army, which hadbeen extremely weakened by the rapid disasters of the campaign, as quicklyrose, when they perceived that a stop was at length put to the progress oftheenemy.Measures of Moreau to With a view to dislodge Kray, Moreau advanced with the rightdislodge him in front; headquarters passed the Gunz on the right bank of the from it. Danube, St. -Cyr followed with his division in echellon, whileSainte-Suzanne received orders to approach Ulm on the left bank. The Republicans were masters of no bridge over the river, so that Sainte- Suzanne,with his single corps was exposed to the attack of the whole Austrian army.Finding that the distance of Moreau with the centre and right wing precludedhim from giving any effectual support to his left, Kray resolved to direct all May 16. his disposable forces against that general. On the 16th, the Archduke Ferdinand, at the head of the splendid Imperial cavalry, followed byseveral columns of infantry, suddenly assailed this detached corps near Erbach. The attack was so impetuous, and the surprise so complete, that theRepublicans were speedily routed, and the Austrians pressing forward withgreat vigour, not only drove them back in disorder above two leagues , butinterposed their victorious columns between their flying divisions . Nothing Vigorous but the intrepidity and presence of mind of the French generals,stroke of the Austrian General against the left wing of the French.preserved their left wing from total destruction . But while Sainte- Suzanne did his utmost to retard the advance of the enemy, St.-Cyr, alarmed by the violence and receding sound ofthe cannonade,which distinctly showed how much the left wing was losing ground, haltedhis corps, and moved it towards the scene ofdanger; at the same time rapidlybringing up his artillery, he placed it in batteries on the right bank of theDanube in such a manner as to enfilade the road by which the ArchdukeFerdinand had issued from Ulm. Alarmed at this apparition on his left,(1 ) Jom, xiii . 312 , St.- Cyr, ii . 235, 236. Nap. i .172.(2) Jom, xiii. 314. Dum. iv, 12, 13. St.-Cyr, ii.241.134 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.which he feared was preparatory to a passage of the river by the French centre, the Archduke drew back his victorious columns to the intrenchedcamp, and an action was terminated, in which, if properly supported, the Imperialists might have achieved the destruction of the whole Republicanleft wing, and possibly changed the issue of the campaign (1) .Increasing perplexityHe in vain moves round to Augsburg.Confounded by this vigorous stroke on his left, and made sensible,of Moreau . by his firm countenance, that the enemy was resolved to risk abattle rather than hazard the important position of Ulm, Moreauwas thrown into a cruel perplexity. For several days he remainedin a state of indecision , merely directing Sainte-Suzanne to cross the Danube,to the support of St.-Cyr; so that, of the eleven divisions of which his armywas composed, six were on the right bank, and five on the left. At length heresolved to resume his operations on the right bank, and after moving St.-Cyragain across the river, advanced with his centre and right, followed bySainte-Suzanne with the left, along the right bank towards Bavaria. Kray,upon this, made a sortie with ten thousand men on the moving mass; heattacked Souham's division with great vigour, but after an obstinate conflict,May 24. the Imperialists retired to Ulm, after inflicting a severe loss on theenemy. Meanwhile, Moreau continued his advance towards Bavaria, and onthe 28th occupied Augsburg, directly in the rear of the Austrian army,May 28.on thehigh-road between them and Munich. The intelligence of thisevent, however, had no effect in inducing the Imperial general to quit hisstronghold; on the contrary, wisely judging that the advance of Moreau wasonly to excite alarm, or levy contributions, he wrote to the Aulic Council,that Moreau would never advance into the Hereditary States, leaving hisgreat army in his rear, and that he would merely push forward his partiesin all directions to disquiet the enemy in his advance, and intercept hiscommunications. His firmness was completely successful; the French general did not venture to advance farther into Germany, as long as the enemyremained in such force in his rear, while the lengthened stay of such immense masses in one quarter speedily rendered provisions scarce in theFrench army, and induced such disorders as rendered several severe examples,and a new organization of great part of their army, necessary ( 2) .vances on the left bank of the Danube.June 4.He next ad- Finding that Kray had penetrated his design, and remained firmat Ulm, in such a position as to endanger his communications if hecontinued his present advance, Moreau conceived a new and moredecisive project, which was, to pass the Danube below Ulm, and cut theAustrian army off from its great magazines in Bohemia. With this view, theadvanced guard, which had occupied Augsburg, and levied a contribution of600,000 florins (L.60,000) on that flourishing city, was withdrawn, and thearmy was preparing to follow in this direction, when their movement wasinterrupted by a sudden irruption of the Austrians on the rightbank. In effect, Kray perceiving his adversary's design, collected thirty thousand men in the intrenched camp, with which, during the night, he crossedthe bridge of Ulm, and assailed, at break of day, the flank ofthe French army.The tempest fell on the left wing, under the orders of Richepanse; it wasspeedily enveloped by superior forces, broken, and placed in a state of thegreatest danger. From this almost desperate condition the Repub- French left. licans were rescued by a seasonable and able attack by Ney, who,having received orders to support the menaced corps, flew to the scene ofImminent risk of the( 1) St.-Cyr, ii . 245, 251. Jom . xiii . 315, 317.Nap. i . 173, 174. Dum. iv. 16, 18.(2) Dum. iv. 31 , 36. Jom. xiii , 219, 320. St.- Cyr, ii , 258, 290. Nap. i . 174, 175.1800. ] HISTORY OF Europe.135danger, and advanced with such vigour against their vanguard, posted on theplateau of Kerchberg, that it was defeated with the loss of a thousand pri soners. Emboldened by this success, Richepanse halted his retiring columns,faced about, and renewed the combat with Kray, who, finding superiorforces of the enemy now accumulating, withdrew to his intrenchments.Never did the French army incur greater danger; the Austrians in half anhour would have gained the bridge over the Iller, cut through the middle oftheRepublicans, and possibly, by opening a communication with the Prince of Reuss in the mountains of Tyrol, retrieved all the disasters ofthe campaign (1) .June 10. Heavy rains which fell at this time precluded the possibility ofactive operations for nearly a week to come , but Moreau, encouraged by thislast success, was still intent on prosecuting his movement upon the Lower Danube. With this view, he spread his troops along the whole lineof the Upper Lech; Lecourbe made himself master of Landeberg,and continuing his march down the course of that river, entered asecond time into Augsburg, directly in the rear of the Imperialists,At the same time, the centre and left descended the Kamlach and Gunz,towards Krumbach; thus accumulating almost all the Republican army between the Austrians and Bavaria. Threatened by such superior forces, Starray, who commanded the detached corps of the Austrians in that quarter,was obliged to cross to the left bank of the Danube. This able movement re established the Republican affairs in that quarter; Kray, in his turn, nowsaw his connexions with the interior threatened, and himself reduced to thenecessity of either abandoning his intrenchments, or making an effort withhis whole disposable force to re-establish his communications (2) .The passagenube is effected byJune 12.At length Moreau cuts off his communica tions.of the Dathe June 19.Finding his adversary still immovably fixed at Ulm, Moreau after having concentrated his forces on the southern bank of the Danube, between Gunzburg and Donawerth, resolved to attempt thepassage by main force. Far from penetrating his design, Starray,who commanded the Imperial forces on the opposite bank, sent all histroops, except eight battalions and a few squadrons, towards Ulm; whereKray lay inactive, neither attempting any thing against the French underRichepanse, between him and the Tyrol, nor taking any steps to secure hislast and most important communications. Moreau ably profited by the supineness of his antagonist. After several unsuccessful attempts, which distracted the enemy's attention , the passage was effected on the 19th at Blind heim, with that romantic gallantry which so often in similar situations hascharacterised the French arms. The Austrians immediately hastened from all quarters to crush the enemy, before he was firmly established on the leftbank; but Lecourbe, pushing on to Schwinningen, which lay between theirdetachments, prevented their junction; and after a murderous conflict, notonly succeeded in maintaining his position, but made prisoners three bat talions of the enemy (3) .tion at Severe ac- Both parties now hastened with all their disposable forces to theHochstedt. scene of action. Lecourbe speedily crossed over the remainder ofhis corps to the left bank, and advanced with fifteen thousand men toHochstedt, while Kray detached the greater part of his cavalry and lightartillery to the support of Starray. The Austrian general, not finding himselfin sufficient strength to resist the increasing masses of the enemy, retired(1) Jom. xiii. 326, 328. Dum. iv. 36, 37. Nap. i.174, 175.(2) Jom. xiii . 334, 335, Dum. iv, 40, 44. Nap.i. 176 .(3) Jom. xiii, 334. 338. Dum . iv. 44, 51. Nap. i .178.136 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.to Dillingen, severely harassed by the French cavalry, which made above athousand men prisoners . Kray advanced two thousand cuirassiers to extricate his infantry, and a desperate mélée took place between the Republicanand Imperial cavalry, in which the Austrian horse maintained their high character, but could not bear up against the great superiority of the enemy.After a bloody conflict in the course of which Moreau and Lecourbe repeatedly charged in person, the Imperialists retired behind the Brentz, leavingthe enemy securely established on the left bank of the Danube (1 ) . Thus the Republican cavalry gained a glorious success on the very plains where a century before the presumption of Marshal Tallard had endangered the crown of Louis XIV, and brought an unheard- of disaster on the French arms.Kray is at length com pelled to abandon Ulm, and reaches Nordlingen.June 19.The consequences of this victory were decisive. Twenty pieces of cannon, and four thousand prisoners , had been made in these continued combats; but what was of far more importance, Kray wascut offfrom his resources in Bohemia, and obliged to evacuate theintrenched camp of Ulm. Compelled to abandon that importantposition, he left a garrison of ten thousand men within its walls, and having stationed his cavalry on the Brentz, so as to cover his movement, and dispatched his grand park, consisting of one hundred and sixty pieces andeight hundred caissons , on the road to Neresheim and Nordlingen, he himself followed with the remainder of his army in three divisions, andafter undergoing unparalleled fatigues and privations , during a continuedforced march of four days, arrived on the 23d , late in the evening, at Nordlingen. This march of the Austrians, in a semicircle, of which the Republicans occupied the base, was performed with the greatest expedition, chieflyduring the night, and a degree of military talent, which rescued them fromtheir embarrassments, and reflects the highest honour on the capacity and determination of their commander. The opposing generals seemed to have changed places , during the eventful period from the 14th to the 23d June:the supineness of the Austrian commander during the first four days, whenthe able Republican movement was in preparation , exposed him to thegreatest dangers, from which he was afterwards extricated not less by his own ability, when roused to a sense of the perils which surrounded him,than the tardiness and irresolution which deprived the French general ofits fruits, at the very moment when they were within his grasp . HadMoreau, with his victorious and concentrated army, fallen perpendicularlyon the flank of the Imperialists, when performing their perilous movementto regain their communications, the vanguard would probably have beenseparated from the rear, great part of the park taken, and the triumph of Hohenlinden been contemporary with that of Marengo (2) .cupies Moreau oc- During the last day's march, before arriving at Nordlingen, theMunich. Imperial cavalry were severely pressed by the French, and theexhaustion of the troops was such, that the Austrian general deemed itindispensable to give them a day's rest to recover from their fatigues. Moreau , finding that the enemy had gained several marches upon him , andthat he could not hope to force him to a general engagement, resolved tochange his direction , and by occupying Munich, and laying Bavaria undercontribution, both separate Kray irretrievably from his left wing, under thePrince of Reuss, in the Tyrol, and secure for himself all the consequencesof the most brilliant victory. For this purpose he detached general Decaen(1 ) Dum. iv. 51 , 55. Jom. xiii, 338, 341. Nap. i .178. (2 ) Nap. i. 178, 179. Jom. xiii . 342, 345, Dum,iv . 59, 61.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 137June 25. with ten thousand men, who set out on the 25th from Dillingen ,marched in the three following days forty leagues, and, after defeating thetroops of Meerfelt stationed to protect the electoral capital, entered Munich June 28. on the 28th . The elector, taken by surprise, had hardly time totake refuge with his family behind the Iser, under the escort of the Austriantroops. At the same time, Richepanse with his corps invested Ulm on bothsides of the Danube, and Kray leisurely continued his retreat towards theupper palatinate, abandoning the whole of Swabia and Franconia to theenemy(1).June 29.July 1.Kray crossesand the right bank toMontrichard, with the Republican vanguard, came up with theImperial rearguard, posted in front of Neuberg. Carried away by an impetuous courage, he immediately commenced an attack; but Kray, who wasat hand with twenty-five thousand men, made him repent his temerity,and suddenly assailing the French with greatly superior forces , threw theminto disorder, and drove them back above two leagues in the utmost confusion. The approach of night, and the arrival of Lecourbe with great reinforcements, induced him to draw off his victorious troops after this success;and, finding that he could not establish himself on theLech before thethe Danube, enemy, he continued his march during the night, reached Ingolstadt, repassed the Danube, and descending the right bank of thatLandshut. river, advanced towards Landshut. In this engagement the Republicans had to lament the loss of the brave La Tour- d'Auvergne, deemedthe first grenadier of France. A model of every warlike virtue, this soldier,though a captain by rank, had taken a musket on his shoulder as a privategrenadier. He perished from the stroke of a lance, while repulsing in thefront rank a charge of Imperial cavalry. Such was the esteem in which hewas held, that the whole army wore mourning for him for three days, anda monument was erected on the spot where he fell , which, according to thenoble expression of General Dessolles in his order of the day on the occasion,66 consecrated to virtue and courage, was put under the protection of thebrave of every age and country." It was not in vain that this touchingappeal was made to German honour. The Archduke Charles, at a subsequent period, when the fortune of war had restored the country where itstood to the power ofthe Imperialists, took it under his especial protection .It survived all the disasters which overwhelmed the throne of Napoléon,and still remains, in the midst of a foreign land , a monument honourablealike to the French who erected , and the Imperialists who protected it ( 2) .And falls Notwithstanding all his diligence, Kray could not reach Munichback behind before the French; and he had the mortification , on reaching theneighbourhood of that city, of finding that it was already in thehands of the enemy, and that his communication with his left wing in theTyrol was irrecoverably cut off. Continuing his retreat, therefore, he leftthe banks of the Iser for those of the Inn , and arrived in five marches byWartenberg, Hohenlinden, and Haag, at the camp of Amfing. He was therejoined by the corps of Meerfelt , which had retired from Munich; the corpsof the Prince of Condé received orders to advance to his support fromSaltzburg, and as he approached the Hereditary States, the Imperial generalbegan to receive those reinforcements , which the patriotism of their inhabitants never fails to afford to the monarchy when seriously menaced withdanger (3).the Jun.July 7.(1) Dum. iv. 61 , 63. Jom, xiii . 350, 355. Nap. i.178.(2) Fain, MS. de 1813 , ii . 431. Dum. iv. 63, 66.Jem, xiii. 354, 355.(3) Jom . xiii . 355, 357. Dum. iv. 66 , 71. Nap.i . 179.138 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.against theReuss in theFeldkirchthe RepubOperations Both parties, at this period, received intelligence of the battle ofPrince of Marengo and armistice of Alexandria, which shall immediately be Tyrol. noticed; and, not doubting that it would speedily be followed byis carried by a suspension of arms in Germany as well as Italy, Moreau resolved licans. to take advantage of the short period which remained to clear hisextreme right of the Prince of Reuss, who from the mountains of Tyrol was now in a situation , from the advance of the French army into the heart of Germany, to threaten its communications. For this purpose Lecourbe wasdetached, with the right wing ofthe army, towards Feldkirch, the formidable position which covered the north-west of that rugged district, and against which all the efforts of Masséna and Oudinot had failed in the preceding campaign. The troops who garrisoned their intrenchments, had been in greatpart drawn away to keep up the communication with the Prince of Condé,and the main body of the Imperialists on the eastern frontier of Tyrol; andthose which remained, were so scattered over many different points, as to beincapable of rendering effectual resistance at any. After some trifling succes- ses at Fussen and Immenstadt, Coire and Luciensteg were abandoned to theenemy, whose superiority of force rendered opposition impossible;and, although the Austrians, in the first instance, gained some successes be- July 14. fore Feldkirch, they found themselves in the end unable to mansufficiently its extensive works, and on the following day that celebratedstronghold, which had lost much of its importance from the new theatre onwhich the war was carried on, was abandoned to the enemy ( 1 ) .July 13.While Lecourbe was thus clearing the right of, the Republican position,Sainte Suzanne, who had been dispatched to the Lower Rhine to organizethe French forces in that direction, was performing the same service on thebanks ofthe Maine ( 2) . He invested Philipsburg, and advanced to Aschaffenburg, where the Imperialists were repulsed; and the Lower Maine was speedily cleared of their troops.Parsdorf inJuly 15. Matters were in this situation, when the truce which had been Armistice of concluded at Alexandria between France and Austria a monthGermany before, was extended to Germany, under the appellation of thearmistice of Parsdorf. By this subsidiary treaty hostilities were terminatedat all points in the empire, and were not to be resumed without a notice oftwelve days. The French occupied all the country from Balzers in the Grisons, on the right bank of the Rhine, to the sources of the Inn; the wholevalley of that river, from it by the reverse of the mountains to the sources ofthe Lech, and the whole intermediate country occupied by their troops alongthe Iser to its junction with the Danube; and from thence by Wessinburgand the Rednitz to the Maine. The fortresses included within this line, stillin the hands of the Imperialists, particularly Ulm, Ingolstadt, and Philipsburg, were to remain in their possession, on the condition, on the one hand,that their garrisons were not to be augmented, and on the other, that theywere to be provisioned every ten days, at the sight of commissioners namedby the belligerent powers (3) . In the circumstances in which the Austriansthen were, threatened with invasion in the Hereditary States in their mostvulnerable quarter, the valley of the Danube, this armistice was a most fortunate event, and gave them a breathing-time, of which they stood muchin need to repair their shattered forces, and prepare for the farther struggleswhich awaited the monarchy.(1) Jom, xiii , 357, 367. Dum. iv. 71. 82. Nap. i .180 .(2) Jom. xiii. 367.(3) Dum. iv. 84, 90.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 139Important as these events were, they were eclipsed by those which at thesame period occurred to the south of the Alps.Designs of Napoléonconquest of Italy.An ordinary general, terrified at the dangers with which the sou for the re- thern departments were threatened, would have hastened withthe army of reserve to the Var , in order to protect the menacedfrontier of Piedmont. But Napoléon, who was well aware of the difficultiesattending a front attack upon the Imperialists in that mountainous region ,and appreciated with all the force of his genius the importance of the centralposition which he occupied in Switzerland , determined upon a more important and decisive operation. This was to cross the Alps by one of the centralpasses after the Austrians were far advanced in Piedmont, and thus interposebetween them and their resources, cut them off from their communicationwith the Hereditary States, and compel them to fight under the most disadvantageous circumstances, with their front towards Lombardy, and their rearshut in by the Mediterranean sea and the inhospitable ridges of the Apen nines (1 ) . Defeat in such circumstances could not be other than ruin, whilea disaster to the French would be of comparatively little importance, as theirretreat, at least for the infantry and cavalry, was secure over the passes ofthe St.-Gothard or the Simplon into Switzerland, which was still in theirhands, and where experience had proved they could resist the utmost effortsof the Imperialists .Extreme suffering ofthe troopsmits of the on the sumMaritime Alps.But before this great blow could be struck, the French had a desperate and hopeless struggle to maintain on the ridges of the Apennines. During the winter months, while the Austrians were reposing from their fatigues, and repairing their losses in men, horses ,and equipments, in the fertile plains of Lombardy, the French army, perchedon the rugged summits of the mountains, had to contend at once with thehardships incident to those sterile regions , and the contagious maladies whichthey brought with them from their disastrous campaign in the plains . Nowords can describe the sufferings they underwent during that afflicting period: a few regiments lost two thousand men in the hospitals of Genoa infour months the wants of the troops, without shoes, blankets, or winterclothing, produced universal insubordination, and the authority of the officers being generally lost by the common calamities, vast numbers openly abandoned their colours and returned into France. The French army was rapidlymelting away under such accumulated disasters, and every thing announcedan easy conquest of Genoa to the Imperialists, when the torrent was arrestedby the energetic measures adopted by the First Consul, immediately afterhe assumed the reins of public affairs ( 2) .

Masséna is His first care was to appoint Masséna , whose abilities in mountainwarfare had been so fully tried , and who was so well acquainted,appointed to the com mand. Nation to thesepoléon's from the campaigns of 1795 and 1796, with that country, to theproclama direction of the army; and upon assuming the command, that troops. great general issued an energetic proclamation in Napoléon's nameto the troops: -" The first quality of a soldier," said he, " is to bear withconstancy the privations of war; valour is but a secondary consideration.Many corps have abandoned their colours; they have remained deaf to thevoice of their officers . Are, then, the brave men of Castiglione, Rivoli, andNeumarkt no more? Rather than desert their colours, they would haveperished at their feet . Your rations, you complain , have not been regularlydistributed . What would you have done, if, like the 18th and 32d regiments,(1) Jom, xiii. 39, 40. Nap, i , 252. (2) Jom. xiii. 45, 46 .140 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP.XXXI.you had found yourselves in the midst of the desert, without either bread orwater, having nothing but horse and camel flesh to subsist on?— Victorywill give us bread, ' said they. And you desert your standards! Soldiers ofItaly! a new general is to take the command of you; he was ever with theadvanced guard in the days of your glory; place your confidence in him, hewill again chain victory to your standards . " These energetic words, and stillmore the magic of Napoléon's name, had a prodigious effect on the Frenchsoldiers, ever liable to pass with rapidity from one extreme to another. Thedesertion speedily diminished, and some severe examples which Massénamade immediately after his arrival, soon stopt it altogether. At the sametime, the vigour of the First Consul provided more substantial additions tothe comforts of the men: their rations were augmented, and distributedwith regularity; a portion of their arrears was discharged; and by incredibleexertions, not only were ample supplies conveyed to their frigid bivouacs,but fresh clothing provided for their shivering limbs. By these means thespirit of the soldiers was in a short time so restored , that an army, which afew weeks before seemed menaced with approaching dissolution , becameEnergetic measures taken tocapable of the most persevering exertions . A new organizationwas completed by Masséna, and four regiments, which he broughtrestore order. with him, in the highest state of equipment from the north ofSwitzerland, became the model on which the army was formed . The army,which amounted to twenty- eight thousand men, in Liguria , exclusive ofeight thousand on the summits of the Alps, from Argentiere to Mont Cenis,was divided into three corps. The right, under the command of Soult, sixteen thousand strong, occupied Gavi, the Campo- Freddo, the Bocchetta, andthe summit of the valleys leading from Piedmont to Genoa; the centre, consisting of twelve thousand, guarded the ridges extending westward, fromthence through Cadebone, Vado, Savona, and the Col di Tende, towards France;while the left wing, under Thureau , perched on the summit of the Alps whichform the western boundary of the plain of Piedmont, watched the important passes of Mont Cenis, the Little St. -Bernard, and the Col di Genevre (1 ) .Positions of The Austrians, cantoned in the plain below, and at the entrance of the numerous valleys which were occupied by the enemy, wereso much scattered , that out of ninety-six thousand men who composed theiractive force, not more than sixty thousand could be assembled for operationson the Bormida and in the Apennines. This force , however, was amply sufficient for the object in view, which was the expulsion of the French fromItaly; and at length the order from Vienna arrived, and active operationscommenced on the 6th April ( 2) .the Aus- trians.The town of Genoa, against which all the efforts of the Imperialists werenow directed, is situated in the centre of the gulf which bears its name; andfrom a very early period has occupied a distinguished place in the history ofDescription modern Europe. Placed on the southern slope of the Apennines,of Genoa. where they dip into the Mediterranean sea , it exhibits a successionoflofty buildings, terraces, gardens, and palaces, rising one above another inimposing masses from the water's edge to a very great eminence. The gay and glittering aspect of the buildings, ascending in succession from the harbourto the summit of the hills which screen it from the north; the splendour ofthe palaces which adorn its higher quarters , the picturesque air ofthe towersand fortifications by which it is surrounded; the contrast between the dazzling whiteness of the edifices, and the dark green of the firs and olives by(1 ) Bot. iii, 455, 456. Nap. i . 201. Jom xiii. 45, (2) Jom. xiii. 53, 54 .48, 51 .1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 141which they are shrouded; and the blue sea which washes the southern ramparts of the city, and reflects its innumerable domes and spires, form aspectacle at once so varied and gorgeous, as to have early captivated theimaginations of the Italians, and secured for it the appellation of Genova laSuperba. A double circle of fortifications surrounds this splendid city; theouter or exterior walls consist of a triangle of nine thousand toises in circumference. On the south , bounded by the sea , this line extends from the pointof the Lanterne at the mouth of the rivulet called the Polcevera to the mouthof the Bisagno; the eastern side runs along the banks of the Bisagno to thefort ofEperon, which forms the apex of the triangle , and the western descendsfrom that elevated point to the Lanterne along the margin of the Polcevera.The batteries on the western side command the whole valley of the Polcevera,with the long and straggling faubourg of St. - Pierro d'Arena, which runsthrough its centre; those on the east, on the other hand, are themselvescommanded by the heights of Monte Ratti and Monte Faccio , a circumstancewhich rendered it necessary to occupy them by detached outworks, which arecalled the forts of Quizzi , of Richelieu , and of San Tecla, on the Madonne delMonte. Higher up the Apennines than the fort Eperon, is the plateau of theTwo Brothers, which is commanded in rear by the Diamond Fort, perched ona summit twelve hundred toises from fort Eperon. The peculiar situation ofGenoa, lying on the rapid declivity where the Apennines descend into the sea,rendered it necessary to include these mountains in its rear in the exteriorline of its fortifications , and to occupy so many points beyond their widecircuit by detached outworks, which give the ridges by which it is encircledthe appearance of an immense castle. The interior line which surrounds thecity properly so called , is susceptible of some defence; but the possession ofthe outer works would render any protracted resistance impossible, as thebatteries on the Lanterne and the fort of Eperon would expose the city to thehorrors of a bombardment (1) .taken for itssea .Measures Early in March, Admiral Keith, who commanded the British fleetblockade by in the Mediterranean, established a close blockade of the harbour land and of Genoa and its dependencies, which promised to augment extremely the difficulties of the besieged; and in the beginning of April , GeneralMélas having completed his preparations, moved forward in three columns tothe attack of the French defensive positions . Ott, with the left wing, fifteenthousand strong, was intrusted with the attack of the right , and the forts onMonte Faccio; Mélas withthe centre, consisting of twenty-four thousand, wasto ascend the valley of the Bormida, and separate the centre of the enemyfrom their left wing; while Elnitz with the right, amounting to eighteenthousand soldiers, was to assail their left, and to facilitate the important anddecisive movements of Mélas in the centre. These attacks all provedsuccessful. The Imperialists experienced every where the mostvigorous resistance, and the courage and enterprise on both sidesseemed exalted to the highest pitch by the great object for whichthey contended, and the lofty eminences, midway between the plain and theclouds, on which the struggle took place . But the resolution of the Austrians,aided by their great superiority of numbers, and the advantage which theinitiative always gives in mountain warfare, at length overcame all the aidwhich the French derived from the possession ofthe heights and the fortifications by which they were strengthened . Soult, on the French right ,driven from Montenotte, the first scene of Napoleon's triumphs, was thrown( 1 ) Nap. i . 203, 204 Jom. xiii . 88, 92. Dum. iii . 227, 231. Personal observation.Successful attack of the Imperialists on the French position.142 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI .Suchet is separated from the main body,and drivenApril 6.back towards Genoa, while Savona, Cadebone, and Vado, wereoccupied by the Imperialists, and their extreme left , under Suchet, altogether detached from the centre, and thrown back toback towards wards France. Hohenzollern, who was intrusted with the attack ofthe Bocchetta, drove the French from the neighbourhood ofGavi farup that important pass, and with some difficulty succeeded in retaining thecrest ofthe mountains; while on the extreme left, Klenau obtained the mostimportant advantages. Breaking up from the valley of the Trebbia, headvanced, in three columns, up the narrow ravines which led to the easternfortifications of Genoa, carried the summit of the mountains, drove the Republicans from the Monte Faccio and the Monte Ratti, and invested the fortsof Quizzi, Richelieu , and San Tecla, within cannon-shot ofthe walls of Genoa.Its inhabitants were variously agitated with hopes and fears, as the firing ofthe musketry and cannon came nearer and nearer. At length the smoke wasdistinctly visible, even from the interior ramparts, and while the brokenregiments of Soult were entering the city from the westward, by the gates ofthe Lanterne, the whole heavens to the north and west were illuminated bythe fires of the bivouacs, from the crowded summits ofMonte Faccio (1) .Desperate and success- The situation of Masséna was now highly critical; the more espeful sortie of cially as a large and influential part of the inhabitants were strongly Masséna. attached to the cause of the Imperialists, and ardently desired adeliverance from the democratic tyranny to which for four years they had been subjected . Their ardour, strongly excited by the sight of the Austrianwatchfires, and the sound of the tocsin which incessantly rung to rouse the peasants on the neighbouring mountains, was with difficulty restrained evenby the presence ofa garrison, now increased , by the refluence from all quarters, to twenty thousand men. But Masséna was not a man to be easilydaunted; and on this accumulation of force in the central position of Genoa,he founded his hopes of expelling the enemy from the post most threateningto the city. By daybreak on the 7th, he threw open the gates ofthe town, and attacked the Austrian division on the Monte Faccio with suchvigour, that in a short time that important post was carried; the Imperialistswere driven from the Monte Cornua, the Torriglio, and all the passes of theApennines in that direction , and fifteen hundred men made prisoners, whowere before nightfall marched through the astonished crowds into the interior of the city (2) . On the same day a series of obstinate engagements tookplace on the Austrian right between Elnitz and Suchet, which though attended with varied success, upon the whole had the effect of establishing theImperialists in great strength on the heights of St.-Jacques and Vado, and completing the separation of the French left wing from the centre of their army and the city of Genoa.April 7.opening thetion withHis disposi- No sooner was the French general informed of this disaster, than tions for re- he perceived that it was not by any transient success on the Montecommunica Faccio, but a vigorous effort towards Savona, and the re-establish- Suchet. ment of his communications with Suchet, that the torrent ofdisaster was to be arrested . With this view he divided his army into threedivisions; the first under Miollis, being intrusted with the defence of the cityand environs of Genoa; the second under Gazan, was to advance from Voltritowards Sassello, while the third under Masséna in person, was to move alongthe sca-coast. Suchet at the same time received orders to suspend his re-(1) Dum. iii. 47, 51. Nap, i . 206, 207. Jom. xiii.53, 57. Bot. iii . 460, 462. Thib. 70, 85. Siege de Genoa.(2) Bot. iii. 463. Jom . xiii . 56 , 57. Nap. i . 207.Dum, iii . 51, 52. Thib, 80, 110.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 143treat, and co-operate in the general attack which, it was hoped, would leadto the capture of the Austrian division at Montenotte and Savona, and reestablish the important communication with Suchet and France. The execution ofthe combined attack was fixed for the 9th ofApril (1 ) .measures toApril 11.proveAustrian Meanwhile Melas, having so far strengthened Elnitz onthe heightsprevent it, of Vado as to enable him to make head against Suchet, resolved to successful. move with the bulk of his force against Masséna at Genoa, wiselyjudging that the principal efforts of his opponent would be directed to theopening a communication with France and the left wing of his army. Withthis view he moved forward Hohenzollern, on the evening of the 8th, who,after a sharp resistance, carried the Bocchetta by moonlight, which hadbeen abandoned after the reverse on the Monte Faccio, and drove the Frenchdown the southern side to Campo Marone. This success so entirely disconcerted Soult, who directed Gazan's division, that though he had gained considerable advantages, he deemed it prudent to suspend the march of histroops. On the following night, however, he was strongly reinforced by thegeneral-in-chief, and on the 11th he assailed with superior forcesthe division of St.-Julien at La Vereira, and after a desperate conflict routedit with the loss of fifteen hundred prisoners and seven standards. But thissuccess was more than compensated by the disaster which on the same daybefell the left of the French at Cogoletto, who were overwhelmed by Melas,notwithstanding the utmost efforts of Masséna in person, and driven back,sword in hand, to the neighbourhood of Voltri . At the same time, Elnitz andSuchet combated with divided success on the Monte Giacomo . At first theRepublicans were victorious, and an Austrian brigade commanded by Ge- April 12, neral Ulm, separated from the main body, was surrounded andcompelled to lay down its arms: but this success having led Suchet to attempton the following day the attack of the Monte Giacomo itself, a lofty ridge ofprodigious strength, he was repulsed with great slaughter, and, after leaving the slopes of the mountain and its snowy crest covered with the deadand the dying, driven back in confusion to Melogno and Sette Pani on thesea-coast (2).Thus though the Republicans combated every where with rare intrepidity,and inflicted fully as great a loss on their adversaries as they received themselves, yet, on the whole, the object of their efforts was frustrated . Giganticefforts had been made, blood had flowed in torrents, and the rival armies,amidst the rocks and clouds of the Apennines, had struggled with unheardof obstinacy, but still the Austrians retained their advantage; their columnswere still interposed in strength between the French centre and left, and themultitude of killed and wounded was weakening, in an alarming degree, anarmy now cut off from all external assistance. Both parties now made theutmost efforts to concentrate their forces, and bring this murderous warfare April 15. to a termination . On the 15th, Melas renewed the attack with theutmost vigour at Ponte Ivrea, and at the same time reinforced Hohenzollernon his left, and directed him to press down from the Bocchetta, and threaten Continued the communication of the French with Genoa. Both armies, thoughexhausted with fatigue, and almost destitute of provisions , foughtwith the utmost obstinacy on the following day; but at lengthSoult, finding that his rear was threatened by a detachment of Hohenzollern,fell back to Voltri , overthrowing in his course the Austrian brigade whosuccesses of the Impe- rialists.April 16.(1 )Jom. xiii . 60. Bot. iii. 463, 464. Nap. i . 208,209. Thib. 110 , 135.(2) Bot. iii. 463, 465. Jom. xiii. 61. 71. Dum,iii. 53, 65. Nap. i . 210, 211. Thib. 167, 180.144 HISTORY OF EUROPE.Massénadriven into[ CHAP. XXXI.endeavoured to dispute the passage. On the same day, Masséna in personwas repulsed by the Imperialists under Latterman, and finding his retreatalso menaced by Hohenzollern , he also retreated to Voltri in the night, wherethe two French divisions were united on the following morning ( 1) .But the Imperialists, who now approached from all quarters, gave finally the wearied Republicans no rest in this position. From the heightsGenoa. of Monte Fayole, Melas beheld the confusion which prevailed inthe army of his opponents; while the corps of Ott, whose right wing nowbegan to take a part in the hostilities , already threatened Sestri, and theonly line of retreat to Genoa which still remained to them. A general attackwas immediately commenced . Melas descended the Monte Fayole, while Ott,whose troops were comparatively fresh, assailed it from the eastern side,and by a detachment menaced the important post of Sestri in their rear. Ottforced his way to Voltri, while Soult was still resolutely combating Melas onthe heights of Madonna dell'Acqua, at the foot of Monte Fayole, and a sceneof matchless horror and confusion immediately ensued . Soult, informed thathis communications were threatened , instantly began his retreat; the victorious troops of Ott were assailed at once by the flying columns of that general, who fought with the courage of despair, and the troops they had displaced from Voltri , who rallied and returned to the rescue of their comrades.After a desperate conflict, continued till nightfall, in which the French andImperialists sustained equal losses, the passage was at length cleared , and theretreating columns, by torchlight, and in the utmost confusion, reached thePolcevera, and found shelter within the walls of Genoa (2) .April 21. Thus, after a continued combat of fifteen days, maintained withmatchless constancy on both sides , and in which the advantages of a fortifiedcentral position on the side of the Republicans long compensated their inferiority of force to the Imperialists, Masséna with his heroic troops was shutup in Genoa, and all hope of co- operating with Suchet, or receiving reinforcements from France, finally abandoned . In these desperate conflicts theloss of the French was seven thousand men, fully a third of the force whichremained to their general after he was shut up in Genoa; but that of theAustrians was fully as great, and they were bereaved , in addition , of abovefour thousand prisoners (3) , a success dearly purchased by the French in acity where the dearth of provisions already began to be severely felt.Meanwhile Suchet, having been informed by Oudinot, who hadmade a perilous passage by sea in the midst of the English cruisers,of the desire of Masséna that he should co-operate in the generalattack, instantly made preparations for a fresh assault on the blood- stainedridge ofthe Monte Giacomo; but in the interval , Melas, now relieved on hisleft by the retreat of Masséna into Genoa, had reinforced Elnitz by three brigades, and the position of the Imperialists, naturally strong, was therebyrendered impregnable. The consequence was, that the moment the Republicans made their appearance at the foot ofthe mountain, they were attackedand overthrown so completely, that it was only owing to an excess of caution on the part of the Imperialists that they were not wholly cut off andmade prisoners. By this disastrous defeat Suchet lost all hope of regaininghis communication with Genoa and was compelled to fall back, for his ownsecurity towards the Var and the frontier of Piedmont (4).April 20.Defeat of Suchet by Elnitz.(1) Bot. iii. 464, 465. Nap. i . 211. Jom . xiii.71, 75. Dum. iii. 69, 73. Thib. 180, 200. (2) Thib. 200. 217. Dum. iii . 74, 76. Jom . xiii .76, 78. Bot. iii, 467.(3) Dum. iii . 76, 77. Jom. xiii . 76 , 78, 88.(4) Dum, iii. 79. Jom. xiii, 79, 80.1800.]HISTORY OF EUROPE. 145. April 27. On the other hand, Melas, having completed the investment ofGenoa, and left Ott with twenty-five thousand men to blockade that fortress ,moved himself, with the bulk of his forces , to reinforce Elnitz on the MonteGiacomo, and pursue his successes against Suchet. To aid in the accomplishment ofthis object, he moved up part of the twenty-five thousand men, who,during this desperate struggle in the Apennines, had lain inactive in Piedmont under Kaim. Threatened by so many forces, Suchet retired with about ten thousand men to Albuega, in the rear ofLoano, and took a position at Borghetto, where Kellermann, in 1795,had so successfully arrested the advance of General Divini . There,however, he was attacked a few days after by Melas with superior forces, anddriven from the field with great loss: He endeavoured in vain to make a standon the Monte di Torria and the Col de Tende; the columns ofthe Austriansturned his flanks and drove him across the frontier and over the Var, withthe loss of fifteen hundred prisoners, and an equal number killed andwounded. Thus the French, after a desperate struggle, were at length drivenback into their own territories; and nothing remained to them of their vastconquests in Italy but the ground which was commanded by the cannon ofGenoa (1).May 6.General at April 30. While Melas was thus chasing the Republican eagles from thetack on the Maritime Alps, Ott was preparing a general attack, by which hehoped to drive the French from the exterior line of defence, and French po sitions round Genoa. render their position untenable in that important fortress. Withthis view, while the English fleet kept up a severe cannonade upon the townfrom the entrance of the harbour, a general assault was planned both against the defence of Masséna on the Bisagno, the Polcevera, and the fortified sum mits of Madonna del Monte and Monte Ratti. These attacks were all in thefirst instance successful. Bussy, supported by the fire of the English gunboats, made himself master of St. -Pierro d'Arena and the valley of the Polcevera; while Palfi, by a vigorous attack , carried the Monte Ratti, surroundedthe fort Richelieu, surprised the fort Quizzi , and made himself master of allthe southern slopes of the Monte Faccio and the Madonna del Monte. At thesame time Hohenzollern stormed the important plateau of the Two Brothers,and summoned the commander offort Diamond, now completely insulated (2) ,to surrender. The Imperialists even went so far as to make preparations forestablishing mortar batteries on the commanding heights of Albaro, and bombarding the city over its whole extent, so as to render the French position untenable within its walls .May 2.Who is driven over the Varinto France .first successrepulsed byWhich, at Had the Austrians possessed a sufficient force to make good theful, is finally advantages thus gained , they would have speedily brought the Masséna . siege of Genoa to a conclusion , and by a concentration of all theirforces on the Bormida, might have defeated the invasion by Napoléon overthe Alps, and changed the fate of the campaign. But General Ott had onlytwenty-five thousand men at his disposal , while an equal number, underKaim , lay inactive in the plains ofPiedmont, and this imprudent distributionof force proved in the highest degree prejudicial to the Imperial intereststhrough the whole campaign. Availing himself with skill of the immenseadvantage which the possession of a central position in an intrenched campafforded, Masséna withdrew four battalions from the eastern side, where hejudged the danger less pressing, and despatched them, under Soult, to re(1 ) Jom. xiii . 83, 86. Bot. iii . 467, 469. Dum.iii. 198, 200.(2) Nap. i . 212. Bot. iii . 472, 473. Dum. iii .234. Jom. xiii . 95, 96. Thib. 200, 209.IV.10146 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.gain the heights of the Two Brothers, while he himself hastened, with fourbattalions more, to reinforce Miollis on the Monte Albaro. The Austrians, whohad gained time to strengthen their acquisitions , received the attack withgreat resolution; the fury of the combatants was such that soon fire-arms became useless, and they fought hand to hand with the bayonet; for long theresult was doubtful, and even some success was gained by the Imperialists;but at length the Republicans were victorious , and the Monte Ratti, with itsforts and four hundred prisoners, fell into their hands. At the same time,Soult glided round by the ravines into the rear ofthe Two Brothers; and theAustrians, under Hohenzollern, assailed in front by the garrison of fort Diamond, and in the rear by these fresh troops, were thrown into confusion, andescaped in small parties only, by throwing themselves with desperate resolution on the battalions by which they were surrounded . By the result of thisday the Austrians lost three thousand men, of whom eighteen hundred weremade prisoners, and they were forced to abandon all the ground which theyhad gained from their opponents, excepting the Monte Faccio, while thespirits of the French were proportionally elevated by the unlooked for andglorious success which they had achieved (1 ) . Taking advantage of the consternation of the besiegers, Masséna, on the following day, attempted a sally,and attacked the fortified heights of Coronata; but after a trifling advantagehe was repulsed with great slaughter, and compelled finally to shut himselfup in the walls of Genoa (2) .Successful sally of the Nothing of moment occurred for the next ten days; but during French. that time Masséna, finding that famine was likely to prove even amoreformidable enemy than the Austrian bayonets, and that it was necessaryat all hazards to endeavour to procure a supply of provisions, resolved upona sally. The Austrians had been celebrating, by a feu dejoie along their wholelines, the success of Melas on the Var, when Masséna determined, by a vigourous effort, both to prove that the spirits of his own garrison were not sinking, and to facilitate the meditated descent of the First Consul into Pied May 11. mont. Miollis was charged with the attack of the Monte Faccio onthe front of the Sturla, while Soult, ascending the bed of the torrent Bisagno,was to take it in flank. The attack of Miollis, commenced before Soult was athand to second it , failed completely. He gained possession in the first instance ofthe front positions of the enemy on the slopes ofthe mountain, andwas advancing over the ground, drenched with the blood of so many bravemen of both nations, when his troops were charged by the Imperialists inclose column with such vigour, that they were instantly thrown into confusion, and driven back in the utmost disorder to the glacis of the Roman gateof Genoa, where, by the opportune arrival of the general-in-chief with areserve, some degree of order was at length restored . The expedition ofSoultwas more fortunate. The Imperialists, assailed in front by the Republicanswhom Masséna had rallied on the Sturla, and in flank by the troops of Soult,were driven from the Monte Faccio, and were only able to force their way(1) Dum. iii. 236, 241. Jom. xiii. 97, 98. Nap. i .212. Bot. iii. 472, 473. Thib. 210, 230.(2) A singular circumstance occurred at this ssault of the Monte Faccio. The soldiers of two French regiments, the 25th light infantry and the 24th of the line, had been on the worst possible terins since the opening of the campaign, because during the winter, when insubordination was at its height, the former, which maintained its disci pline, had been employed to disarm the latter. Theyhad, in consequence, been carefully kept asunder from each other; but during the confusion of this bloody conflict, their ranks became intermingled.The same dangers, the same thirst for glory,animated both corps, and these generous sentiments so far obliterated their former jealousies, that the soldiers embraced in the midst of the fire , and fought side by side like brothers during the re mainder of the day.-See DUMAS, iii . 245, 246.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 147through their pursuers by leaving thirteen hundred prisoners in the hands ofthe enemy (1 ) .This brilliant success led to a still more audacious enterprise, which provedthe ruin of the able and enterprising French general. This was the attack ofthe Monte Greto, the most important position occupied by the Austrians on the mountains in the rear of the city, and which, if successful , would haverendered it necessary for them to raise the siege . The Republicans,six thousand strong, issued by the Roman gate, and ascending theolive-clad steeps of the Bisagno, attacked the Austrians in this important post, while Gazan, at the head of eighteen hundred men,assailed them on the other side. The intrenched camp on the MonteCreto was fortified with care, and its defence intrusted to Hohenzollern,supported by a powerful reserve . The French advanced with intrepidity tothe attack, but as they approached the intrenchments, a violent thunderstorm enveloped the mountain, the air became dark, the rain descended intorrents, and the hostile forces could only discern each other by the flashesoflightning which at intervals illuminated the gloom. In the midst of thetempest the lines met; the shock was terrible, but the Republicans insensiblygained ground; already the first line of intrenchments was carried , and theAustrian barracks were on fire, when Hohenzollern, charging at the head ofthe reserve in close column, overthrew the assailants . Soult, wounded in thethigh, was made prisoner, and his troops, dispersed in the utmost confusion ,fled to Genoa with a heavy loss in killed , wounded, and prisoners . At thesame time intelligence was received of the surrender of Savona, and Masséna,now severely weakened , had no alternative but to remain shut up withinthe walls, exposed to all the horrors of approaching famine ( 2) .This disaster terminated the military operations ofthe siege ofGenoa. Thenceforward it was a mere blockade; the Austrians, posted on the heights whichsurround the city, cut off all communication with the land side, while Admiral Keith, with the English fleet, rendered all intercourse impossible withthe neighbouring harbour. The horrors of famine were daily more stronglyfelt, and in that inglorious warfare the army was called upon tomake more heroic sacrifices than ever they had made in the tentedfield. The miserable soldiers, worn down by fatigue, and extenusufferings the inhabiof ated by famine, after having consumed all the horses in the city,tants.May 13.Which leads to another,in which they are de.feated, and Soult made prisoner.Siege is converted into ablockade.ExtremeMay 27.were reduced to the necessity of feeding on dogs, cats, and vermin, which were eagerly hunted out in the cellars and common sewers. Sooneven these wretched resources failed , and they were reduced to the pittanceoffour of five ounces of black bread , made of cocoa, rye, and other substances ransacked from the shops of the city . Affairs were in these desperatecircumstances, when Captain Fianceschi, who had left Napoléon atthe foot or the St.- Bernard , arrived in the roads of Genoa with despatchesfrom the First Consul. In an open boat, with three rowers, he had succeeded,during the night, in steering through the midst of the English fleet; whenday dawned, he was discovered , about a mile from the shore, under the gunsof their cruisers . They instantly fired , and the seamen were wounded. Thebrave officer stript off his clothes, took his sabre in his teeth, and swam to"wards the harbour. After incredible efforts he reached the shore, andlanded, almost exhausted, on the mole, whence he was immediately conducted to the general-in-chief(3) .(1) Jom. xiii. 101 , 102. Dam. iii . 243 , 247. Bol.iii . 473. Nap. i . 220. Thib. 220 , 249.(2) Jom, xiii . 102, 105. Dum . iii . 247, 252, Nap.i. 220. Bot, iii, 473. Thib. 249, 260.(3) Dum. iii . 255. Jom. xiii . 105. Eot, iii . 474.Thib. 250, 270.148 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.May 28.tie is de feated .The cheering intelligence of the passage of the Alps by Napoléon,A fresh sor and the first successes of Moreau in Germany, revived the dyinghopes of the French garrison. The spectres who wandered alongthe ramparts were animated with a passing ebullition of joy, and Masséna,taking advantage of this momentary enthusiasm, commenced a general attackon the Monte Ratti and the Monte Faccio . But this effort was beyond thestrength ofhis men. The soldiers marched out with all their wonted enthusiasm, and with a fierce countenance began the ascent of the heights; but theunusual exertion wore out their exhausted strength, and when they arrivedat the foot of the redoubts, they were torn to pieces by a tremendous andwell-sustained fire of grape and musketry, without the possibility of makingany effort to avert their fate. Broken and dispirited , the enfeebled mass wasdriven back into the city, after having acquired, from sad experience, themournful conviction that the Imperialists, whatever their reverses mighthave been in other situations, had abated nothing of their firm countenancein the neighbourhood of Genoa. Two days afterwards, the rolling of distantthunder in the Apennines was mistaken by General Gazan for the welcomenote of their approaching deliverers. Masséna himself hastened, with a palpitating heart, to the heights of Tinaille; but he was there witness to the imperturbable aspect ofthe Austrians in their impregnable intrenchments, andthe agitated crowd returned, sad and downcast, to their quarters (1) .While the French garrison was alternately agitated by these hopesand fears, the wretched inhabitants were a prey to the most unparalleled sufferings . From the commencement of the siege the priceofprovisions had been extravagantly high, and in its latter days grain ofanysort could not be had at any cost. The horrors of this prolonged famine, in acity containing above a hundred thousand souls, cannot be adequately described. All day the cries of the unhappy victims were heard in the streets,while the neighbouring rocks, within the walls, were covered with a famishedcrowd, seeking, in the vilest animals and the smallest traces of vegetation,the means of assuaging their intolerable pangs. At night, the lamentationsof the people were still more dreadful; too agitated to sleep , unable to endure the agony by which they were surrounded, they prayed aloud for deathto relieve them from their sufferings . In this extremity, the usual effect oflong-endured calamity was conspicuous, in closing the fountains of mercy inthe human heart, and rendering men insensible to every thing but their owndisasters . Infants deserted in the streets by their parents, women who hadsunk down from exhaustion on the public thoroughfares , were abandonedto their fate, and sought, with dying hands, in the sewers and other receptacles of filth , for the means of prolonging for a few hours a miserable existence. In the desperation produced by such prolonged torments, the moreardent and impetuous sought the means of destruction; they rushed out ofthe gates, and threw themselves on the Austrian bayonets, or precipitatedthemselves into the harbour, where they perished without either commiseration or assistance. In the general agony, not only leather and skins of everykind were consumed, but the horror at human flesh itself was so muchabated, that numbers were supported on the dead bodies of their fellowcitizens . Pestilence, as usual, came in the rear of famine; contagious feversswept off multitudes, whom the strength of the survivors was unable to inter. Death in every form awaited the crowds whom common suffering hadblended together in the hospitals; and the multitude of unburied corpses(1) Dum, iii, 256, 257, Bot, iii , 474, Jom, xiii, 224, Thib, 251, 260. -Agonies en dured by the inhabi tants.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 149which encumbered the streets threatened the city with depopulation (1 ) , almost as certainly as the grim hand of famine under which they were melting away.Masséna atMay 31.Such accumulated horrors at length shook the firm spirit of Maslength sur séna. The fermentation in the city had risen to an alarming height,and there was every probability that the extenuated French garrison would be overpowered by the multitudes whom despair had armedwith unwonted courage. Matters were in this desperate state, when theFrench general received a letter from Melas, couched in the most flatteringterms, in which he invited him, since resistance had now become hopeless,to conclude an arrangement for the evacuation of the city. Masséna at firstsuspected that this was merely a ruse to cover the approaching raising of thesiege, and refused to accede to any terms; but a severe bombardment bothby land and sea, on the night of the 31st, having convinced him that therewas no intention on the part of the Allies of abandoning their enterprise,and provisions, even after the most rigid economy, existing only for two daysmore, the negotiation was resumed , and at length, on the 4th June, whenthey were totally exhausted, a capitulation was agreed to , in virtue of whichthe gates were surrendered to the Allies on the following day at noon. It was June 5.' stipulated that the garrison should evacuate Genoa, with theirarms, artillery, baggage, and ammunition; they were conducted by the Allies, to the number of nine thousand , by land and sea, to Voltri and Antibes.The conditions ofthe treaty were faithfully observed towards the vanquished,and all the stipulations in favour of the democratic party at Genoa implemented by the Austrians with true German faith ( 2); a trait as honourable tothem, as the opposite conduct of the English admiral at Naples a year before,was derogatory to the well- earned character of British integrity.When the evacuation took place, the extent of suffering which the besiegedhad undergone appeared painfully conspicuous. " Upon entering the town, "says the faithful annalist of this memorable siege, " all the figures we metboretheappearance of profound grief or sombre despair; the streets resoundedwith the most heart-rending cries; on all sides death was reaping its victims,and the rival furies of famine and pestilence were multiplying their devastation; in a word, the army and the inhabitants seemed approaching their dissolution (3) . " The Allies acted generously to the heroic garrison, with theirillustrious chief; while, upon the signal of a gun fired from the ramparts, innumerable barks, laden with provisions , entered the harbour, amidst thetransports of the inhabitants . " Your defence," said Lord Keith to Masséna,"has been so heroic, that we can refuse you nothing; yet you alone areworthan army; how can we allow you to depart (4)? "out to meet.Melas sets It was not without reason that the Imperialists urged forward theNapoléon . evacuation, and granted the most favourable terms to thebesieged ,in order to accelerate their departure. At the very time when the negotiations were going on, a messenger arrived from Melas, with intelligence of theentry of Napoléon into Milan, and an immediate order to raise the siege. Theembarrassment of the Austrian general, between his reluctance to relinquishso important a conquest and his apprehensions at disobeying the orders of hissuperior officer, was extreme; and he deemed himself happy at being able toescape from so serious a dilemma, by granting the most favourable terms of(1) Bot. iii. 476, 477. Dum. iii . 257. Jom . xiii .224.(2) Bot. iii. 478. Jom, xiii , 228, 231. Dum. iii.260, 263.(3) Thib. 282.(4) Jom. xiii. 229. Dum. iii. 263.150 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.capitulation to his enemy. No sooner was the place surrendered, than hedetached a division to Tortona, and a brigade to Placentia; and set out on thefollowing day with his remaining forces in the same direction , leaving Hohenzollern to occupy Genoa with sixteen battalions (1).May Ir. Meanwhile Suchet contiuued his retrograde movement towards Advance of the Var; and on the 11th May effected the passage of that river.He was closely followed by the Austrians under Melas, who, on thesame day, entered into Nice, and took up their quarters in the territory of theRepublic. The enthusiasm ofthe troops rose to the highest pitch; at lengththey found themselves on the soil of France, and that ambitious power, whichhad so long sent forth its armies to devastate and oppress the adjoining states ,began now to experience the evils it had inflicted on others (2) .position onDescription The Var is a mountain river, in general fordable, but which, like of Suchet's all mountain streams in those latitudes, is readily swelled by rains the Var. in a few hours into an impetuous torrent. It has always been considered as a weak part ofthe French frontier, because, to give solidity to its left extremity, it would be necessary to carry the line of defence far into the FrenchAlps, at the distance of ten or twelve leagues from the sea. The portion ofthis line, however, which was occupied by Suchet, was much more inconsiderable, and did not extend above half a mile in breadth between the seaand the first rugged eminences . It had been fortified with care during theyears 1794 and 1795, and the long bridge which traverses the river was covered by a formidable téte-de-pont, mounted with a plentiful array of heavyartillery. In this position Suchet hoped to arrest the enemy until the armyof reserve , under Napoléon , hàd descended into Italy and appeared in theirrear. In effect, the alarming reports which he received of the appearance ofa powerful French force in the valley of Aosta, induced Melas, soon after hisarrival at Nice, to detach a large part of his troops in that direction; and atlength, when there could not longer be any doubt of the fact, he set out in May 18. person for Piedmont, leaving Elnitz , with eighteen thousand men,to make himself master of the bridge of the Var. Suchet had but thirteenthousand, but they were covered by formidable works, and were daily receiving additions of strength from the conscripts and national guard in theinterior . The Imperialists having at length got up their heavy artillery from Nice, unmasked their batteries on the 22d, and advanced with great intrepidityto the attack. But when Suchet evacuated the territory of Nice,he left a garrison in Fort Montauban, perched on a rock in thetrians on it, rear, from whence every thing which passed in the Austrian lineswas visible, and from which he received , by telegraph, hourly intelligence of what was preparing on the enemy's side. Thus warned, the Republicans were on their guard; the Austrian columns, when they arrivedwithin pistol-shot of the works, were received with a tremendous fire ofgrape and musketry; and after remaining long and bravely at the foot of theintrenchments, a prey to a murderous fire which swept off numbers by everydischarge, they were compelled to retire, after sustaining a considerable loss (3).May 22.Attack by the Auswhich is re pulsed.the Allies to Nice.Elnitz, however, was not discouraged . The accounts which he received from his rear rendered it more than ever necessary tocarry this important post, in order to secure a barrier against theFrench, in the event of its being necessary to retire, and make head againstFresh at tack and final repulse of them .(1) Jom. xiii . 227, 232. Nap. i , 224.(2) Nap. i. 217. Jom . xiii . 87.(3) Jom, xiii . 200 , 201. Dum. iii. 204, 211.Nap. i. 218.1800.] HISTORY Of Europe. 151May 27.the invasion of the First Consul. Already accounts had arrived ofthe descentofThureau upon Suza, and the capture of Ivrea by Lannes with the vanguardof Napoléon. Collecting, therefore, all his forces , he made a last effort.Twenty pieces of heavy cannon, placed in position within musket- shot,battered the Republican defences, while the English cruisers thundered onthe right of the position . Under the cover of this imposing fire,the Hungarian grenadiers advanced to the assault , and the sappers succeededin breaking through the first palisades; but the brave men who headed thecolumn almost perished at the foot of the intrenchment, and, after sustaining a heavy loss, they were compelled to abandon their enterprise . Afterthis check, all thoughts of carrying the têtes-de-pont on the Var were laidaside, and the Austrians broke up during the night, and retreated, withseventeen thousand men, in the direction of Piedmont (1 ) .Formation of the army of reserve by Napo- léon.It is now time to resume the operations of Napoléon and thearmy of reserve, which rendered these retrograde movements ofthe Imperialists necessary, cut short their brilliant career of victories, and ultimately precipitated them into the most unheard-of reverses .This army, which had been in preparation ever since its formation had beendecreed by the Consuls, on 7th January, 1800, had been intrusted, sincethe commencement of April, to Berthier, whose indefatigable activity waswell calculated to create, out of the heterogeneous elements of which it wascomposed, a formidable and efficient force. Thirty thousand conscripts andtwenty thousand veteran troops rendered disposable by the conclusion ofthe war in la Vendée, were directed to different points, between Dijon andthe Alps, to form the basis ofthis armament. Napoléon, whose gigantic mindwas equal alike to the most elevated conceptions and the superintendenceof the minutest details, was indefatigable in his endeavours to completethe preparations, and from the interior of his cabinet directed the march,provisioning, and equipment of every regiment in the army. He was atfirst undecided whether to direct the great reserve upon Germany or Italy;but the angry correspondence which had passed between him and Moreau,joined to the reverses experieneed by Masséna in the environs of Genoa, atlength determined him to cross the Alps and move upon Piedmont. Reportswere obtained from skilful engineers, on the state of all the principal passes,from Mount Cenis to the St. -Gothard . After full consideration , he determined to cross the Great St.-Bernard . The advantages of this passage were obvious. It was at once the shortest road across the mountains, beingdirectly in front of Lausanne, Vevay, and Besançon where the greater partof the army was cantoned, and it led him in a few days into the rear ofthe army of Melas, so as to leave him no alternative but to abandon hismagazines and reserves, or fight his way to them, with his face towardsMilan and his back to the Maritime Alps. In such a situation , the loss ofa considerable battle could hardly fail to be fatal to the Imperial army,and might reasonably be expected to lead to the conquest of all Italy;whereas a reverse to the Republicans, who could fall back upon theSt.-Gothard and the Simplon, was not likely to be attended with any similar disaster (2).Towards the success of this great design, however, it was indispensablethat the real strength and destination of the army of reserve should be(1) Dum. iii. 215 , 216. Jom, xiii . 201. (2) Nap. i . 252, 253. Jom. xiii . 172, 173. Dum.iii. 219.152 HISTORY OF EUROPE.[ CHAP. XXXI.to concealcarefully concealed , as the forces of the Austrians lay in the valley of Aosta, on the southern side of the St. -Bernard, and by ocits strength . cupying in strength the summit of the mountain, they might renderthe passage difficult, if not impossible. The device fallen upon by theFirst Consul for this purpose was to proclaim openly the place where thearmy was collected , and the service to which it was destined , but to assemblesuch inconsiderable forces there as might render it an object rather of ridicule than alarm to the enemy. With this view it was pompously announced,in various ways, that the army of reserve, destined to raise the siege ofGenoa, was assembling at Dijon; and when the Austrians spies repairedthither, they found only a few battalions of conscripts and some companiesof troops of the line, not amounting in all to eight thousand men, whichentirely dissipated the fears which had been formed by its announcement.The army of reserve at Dijon in consequence became the object of generalridicule throughout Europe; and Melas, relieved of all fears, for his rear,continued to press forward with perseverance his attacks on the Var, andconsidered the account of this army as a mere feint, to serve as a diversionto the siege of Genoa (1) .Description of the The St.-Bernard, which had been used for above two thousandsage of the years as the principal passage between Italy and France, liesSt. -Bernard . between Martigny in the Valais, and Aosta in the beautiful valleyof the same name on the southern side of the Alps. Though the direct communication between these countries, however, and perfectly passable forhorsemen and foot- soldiers , it presented great difficulties for the transit ofartillery and caissons . As far as St. - Pierre , indeed , on the side of the Valais,the passage is practicable for cannon, and from Aosta to the Italian plainsthe road is excellent; but in the interval between these places the trackconsists merely of a horse or bridlepath, following the sinuosities of theravines through which it is conducted , or round the innumerable precipiceswhich overhang the ascent. The summit of the ridge itself, which is littleshort of 8000 feet above the level of the sea (2) , consists ofa little plain orvalley, shut in by snowy mountains of still greater elevation , about a milein length, with features of such extraordinary gloom as to be indeliblyimprinted in the recollection of every traveller who has witnessed it . Atthe northern extremity, where the path, emerging from the steep and ruggedascent of the Valley of Desolation, as it is emphatically called, first entersupon the level surface, is situated the convent of St.-Bernard, the highestinhabited ground in Europe, founded a thousand years ago by the humanityof the illustrious saint whose name it bears, and tenanted ever since thattime by pious and intrepid monks, the worthy followers of such a leader,who there, amidst ice and granite, have fixed their abode, to rescue fromdestruction the travellers overwhelmed by snow, amidst the storms to whichthose elevated regions are at almost every season of the year exposed . Atthesouthern end are still to be seen a few remains of the Temple of JupiterPenninus, which formerly stood at the summit of the Italian side of the pass,and at its foot the cut in the solid rock through which the Roman Legionsdefiled for centuries to the tributary provinces of the empire on the northof the Alps. Innumerable votive offerings are found among the ruins of thesolitary edifice in which the travellers express in simple but touching language their gratitude to Heaven for having surmounted the dangers of thepassage. In the centre ofthe valley, midway between the remains of heathen(1 ) Jom. xiii. 175. Nap. i . 253, 254. Dum. iii . (2) 7542. Saussure and Ebel, i . 178.Skilful mea sures taken1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 153devotion and the monument of Christian charity, spreads out a lake, whosewaters, cold and dark even at the height of summer, reflect the bare slopesand snowy crags which shut it in on every side. The descent towards Aostais much more precipitous than on the north; and in the season whenavalanches are common, travellers are often exposed to great danger fromthe masses of snow which, detached from the overhanging heights , sweepwith resistless violence across the path, which there descends for miles downthe bare and exposed side of the mountain . The climate in these elevatedregions is too severe to permit of vegetation; the care of the monks hasreared a few cresses and hardy vegetables in the sheltered corners of theslopes, on the northern side of the lake; but in general the mountains consist only of sterile piles of rock and snow, and not a human being is everto be seen, except a few travellers, shivering and exhausted , who hasten upthe toilsome ascent to partake in the never-failing hospitality ofthe conventat the summit (1) .Napoléon resolves to hazard theThis scene, so interesting from historical recollections, as well asnatural sublimity, was destined to receive additional celebrity from passage. the memorable passage ofthe French army. None of the difficultieswith which it was attended were unknown to their resolute chief, but,aware of the immense results which would attend an irruption into Italy , heresolved to incur their hazard . To all the observations of the engineers onthe obstacles which opposed the passage, he replied , " We must surmountten leagues of rocks covered with snow. Be it so; we will dismount our guns,and place them on sledges adapted to the rugged nature of the ascent. Nothing is to be found in these sterile mountains but a few chestnuts and herdsof cattle; we will transport rice and biscuit by the lake of Geneva to Villeneuve; every soldier will carry as much as will suffice him for six days, andthe sumpter mules will transport subsistence for six days more. When wearrive in the valley ofAosta, we will hasten to the fertile banks of the Ticino,where abundance and glory will reward our audacious enterprise. " In pursuance of this bold design, the most active preparations were made by Marmont to facilitate the passage. Two millions of rations of biscuit were bakedat Lyon, and transported by the lake of Geneva to Villeneuve, to await thearrival of the army; trees felled in the forests of the Jura to form sledges forthe cannon, and mules and peasants summoned from all quarters to aid inthe transport of the stores and ammunition . Napoléon set out from Paris onthe 6th May, and arrived at Geneva on the 8th . He instantly sent for Marescot, the chief of engineers. After listening with patience to his enumerationof the difficulties of the attempt, he said , “ Is it possible to pass?” —Yes! ” hereplied, " but with difficulty. "-"Let us then set out," answered the FirstConsul; words eminently descriptive ofthe clear conception and immovableresolution which formed the leading features of that great man's character ( 2) .At Geneva, Napoléon had an interview with M. Necker, who had remainedin retirement at his villa of Coppet, near that town , since the period of hisbanishment by the Constituent Assembly. He professed himself little struckwith his conversation , and alleged that he did not disguise his desire to berestored to the direction of the Republican finances; but it is probable theFirst Consul regarded the Swiss statesman with prejudiced eyes , from his strong sense of the incalculable evils which his concessions to democraticambition had brought upon the French people ( 3) . On the 15th, he passed in(1) Personal observation.(2) Jom. xiii . 174, 176. Nap. i . 255, 256.(3) Nap. i, 257. Bour. vii . 109.154 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.May 9.Measures taken foroflery.review at Lausanne the vanguard of the real army of reserve, consisting ofsix regiments of veteran troops newly equipped , and in the finest possibleorder. Shortly after, he received a visit from Carnot, the minister of war,who brought accounts of the victory of Moeskirch, and the advance of Moreau in Germany; while the stores and artillery arrived from all quarters.The preparations were rapidly completed . A hundred large firs were hollowed out so as to receive each a piece of artillery; thethe crossing carriages were taken to pieces and put on the backs of mules; theammunition dispersed among the peasants, who arrived from allquarters with their beasts of burden to share in the ample rewards which theFrench engineers held forth to stimulate their activity. Two companies ofartillery workmen were stationed , the one at St.-Pierre , on the north, theother at St. -Remi, on the south of the mountains, to take to pieces the artillery and remount them on their carriages; the ammunition of the army wasconveyed in little boxes, so constructed as to go on the backs of mules. Withsuch admirable precision were these arrangements made, that the dismounting and replacing of the guns hardly retarded for an hour the march of thecolumns; and the soldiers, animated by the novelty and splendour of theenterprise, vied with each other in their efforts to second the activity oftheirofficers . Berthier, when they reached the foot of the mountains, addressedthem in the following proclamation: " The soldiers of the Rhine have signalised themselves by glorious triumphs; those ofthe army of Italy strugglewith invincible perseverance against a superior enemy. Emulating theirvirtues, do you ascend and reconquer beyond the Alps the plains which werethe first theatre of Frenchglory . Conscripts! you behold the ensigns ofvictory;march, and emulate the veterans who have won so many triumphs; learnfrom them how to bear and overcome the fatigues inseparable from war.Bonaparte is with you; he has come to witness your first triumph. Prove tohim that you are the same men whom he formerly led in these regions toimmortal renown (1 ) . " These words inflamed to the highest pitch the ardourof the soldiers, and there was but one feeling throughout the army, that ofseconding to the uttermost the glorious enterprise in which they were engaged.Passage of the moun tain.On the 16th May the First Consul slept at the convent of St. - Maurice, and on the following morning the army commenced the passage of the mountain . During the four following days the march continued,and from eight to ten thousand men passed daily. The first night they sleptat St. -Pierre, the second at St. -Remi or Etroubles, the third at Aosta. Napoléon himself remained at St.-Maurice till the 20th, when the whole hadcrossed. The march, though toilsome, presented no extraordinary difficultiestill the leading column arrived at St.-Pierre. But from that village to thesummit, the ascent was painful and laborious in the highest degree. To eachgun a hundred men were harnessed , and relieved by their comrades everyhalf mile; the soldiers vied with each other in the fatiguing undertaking ofdragging it up the toilsome and rugged track, and it soon became a point ofhonour for each column to prevent their cannon from falling behind thearray. To support their efforts, the music of each regiment played at its head,and where the paths were peculiarly steep, the charge sounded to giveadditional vigour to their exertions. Toiling painfully up the ascent, hardlyventuring to halt to draw breath lest the march of the column should beretarded, ready to sink under the weight of their arms and baggage, the(1) Bot. iv. 10, 11. Nap. i . 257. Jom . xiii . 176, 177. Dum, iii . 169, 170.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 155soldiers animated each other by warlike songs, and the solitudes of theSt. -Bernard resounded with the strains of military music . From amidst thesnows and the clouds, the glittering bands of armed men appeared; and thedistant chamois on the mountains above, startled by the unwonted spectacle ,bounded away to the regions of desolation, and paused on the summit of itsinaccessible cliffs to gaze on the columns which wound around their feet (1 ) ,After six hours of toilsome ascent, the head of the army reached thehospice at the summit; and the troops, forgetting their fatigues, traversedwith joyful steps the snowy vale, or reposing beside the cool waters of thelake, rent the air with acclamations at the approaching termination oftheirlabours. By the provident care of the monks, every soldier received a largeration of bread and cheese, and a draught of wine at the gate; a seasonablesupply, which exhausted the ample stores of their establishment, but wasfully repaid by the First Consul before the termination of the campaign.After an hour's rest, the columns wound along the margin of the lake, andbegan the steep and perilous descent to St. -Remi. The difficulties here werestill greater than on the northern side. The snow, hard beneath, was beginning to melt on the surface, and great numbers both of men and horses losttheir footing, and were precipitated down the rapid declivity. At length ,however, they reached a more hospitable region; the sterile rocks and snowgave place to herbage, enamelled with the flowers of spring; a few firs nextgave token of the descent into the woody region, gradually a thick forestovershadowed their march, and before they reached Etroubles, the soldiers ,who had so recently shivered in the blasts of winter, were melting underthe rays of an Italian sun (2) .Napoléon himself crossed on the 28th. He was mounted on a sure-footedmule, which he obtained from the Priory of St. -Maurice, and attended by ayoung and active guide, who confided to him, without knowing his quality,all his wishes , and was astonished to find them, some time after, all realizedby the generous recollection of the First Consul. He rested an hour at theconvent, and descended to St.- Remi, over the hard and slippery surface of the snow, chiefly on foot, often sliding down, and with considerable difficulty (3).(1 ) Nap. i . 259. Dum. ii . 170. Bot. iv. 13 . Bernard, opposed as it was by the mountain tribes,(2) Dum, iii . 171 , 172. Bot . iv. 14 , 15. Nap. i . by paths comparatively unformed , and in the 261.course of which the Carthaginian general lost nearly half his army. Having traversed on foot both the ground over which Napoléon's army passed at the Great St. - Bernard, that traversed by Suwarrow on the St. -Gothard, the Schachenthal,and the Engiberg, and that surmounted by Macdo nald in the passage of the Splugen, the Monte Aprigal, and the Mont Tonal, the author is enabled to speak with perfect confidence as to the compara tive merit of these different undertakings. From being commenced in the depth of winter, and over ridges comparatively unfrequented, the march of Macdonald was by far the most hazardous, so far as mere natural difficulties were concerned; that of Suwarrow was upon the whole the most worthy of admiration, from the vigorous resistance he experienced at every step, the total inexperience of his troops in mountain warfare, and the unpar alleled hardships, both physical and moral, with which its later stages were involved. That of Napoléon over the St. - Bernard , during a fine season,without any opposition from the enemy, with every aid from the peasantry of the district, and the experience of his own officers, and by a road im practicable only for carriages and cannon, must,with every impartial observer acquainted with the ground, rank as the easiest of these memorable enterprises."Oh joy! the signs of life appear,The first and single fir That on the limits of the living world Strikes in the ice its roots;Another and another now,And now the larch, that flings its arms Down curving like the falling wave,And now the aspen's glittering leaves Grey glitter on the moveless twig,The poplar's varying verdure now,And now the birch so beautiful,Light as a lady's plume."The passage of the St.-Bernard has been the subject of great exagger ation from those who are unac(3) Nap. i. 261 .Comparison of the pas sage ofthe Alps, by Hannibal, quainted with the ground. To speak Napoléon, of the French troops traversing paths Suwarrow, known only to the smuggler or the and Macdo- chamois hunter, is ridiculous, when nald.. the road has been a beaten passage fortwo thousand years, and is trav daily in sum mer by great numbers of travellers . One would suppose from these descriptions, it was over the Col du Géant between Chamouni and Aosta, or over the summit of the Col du Bonhomme, that the French army had passed. It will bear no compari son with the passage of Hannibal over the Little St.156 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.the valley ofFortThe army is Lannes, who commanded the advanced guard, descended rapidly stopped in the beautiful valley of Aosta, occupied the town of the same name,Aosta by the and overthrew at Chatillon a body of fifteen hundred Croatians Bard. who endeavoured to dispute his passage. The soldiers, findingthemselves in a level and fertile valley , abounding with trees, vines, andpasture, deemed their difficulties past, and joyfully followed the hourlyincreasing waters of the Dora Baltea, when their advance was suddenlychecked by the fort and the cannon of Bard . This inconsiderable fortificationhad wellnigh proved a more serious obstacle to the army than the wholeperils of the St.-Bernard. Situated on a pyramidal rock midway between theopposite cliffs of the valley, which there approach very near to each other,and at the distance of not more than fifty yards from either side, it at oncecommands the narrow road which is conducted close under its ramparts, andis beyond the reach of any but regular approaches. The cannon of the ramparts, two-and-twenty in number, are so disposed upon its well- constructedbastions, as to command not only the great road which traverses the villageat its feet, but every path on either side of the adjacent mountains by whichit appears practicable for a single person to pass ( 1) . No sooner was the advanced guard arrested by this formidable obstacle, than Lannes advanced tothe front, and ordered an assault on the town, defended only by a singlewall. It was quickly carried by the impetuosity of the French grenadiers , butthe Austrians retired in good order into the fort on the rock above, and fromits secure casements the garrison kept up an incessant fire upon every columnthat attempted the passage. Marescot, the chief of the engineers, reported,after a reconnoissance, that the fort could not be carried by a coup-de-main,while the rocky cliffs of the mountains on either side opposed the greatestdifficulties to a regular siege. The advance of the army was instantly checked;cannon, caissons, infantry , and cavalry accumulated in the narrow defile inthe upper part of the valley, and the alarm rapidly running from front torear, the advance of the columns behind was already suspended, from theapprehension that the enterprise was impracticable, and that they must recross the mountains (2) .May 23.Napoléon, deeming all his difficulties surmounted , was advancing with joyful steps down the southern declivity of the St.-Bernard, when he received this alarming intelligence. Instantly advancing to the vanguard, he ascended the Monte Albaredo, which commanded the fort on the left bank of the Dora Baltea, and with his telescope long and minutely surveyed its walls.He soon perceived that it was possible for the infantry to pass by a path along the face of the cliffs of that rugged mountain, above the range of the guns ofthe fort; but by no exertions was it possible to render it practicable for ar- tillery. In vain the Austrian commandant was summoned, and threatened with an instant assault in case of refusal to surrender; he replied as becamea man of courage and honour, well aware of the importance of his position,and the means of defending it which were in his power. Afew pieces of artil- Great skill lery were, by great efforts , hoisted up to an eminence on the MonteAlbaredo which commanded the fort, but their fire produced little impression on the bomb- proof batteries and vaulted casements gineers. which sheltered the garrison; a single piece only, placed on the stee- ple of the town, answered with effect to the fire of one of the bastions . Time pressed, however, and it was indispensable that the army should without dewith which the obstacle was carried by the French en-(1 ) Personal observation . (2) Nap. i . 261 , 262. Jom. xiii . 182, 183. Dum.iii. 176. 177. Bot. iv. 14.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 157lay continue its advance. Contrary to the advice of Marescot, Napoléon orderedan escalade, and Berthier formed three columns, each of three hundred grenadiers, who advanced with the utmost resolution at midnight to the assault.They climbed in silence up the rock, and reached the works without beingdiscovered. The outer palisades were carried, and the Austrian videttesretired precipitately to the ramparts above, but at its foot all the efforts ofthe Republicans were frustrated . The garrison was instantly on the alert.A shower of balls spread death through their ranks, while vast numbers ofshells and hand grenades thrown down amongst them (1 ) , augmented theconfusion and alarm inseparable from a nocturnal attack. After sustaininga heavy loss, they were compelled to abandon the attempt; the passageseemed hermetically closed; the army could not advance a step further in itsprogress.In this extremity, the genius and intrepidity ofthe French engineers surmounted the difficulty. The infantry and cavalry ofLannes' division traversedone by one the path on the Monte Albaredo, and re-formed lower down thevalley, while the artillerymen succeeded in drawing their cannon , in thedark, through the town, close under the guns of the fort, by spreading strawand dung upon the streets, and wrapping the wheels up, so as to prevent July 25. the slightest sound being heard. In this manner forty pieces and ahundred caissons were drawn through during the night, while the Austrians,in unconscious security, slumbered above, beside their loaded cannon,directed straight into the street where the passage was going forward. A fewgrenades and combustibles were merely thrown at random over the ramparts during the gloom, which killed a considerable number of the Frenchengineers, and blew up several of their ammunition waggons, but withoutarresting for a moment the passage. Before daylight a sufficient number werepassed to enable the advanced guard to continue its march, and an obstacle,which might have proved the ruin of the whole enterprise, was effectuallyovercome. During the succeeding night, the same hazardous operation wasrepeated, with equal success; and while the Austrian commander was writingto Melas that he had seen thirty-five thousand men and four thousand horsecross the path of the Albaredo, but that not one piece of artillery or caisson should pass beneath the guns of his fortress , the whole cannon and ammunition of the army were safely proceeding on the road to Ivrea. The fort ofBard itself held out till the 5th June; and we have the authority of Napoléonfor the assertion, that if the passage of the artillery had been delayed till itsfall, all hope of success in the campaign was at an end. The presence of anAustrian division seven thousand strong would have equally sufficed to destroy the French troops as they emerged without cannon from the perilousdefile ofthe Albaredo. On such trivial incidents do the fate and the revolutions of nations in the last result often depend (2) .After ashort skir- mish at Ivrea, thevance toMeanwhile Lannes, proceeding onward with the advanced guard ,emerged from the mountains, and appeared before the walls ofFrench ad- Ivrea . This place, once of considerable strength, and which in Turin. 1704 had withstood for ten days all the efforts of the Duke of Vendome with a formidable train of artillery, had oflate years fallen into decay,and its ruined walls, but partially armed, hardly offered an obstacle to anenterprising enemy. Lannes ordered an assault at once on the three gates ofthe city. He advanced himself with the column on the right, and with his( 1 ) Nap. i. 263. Jom. xiii . 185. Bour. iv. 102.Dum, iii, 176.(2) Nap. i. 203, 265. Jom. xiii. 185, 188. Dum.iii. 176, 180. Bour. iv, 102, 103.158 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI..own hand directed the first strokes of the hatchet at the palisades. The defences were soon broken down, the chains of the drawbridges cut, the gatesblown open, and the Republicans rushed , with loud shouts, on all sides intothe town. A battalion which defended the walls was forced to fly, leavingthree hundred prisoners in the hands of the enemy, and the Austrian troopsdrawn up behind the town retired precipitately towards Turin. They tookpost behind the Chinsella, spreading themselves out, according to custom,over a long line, to cover every approach to the capital of Piedmont. Theywere there attacked on the following day by Lannes, and a warm contestensued. The Imperialists , confident in the numbers and prowess of theircavalry, vigorously charged the Republicans; but, though they led up theirhorses to the very bayonnets of the infantry, they were in the endrepulsed, and the bridge over the river was carried by the assailants . Afterthis check the Austrians retired towards Turin, and Lannes, pursuing hisMay 28. successes, pushed on to the banks of the Po, where he made himself master of a flotilla of boats, of the greater value to the invading army,as they did not possess the smallest bridge equipage. The whole army,thirty-six thousand strong, was assembled at Ivrea, with all its artillery ,on the 28th, while the advanced guard pushed its patrols to the gates ofTurin (1).May 26.Passage of the St.- Go- thard andbythe wingsWhile the centre of the army of reserve was thus surmounting thedifficulties of the St.-Bernard, the right and left wings performedMont Cenis with equal success the movements assigned to them. Thureau, withof the army. five thousand men, descended to Susa and Novalese, while Moncey,detached with sixteen thousand choice troops from the army of the Rhine,crossed the St.-Gothard, and began to appear in the neighbourhood of theLago Maggiore. At the same time General Bethencourt, with a brigade ofSwiss troops, ascended the Simplon , and forcing the terrific defile of Gondo,appeared at Duomo d'Ossola, and opened up the communication with the leftof the army. Thus, above sixty thousand men, converging from so manydifferent quarters, were assembled in the plains of Piedmont, and threatenedthe rear of the Imperial army engaged in the defiles of the Apennines fromGenoa to the mouth of the Var ( 2) .Melas, incentrates the army.No sooner did Melas receive certain information of the appearancehaste , con- of this formidable enemy in the Italian plains, than he dispatchedcouriers in all directions to concentrate his troops. He himself, asalready mentioned, broke up from the Var with the greater part of his forces,and orders were dispatched to Ott to raise the siege of Genoa, and hasten withall the strength he could collect to the Bormida. The orders arrived at Genoajust at the time when the capitulation was going forward, so that the advanceofthe army ofreserve was too late to raise the siege of that fortress; but stillan important and decisive operation awaited the First Consul. To oppose himin the first instance, the Austrians had only the corps of Wukassowich,Laudon, and Haddick, who could hardly muster eighteen thousand men inall, and not above six thousand in any one point; so widely were their immense forces scattered over the countries they had conquered; while theconcentration of their troops from the Var and the coast of Genoa wouldrequire a considerable time (3) .Different In these circumstances the French commander had the choice ofplanswhich three different plans, each of which promised to be attended withNapoléon. important results. The first was to incline to the right, form aopen to(1) Nap. i. 266, 267. Dum, iii . 185, 187. Jom.xiii, 193, 195.(2) Jom. xiii. 190, 192. Dum. iii. 187, 192,(3) Jom. Vie de Nap. i , 134.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 159He resolves to occupy Milan.junction with Thureau, and, in concert with Suchet, attack the Austrian armyunder Melas; the second, to cross the Po by means of the barks so opportunelythrown into his power, and advance to the relief of Masséna, who yet heldout; the third, to move to the left, pass the Ticino, form a junction withMoncey, and capture Milan with the stores and reserve parks of the Imperialists. Of these different plans the first appeared unadvisable, as the forcesof Melas were superior to those of the First Consul without the addition ofMoncey, and it was extremely hazardous to run the risk of a defeat whilethe fort of Bard still held out and interrupted the retreat of the army.The second was equally perilous, as it plunged the invading army,without any line of communication , into the centre of the Imperialforces, and it was doubtful whether Genoa could hold out till the Republicaneagles approached the Boccheta . The third had the disadvantage of abandoning Masséna to his fate , but to counterbalance that, it offered the most brilliantresult. The possession of Milan could not fail to produce a great moral impression, both on the Imperialists and the Italians, and to renew, in generalestimation, the halo of glory which was wont to encircle the brows of theFirstConsul. The junction with Moncey would raise the army to fifty thousandeffective men, and secure for it a safe retreat in case of disaster by the St.-Gothard and the Simplon; the magazines and parks of reserve collected bythe Austrians, lay exposed to immediate capture in the unprotected towns ofLombardy; while, by intercepting their communications with Germany, andcompelling them to fight with their rear towards France and the MaritimeAlps, the inestimable advantage was gained of rendering any considerabledisaster the forerunner of irreparable ruin (1) .Advance inture of thatMay 31. Movedbytheseconsiderations, Napoléon directed his troops rapidly to Lombar- towards the Ticino, and arrived on the banks of that river on thedy, and cap- 31st May. The arrival of so great a force, in a quarter where they city. were totally unexpected, threw the Austrians into the utmost embarrassment. All their disposable infantry was occupied at Belinzona to oppose the advance of Moncey, or had retired behind the Lago Maggiore,before Bethencourt. The only troops which they could collect to oppose the passage were the cavalry of Festenberg, with a few regiments of Laudon , aforce under five thousand men, and totally inadequate to maintain the lineof the Ticino from Sesto-Calende, where it flows out of the Lago Maggiore, toPavia, where it joins the Po, against an enemy thirty thousand strong. Unable to guard the line of the river, the cavalry of Festenberg was drawn up in front of Turbigo, when Gérard, with the advanced guard, crossed theriver under cover of the French artillery, advantageously posted on theheights behind, and instantly made himself master of the bridge of Naviglio ,by which the infantry of the division began to defile to his assistance . He was immediately and warmly attacked by the Imperial cavalry , but though theyat first had some success , yet the French having retired into a woody positiondeeply intersected by canals, they succeeded in maintaining their ground, until the Republicans had crossed over in such numbers as to enable themto carry Turbigo with the bayonet, and effectually establish themselves ontheleft bank ofthe river. At the same time Murat effected a passage at Buffalora,on the great road from Turin to Milan, with hardly any opposition; theAustrians retired on all sides, and Napoléon, with the advanced guard, made his triumphant entry into Milan on the 2d June, where he wasreceived with transports ofjoy by the democratic party, and the same applause(1) Nap. i. 268, 270. Jom . xiii . 190, 196.June 2.160 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.by the inconstant populace which they had lavished the year before onSuwarrow (1) .He spreads his forces over Lom bardy, and addressestion to hisNothing could exceed the astonishment of the Milanese at thissudden apparition of the republican hero. Some believed he haddied near the Red Sea, and that it was one of his brothers whoa proclama- commanded the army; none were aware that he had so recently troops. crossed the Alps, and revisited the scenes of his former glory. Heinstantly dismissed the Austrian authorities , re- established , with more showthan sincerity, the republican magistrates; but, foreseeing that the chancesofwar might expose his partisans to severe reprisals, wisely forbade any harshmeasures against the dethroned party. Taking advantage of the public enthusiasm which his unexpected arrival occasioned , he procured, by contributions and levies, large supplies for his troops , and augmented their numbers by the regiments of Moncey, which slowly made their appearance fromthe St. -Gothard. On the 6th and 7th June these troops were reviewed, andthe French outposts extended in all directions. They were pushed to Placentia and the Po, the principal towns in Lombardy being abandoned, without resistance, by the Austrians. Pavia fell into their hands, with 200 piecesof cannon, 8,000 muskets, and stores in proportion . At the same time thefollowing animated proclamation was addressed to the troops, and electrifiedall Europe, long accustomed only to the reverses of the Republicans: —" Soldiers! when we began our march, one of our departments was in thepossession of the enemy: consternation reigned through all the south ofFrance. The greatest part of the Ligurian republic, the most faithful ally ofour country, was invaded. The Cisalpine republic, annihilated in the lastcampaign, groaned under the feudal yoke. You advanced, and already theFrench territory is delivered: joy and hope have succeeded in our countryto consternation and fear. You will restore liberty and independence to thepeople of Genoa: you already are in the capital of the Cisalpine . The enemy,terror- struck, seeks only to regain his frontiers: you have taken from himhis hospitals , his magazines, his reserve parks. The first act of the campaignis finished; millions of men address you in strains of praise. But shall weallow our audacious enemies to violate with impunity the territory of therepublic? Will you permit the army to escape which has carried terror intoyour families? You will not. March, then, to meet him; tear from his browsthe laurels he has won; teach the world that a malediction attends those whoviolate the territory of the great people. The result of our efforts will be unclouded glory and a durable peace (2) .”advances towho concen trates his forces atNapoléon While these important operations were going forward in Lommeet Melas, bardy, Melas conceived the project of threatening his adversary'scommunications by a movement on Vercelli . But when on the pointAlexandria . of executing this design, he received intelligence of the simultaneous disasters which in so many different quarters were accumulating onthe Austrian monarchy; the repeated defeats of Kray in Germany, and hisconcentration in the intrenched camp at Ulm; the arrival of Moncey at Bellinzona, and the retreat of Wukassowich towards the Adda. In these circumstances more cautious measures seemed necessary, and he resolved to concentrate his army under the cannon of Alexandria. But while the Frenchsoldiers were abandoning themselves to the flattering illusions which thisextraordinary and rapid success suggested, they received the disastrous(1) Nap. i. 271 , 272. Dum. iii . 265, 268. Jom.xiii. 208, 210.(2) Nap. i . 272, 275. Jom. xiii. 209, 210, 214,216. Dum, iii . 269, 271, 273, Bul, 110, 117.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 161·intelligence ofthe surrender of Genoa; and Napoléon had the mortification offinding, from the point to which the troops who capitulated were to be conveyed, that they could be of no service to him in the decisive operations thatwere fast approaching. It was evident, therefore, that he would have the wholeAustrian army on his hands at once, and therefore no time was to be lost instriking a decisive blow. The fort of Bard capitulated on the 5th June, whichboth disengaged the troops of Chabran employed in its reduction , and openedthe St.-Bernard as a secure line of retreat in case of disaster. The rapidmarches and countermarches of the Republicans through the plain of Lombardy, had made the enemy fall back to Mantua and the line of the Mincio,and the French troops already occupied Lodi and blockaded Pizzighitone,and other fortresses on the Po; but from this dispersion of force, and eccentric direction given to a large portion of the army, arose a most serious inconvenience; it reduced to one-half the mass that could be collected to makehead against Melas in Piedmont. In effect, out of the sixty thousand menwhich he commanded in Lombardy, Napoléon could only collect thirty thousand in one body to meet the main army of the enemy; but, confident in hisown abilities and the spirit of his troops , he resolved with this inconsiderableforce to cut Melas off from his line of retreat, and for this purpose movedupon Stradella , on the right bank of the Po, which brought him on the greatroad from Alexandria to Mantua (1) .comes up with the Austrians atThe French The French army began its march towards the Po on the 6th June,vanguard and Lannes, commanding the advanced guard, crossed that riverat St.-Cipriano. At the same time, Murat, who had broken up fromMontebello. Lodi, attacked the tête-de-pont at Placentia, and drove the Austrians out of that town on the road towards Tortona, while Duhesme, notless fortunate, assailed Cremona, and expelled the garrison, with the loss ofeight hundred men. The line of the Po being thus broken through at threepoints, the Imperialists every where fell back, and abandoning all hope ofmaintaining their communication with Mantua and their reserves in the eastofItaly, concentrated their forces towards Casteggio and Montebello . Ott therejoined them with the forces rendered disposable by the surrender of Genoa,and stationed his troops, on a chain of gentle eminences, in two lines, so disposed as to be able to support one another in case of need . Fifteen thousandchosen troops were there drawn up in the most advantageous position; theirright resting on the heights which formed the roots of the Apennines, andcommanding the great road to Tortona which wound round their feet; theirleft extending into the plain, where their splendid cavalry could act with effect. At the sight of such an array, Lannes was a moment startled ,but instantly perceiving the disastrous effect which the smallest retrogrademovement might have on a corps with its rear resting on the Po, he resolvedforthwith to attack the enemy. His forces did not exceed nine thousand men,while those of the enemy were fifteen thousand strong; but the division ofVictor, of nearly equal strength, was only two leagues in the rear, and mightbe expected to take a part in the combat before its termination (2).June 9.action there,Desperate The French infantry, with great gallantry, advanced in echellon,and bloody ,under a shower ofgrape-shot and musketry, to storm the hills onin which the the right of the Austrian position, where strong batteries were are worsted . placed , which commanded the whole field of battle; and succeededin carrying the heights of Revetta: but they were there assailed , while disorAustrians(1 ) Napoléon, i . 275, 277. Dum. iii. 276, 279.Jom. xiii . 212, 220. Bul . 121 , 127.(2) Bot. iv. 23. Nap. i . 279. Dum, iii , 288, 290.Jom, xiii. 257, 258.IV.11162 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.dered by success, by six fresh regiments; and driven with great slaughterdown into the plain . In the centre, on the great road, Watrin with difficultymaintained himself against the vehement attacks of the Imperialists; andnotwithstanding the utmost efforts of Lannes, defeat appeared inevitable,when the battle was restored by the arrival of a division of Victor's corps,which enabled the Republicans to rally their troops and prepare a fresh attack . New columns were immediately formed to assail the heights on the left,while Watrin commenced a furious onset in the centre; the Austrians wereevery where driven back, and the triumph of the French appeared certain ,when Ott brought up his reserves from the second line, and victory again inclined to the other side . The Republicans, attacked in their turn by fresh troops, gave way, and the loud shouts of the Imperialists announced a totaloverthrow, when the arrival of the remainder of Victor's corps not only restored the balance, but turned it against the Austrians. Their troops, how- ever, were too experienced, and their confidence in themselves too great, toyield without a desperate struggle; both sides were animated by the most heart-stirring recollections. The French fought to regain the laurels they hadwon in the first Italian campaign, the Imperialists to preserve those they had reaped in so many later triumphs; and both parties felt that the fate of thewar, in a great degree, depended on their exertions; for the Austrians struggled to gain time for the concentration oftheir forces to meet this new enemy,the Republicans to avoid being driven back with ruinous loss into the Po.The last reserves on both sides were soon engaged, and the contending par- ties fought long hand to hand with the most heroic resolution . At length thearrival of Napoléon with the division Gardanne, decided the victory (1 ) . Ott,who now saw his right turned, while the centre and left were on the point of giving way, reluctantly gave the signal of retreat, and the Imperialists, in goodorder, and with measured steps, retired towards S.-Juliano, after throwing agarrison of a thousand men into the fortress of Tortona (2).the Frenchof Stradella,Apennines and Po.Position of In this bloody combat, the Austrians lost three thousand killedin the Pass and wounded, and fifteen hundred prisoners. The French had tobetween the lament nearly an equal number slain or disabled; but the moraleffect of the victory was immense, and more than counterbalancedall their losses. It restored at once the spirit of their troops, which the continued disasters of the preceding campaign had severely weakened; and whenNapoléon traversed the field of battle, late in the evening, he found the soldiers lying on the ground, and exhausted with fatigue , but animated with all their ancient enthusiasm. He halted his army at Stradella, a strong position,formed by the advance of a lower ridge of the Apennines towards the Po, where the intersected and broken nature of the ground promised to renderunserviceable the numerous squadrons of the enemy. In this position he remained the three following days, concentrating and organizing his troops forthe combat which was approaching, and covering, by têtes-de-pont, the twobridges over the Po in his rear-his sole line of retreat in case of disaster, ormeans of rejoining the large portion of his army which remained behind ( 3) . Disastrous retreat of Elnitz from the Var.While Napoléon, with the army of reserve, was thus threateningMelas in front, and occupied, at Stradella, the sole line by whichthe Austrian general could re-establish his communications withthe plain of Lombardy, disasters of the most formidable kind were accumu-(1) Nap. i . 278, 280. Bot . iv. 23, 24. Jom. xiii.256, 260. Dum. iii . 293, 297. Bul. 137, 145 .(2) This was one of the most desperate actions which had yet occurred in the war. " The bones, "said I annes, " cracked in my division like glass in a hail-storm."-BOURRIENNE, iv. 112.( 3) Nap. i . 280. Dum. iii , 297, 299. Jom, xiii.260, 261.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 631May 28.lating in his rear. No sooner did Elnitz commence his retreat, in the night ofthe 27th May, than Suchet, reinforced by some thousand of the national guardin the vicinity, which raised his corps to fourteen thousand men, instantlyresumed the offensive. At noon, on the following day, General Mé nard attacked the intrenchments which covered the retreat of the Austrians,forced them , and made three hundred prisoners. Following up his successes, he advanced rapidly on the three succeeding days, and on the 31st,attacked Bellegarde , and drove him from a strong position on the Col diBraus. On the next day, all the French columns were put in motion by sunrise. Garnier moved upon the Col di Tende by the Col di Rauss; Ménard , bythe heights of Pietra Cava, directed his steps to the fort of Saorgio, now dismantled, and the camp of Mille Fourches; while Brunet attacked the Col diBrois in front, supported by a lateral column on each flank. These movements, though complicated from the nature of the ground, were attendedwith complete success. The important positions of the Col di Rauss, and thecamp of Mille Fourches, were successively carried; the troops who defendedthem flying towards the Col di Tende and Fontan, leaving a thousand prisoners in the hands of the Republicans; Ménard descended from the heights inits rear to the romantic fort of Saorgio, which fell without any resistance; atthe same time, Garnier and Lesuire established themselves on the Col diTende, the troops intrusted with the defence of which sought refuge withinthe walls of Coni . The great road by the Col di Tende being thus carried , andthe Austrian line broken through the middle, the usual series of disasters fellupon their scattered detachments. Elnitz , instead of uniting his forces to fallon Ménard, and regain the decisive pass of Saorgio and the great road, movedto the left to Acqua-Dolce to cover the great road to Genoa. The consequenceof this was, that Ulm and Bellegarde, with two Austrian brigades, were surrounded at Breglio, and being cut off by the fall of Saorgio from the greatroad, had no alternative but to sacrifice their artillery, consisting of twelvelight pieces, and throw themselves upon the heights of Foscoire, a branch of June 3. the Mont Jove. They were there attacked on the following day byRochambeau, and driven back to Pigna, while Suchet pursued Elnitz towardsAcqua-Dolce, and Ménard descended from the sources of the Tanaro towardsPieve. He had hardly arrived at that place when Ulm and Bellegarde , who,after unheard-of fatigues, had surmounted the rugged mountains whichoverhang Triola, arrived at the same place, exhausted with fatigue and totallyunable to make any resistance. They occupied the houses withoutopposition, but they soon found that the overhanging woods were filled withenemies, and to complete their consternation, intelligence shortly after arrived that Delaunay, with an entire brigade, had cut offtheir only line ofretreat.A panic instantly seized the troops; whole battalions threw downtheir arms and dispersed , and after wandering for days in the woods, werecompelled by the pangs of hunger to surrender to the enemy. Oftheir wholeforce, only three hundred men, with the two generals, made their retreat bythe Monte Ariolo to Latterman's camp (1) . Elnitz at length, with eight thousand men, reached Ceva, having lost nearly nine thousand men in this disastrous retreat; while Suchet, united at Voltri with the garrison of Genoa,landed at that place by the Austrians, and advanced with their combinedforces to the heights of Montenotte.June 4.June 7.Thus disasters accumulating, one after another, on all sides , rendered theposition of Melas highly critical. In his front was Napoléon, with the army(1) Jom. xiii , 234, 243. Dum, iii . 219, 227. Bot. iv. 22, 24, Bul, 187, 195 .164 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.solution ofhis way through Napoléon's army.Gallant re of reserve, amounting in all to sixty thousand men; while in hisMelas to cut rear, Suchet occupied all the mountain passes, and was drivingbefore him the scattered Imperialists like chaff before the wind. Onhis left, the awful barrier of the Alps, leading only into a hostilecountry, precluded all hopes of retreat; while on his right, the ridges oftheApennines, backed by the sea, rendered it impossible to regain by a circuitousroute the Hereditary States . Nothing could be more perilous than his situation; but the Austrian veteran was not discouraged, and concentrating all hisdisposable forces, he resolved to give battle, and open a communication ,sword in hand, with the eastern provinces of the empire. Nor was it withoutreason that he ventured on this step , albeit hazardous at all times, anddoubly so when retreat was impossible and communication with the base ofoperations cut off. He could collect above thirty thousand veteran troops,animated with the best spirit, and proud of two campaigns of unbrokenglory: his artillery was greatly superior to that ofthe enemy, while the plainsof the Bormida, where the decisive battle apparently was to be fought, seemedadmirably adapted for his numerous and magnificent cavalry. Having takenhis resolution, he dispatched troops in all directions to concentrate his forces;Elnitz, with the broken remains of his corps , was recalled from Ceva, Hohenzollern from Genoa, the defence of which was intrusted to the extenuatedprisoners, liberated from captivity by its fall (1 ); while a courier was dispatched, in haste, to Admiral Keith, to accelerate the arrival of a corps oftwelve thousand English, who at this decisive crisis lay inactive at Minorca.Arrival of The post of Stradella, where Napoléon awaited the arrival of theenemy, and barred the great road to the eastward , was singularlyNapoleon's well adapted to compensate the inferiority in cavalry and artilleryof the First Consul. The right rested on impracticable morasses,extending to the Po; the centre was strengthened by several large villages;the left, commanding the great road, extended over heights, the commencement of the Apennines, crowned with a numerous artillery . Napoléonremained there, awaiting the attack, for three days; but the Austrian general had scarcely completed . his operations, and he judged it not advisableto abandon the open plain , so favourable for his cavalry, for the brokenground selected by the enemy. On the 11th, Desaix , who had returned fromEgypt, and performed quarantine at Toulon, arrived at headquarters withhis aides-de-camp, Savary and Rapp. They sat up all night conversing onthe changes of France, and the state of Egypt since they had parted on thebanks of the Nile; and the First Consul, who really loved his lieutenant, andappreciated his military talents, immediately gave him the command of thedivision of Boudet. Finding that the Austrians were resolved not to attackhim where he was, and remained grouped under the cannon of Alexandria,and fearful that they might recoil upon Suchet, or incline to theright towards Genoa, or the left to the Ticino, and threaten in turn hisown communications, he resolved to give them battle in their own ground,and advanced to Voghera and the plains of MARENGO (2) . Ott, at his approach,retired, across the Bormida, the two bridges over which were fortified , and armed with cannon.Desaix from Egypt atheadquar- ters.June 12.Melas learned on the 10th , at Alexandria, the disastrous issue of the combat at Montebello, and the immense extent of the losses sustained by Elnitz.Farfrom being stunned by so many reverses, he only rose in firmness as the(1) Dum. iii. 298, 299. Jom . xiii . 244, 248. Bul.200, 209.(2) Nap. i. 281, 283. Bot. iv. 24. Dum. iii . 299.Jom , xiii. 260, 263.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 165danger increased; and after dispatching a courier to Lord Keith, with accounts of his critical situation , and his resolution , in case of disaster to fallback upon Genoa, he addressed a noble proclamation to his troops, in which,without concealing their danger, he exhorted them to emulate their pastglory, or fall with honour on the field which lay before them. Napoléon, onhis side, fearful that the enemy meditated a retreat, and might retire unbroken to the fastnesses of the Apennines, pushed forward with vigour.Lapoype, with his division , who had been left in observation onthe north of the Po, received orders instantly to cross that river, and hastento the scene of action , while Victor was directed to advance straight towardsMarengo, and make himself master of the bridges over the Bormida. He successfully performed the task; Marengo, after a slight resistance, was carried,and the victorious French troops were arrested only by the fire of cannonJune 13.Preparatory movements of both parties.from the tête-de-pont on the Bormida. The facility with whichMarengo was abandoned, confirmed Napoléon in his opinion thatMelas meditated a retreat; and impressed with this idea, he resolved to return during the night to Ponte Curone, and move in the directionof the Po; a resolution which would have proved fatal to his army, as itwould have been attacked and routed on the following day, while executingits movement, by the Austrian general (1 ) . The rapid swelling of the torrentof the Scrivia rendered that impossible, and induced the First Consul to fixhis headquarters at Torre de Garofalo, between Tortona and Alexandria; andduring the night intelligence of such a kind was received as rendered it necessary to suspend the lateral movements, and concentrate all his forces to resist the enemy.Forces as- sembled on In effect, Melas, having collected 31,000 men on the Bormida, ofboth sides . Which 7,500 were cavalry, with 200 pieces of cannon, was advancing with rapid strides towards Marengo; having finally determined, in ageneral council on the preceding day, to risk every thing on the issue of abattle. Napoléon's troops of all arms present on the field , did not exceed29,000, of which only 3,600 were horse; no less than 30,000 being in observation or garrison in the Milanese States, or on the banks of the Po . TheAustrian force had undergone a similar diminution from the same supposednecessity of protecting the rear; 4,000 were left in Coni, and so many inLiguria, that instead of the 30,000 who were disposable at the end of May inthat quarter, only 16,000 joined the Imperial headquarters. Their spirits,however, which had been somewhat weakened by the recent reverses, wereelevated to the highest degree, when the determination to fight was taken;every one returned in joyful spirits to his quarters; the camp resoundedwith warlike cries and the note of military preparation, and that mutualconfidence between officers and men was observable, which is the surestfore-runner of glorious achievements (2) .Marengo,June 14.Battle of By daybreak, on the 14th June, the whole army of Melas was inmotion; they rapidly defiled over the three bridges of the Bormida,andwhen the first rays of the sun appeared above the horizon, they glitteredon twenty thousand foot soldiers, seven thousand cavalry , and two hundredpieces of cannon, pressing forward in proud array over the vast field of Marengo, perhaps the only plain in Italy where charges of horse can be made infull career. The First Consul was surprised; he never anticipated an attackfrom the enemy; his troops were disposed in oblique order by echellon, the(1 ) Nap. i. 287, 288. Jom . xiii . 263, 266. Dum,iii. 305, 307. Bul. 210, 220.(2) Bot. iv. 25. Jom, xiii . 270. Eul . 230, 233.166 HISTORY of europe. [CHAP.XXXI.left in front, and the right at half a day's march in the rear, in marching order; not more than twenty-two thousand men, under Lannes and Victor,could be brought till noon into the field to withstand the shock of the wholeAustrian army. The vehemence of the cannonade soon convinced him that ageneral battle was at hand, and he instantly dispatched orders to Desaix toremeasure his steps, and hasten to the scene of action. But before he coulddo this, events of the utmost importance had taken place. At eight o'clock,the Austrian infantry, under Haddick and Kaim , preceded by a numerous andsplendid array of artillery , which covered the deploying of their columns,commenced the attack . They speedily overthrew Gardanne, who, with sixbattalions, was stationed in front of Marengo, and drove him back in disordertowards that village. They were there received by the bulk of Victor's corps,which was by this time drawn up, with its centre in the village, and its wingsalong the hollow of Fontanone, which separated the two armies; that of Lannes was still in the rear. For two hours, Victor withstood all the efforts ofHaddick and Kaim with heroic resolution , and at length the corps of Lannescame up, and the forces on both sides became more equal. The battle nowraged with the utmost fury; the opposing columns stood, with invinciblefirmness, within pistol- shot of each other, and all the chasms, produced bythe dreadful discharges of artillery, were rapidly filled up by a regular movement to the centre of the brave men who formed the ranks. While this desperate conflict was going on, intelligence was received that the advancedguard of Suchet had reached Acqui in the rear . Melas, uneasy for his communications, detached two thousand five hundred horse to arrest his progress; an unnecessary precaution, as he was too far off to effect any thing onthe field ofbattle, and which, perhaps, decided the fate ofthe day. At lengththe perseverance of the Austrians prevailed over the heroic devotion of theFrench Marengo was carried, the stream of the Fontanone forced , and theRepublicans were driven back to the second line they had formed in the rear.Here they made a desperate stand, and Haddick's division , disorAustrians. dered by success , was repulsed across the stream by Watrin withthe right ofLannes' division; but the Republicans could not follow up theiradvantage, as Victor's corps, exhausted with fatigue , and severely weakenedin numerical strength, was in no condition to support any offensive movement. The Austrians, perceiving his weakness, redoubled their efforts; afresh attack was made on the centre and left, by which Victor's corps, weakened byfour hours' incessant fighting, was at length broken. The Imperialistspressed forward with redoubled vigour, when their adversaries gave way;their regiments were rapidly pursued, and frequently surrounded, and noresource remained but to traverse for two leagues the open plain as far asS. -Juliano, where the reserve under Lannes might be expected to arrive fortheir support. The Imperialists rapidly followed, preceded by fifty pieces ofartillery, which spread death through the flying columns. Melas, with thecentre, established himself at Marengo, and Lannes, now entirely uncoveredon his left, was obliged to commence a retrograde movement, which at firstwas performed by echellon in squares with admirable discipline . Gradually,however, the retreat became more disorderly; in vain Kellermann and Champeaux, by repeated charges, arrested the Imperial cavalry, which sweptround the retreating columns. He could not check the Hungarian infantry,which advanced steadily in pursuit, halting at every fifty yards, and pouringin destructive volleys, while the intervals between the regiments were filledup by a powerful artillery, which incessantly sent a storm of grape-shotthrough the retreating masses. No firmness could long endure such a trial;Great suc cess of the1800.] HISTORY Of europe. 167gradually the squares broke; the immense plain of Marengo was coveredwith fugitives; the alarm spread even to the rear of the army, and the fatalcry, Tout est perdu, sauve qui peut, ” was already heard in the ranks (1) .66Matters were in this disastrous state when Napoléon , at eleven o'clock ,arrived on the field of battle with his guard . The sight ofhis staff, surroundedbytwo hundred mounted grenadiers , revived the spirits of the fugitives; thewell-known plumes recalled to the veterans the hopes of success . The fugitives rallied at S.-Juliano, in the rear of those squares of Lannes which stillkept their ranks, and Napoléon detached eight hundred grenadiers of hisguard to the right of the army, to make head against Ott, who there threatened to turn its flank. At the same time, he himself advanced with a demibrigade to the support of Lannes, in the centre, and detached five battalions,under Monnier, the vanguard of Desaix's division , to Castel Ceriolo , on theextreme right, to hold in check the light infantry of the enemy, which wasthere making serious progress. The grenadiers first advanced in square intothe midst ofthe plain , clearing their way equally through the fugitives andthe enemy; from their sides, as from a flaming castle, issued incessant volleysof musketry, and all the efforts ofthe Imperialists were long unable to forceback this intrepid band. At length, however, they were shaken by the steadyfire ofthe Imperial artillery, and being charged in front by the Hungarian infantry, and in flank by the Austrian hussars, were broken and driven back indisorder. Their destruction appeared certain, when the leading battalions ofDesaix's division, under Monnier, arrived, disengaged this band of heroesfrom the numerous enemies by whom they were surrounded , and advancingrapidly forward, made themselves masters of the village of Castel Ceriolo.Here, however, they were charged with fury by Vogelsang with part of Ott'sdivision, who retook Castel Ceriolo, and separated Monnier from the grenadiers ofthe guard; it was soon, however, retaken by the French, and CaraSt.-Cyr, barricading himself in the houses, succeeded in maintaining thatimportant post during the remainder ofthe day (2) .The French reserve areaction underWhile the reserves of Napoléon were thus directed to the Frenchbrought into right, with a view to arrest the advance of the Austrians in Desaix. that quarter, the left was a scene of the most frightful disorder.Then was felt the irreparable loss to the Austrians which the detachment ofso large a portion of their cavalry to the rear had occasioned; had the squadrons detached to observe Suchet poured in upon the broken fugitives in thatquarter, the defeat of the left and centre would have been complete; andDesaix, assailed both in front and flank, would have come up only in time toshare in the general ruin. But nothing of the kind was attempted; Melas,deemingthe victory gained, after having had two horses shot under him, andbeing exhausted with fatigue, retired at two o'clock to Alexandria, leaving tohis chief of the staff, Zach, the duty of following up his success; and thebroken centre and left ofthe Republicans retired to S. -Juliano, leisurely followed by the Austrian army. Zach put himself at the head of the advancedguard, and at the distance of halfa mile behind him came up Kaim with threebrigades, and at an equal distance in his rear the reserve, composed of Hungarian grenadiers. Napoléon on his part had resolved to abandon the greatroad to Tortona, and effect his retreat by the shorter line of Sale or CastelNuova (3).(1 ) Nap. i. 289, 290. Bot. iv . 27, 28. Dum, iii .310, 317. Jom. xiii. 272, 279. Sav. i . 174 , 175 .Bul. 232, 245.(2) Nap. i. 290, 291. Dum. iii , 318, 321 , Bot,iv. 29, 30. Jom . xiii . 279, 282. Sav. i . 176. Bul.249, 260.(3) Nap. i. 291, 292. Jom. xiii. 282, 283. Bot.iv , 29, 30. Dum, iii . 320. Sav. i . 177. Bul. 260, 264.168 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.After a gallant charge,Matters were in this desperate state, when, at four o'clock, the main bodyof Desaix at length made its appearance at S.- Juliano . “ What think you ofthe day? " said Napoléon to his lieutenant, when he arrived with his division ."The battle, " said Desaix , " is completely lost. But it is onlyfour o'clock; thereis time to gain another one (1 ) . " Napoléon and he alone were of this opinion; all the others counselled a retreat. In pursuance ofthis resolution , theremains of Victor and Lannes' corps were re-formed, under cover of the cavalry, which was massed in front of S. -Juliano , a masked battery preparedunder the direction of Marmont, and Desaix advanced at the head of hiscorps, consisting of little more than four thousand men, to arrest the progress of the enemy. Napoléon, advancing to the front, rode along the line,exclaiming, " Soldiers! we have retired far enough. You know it is alwaysmy custom to sleep on the field of battle . " The troops replied by enthusiastic shouts, and immediately advanced to the charge. Zach, littleanticipating such an onset, was advancing at the head of his column, five thousand strong, when he was received by a dischargefrom twelve pieces , suddenly unmasked by Marmont, while at the same timeDesaix debouched from the village at the head of his division . The Imperialists, astonished at the appearance of so considerable a body, where theyexpected to find only fugitives in disorder, and apprehensive of falling intoa snare, paused and fell back; but Zach soon succeeded in restoring order inthe front, and checked the advance of the enemy. At this moment Desaixwas struck by a ball in the breast, and soon after expired. His last wordswere, "Tell the First Consul that my only regret in dying is , to have perishedbefore having done enough to live in the recollection of posterity. " This catastrophe, however, was far from weakening the ardour of his soldiers. Thesecond in command, Boudet, succeeded in inspiring them with the desire ofvengeance, and the fire rolled rapidly and sharply along the whole line. Butthe Imperialists had now recovered from their surprise; the Hungarian grenadiers advanced to the charge; the French in their turn hesitated and broke,and victory was more doubtful than ever (2) .he too is defeated.Decisive charge of Kellermanndefeat into aAt this critical moment, a happy inspiration seized Kellermann,which decided the fate of the day. The advance of Zach's column converts a had, without their being aware ofit, brought their flank right beforevictory. his mass of cavalry, eight hundred strong, which was concealedfrom their view by a vineyard, where the festoons , conducted from tree totree, rose above the horses' heads, and effectually intercepted the sight.Kellermann instantly charged, with his whole force, upon the flank of theAustrians, as they advanced in open column, and the result must be given inhis own words (3) . Zach's grenadiers , cut through the middle by this unexpected charge, and, exposed to a murderous fire in front from Desaix's division, which had rallied upon receiving this unexpected aid , broke and fled .Zach himself, with two thousand men, were made prisoners; the remainder,routed and dispersed , fled in the utmost disorder to the rear, overthrowingin their course the other divisions which were advancing to their support (4).(1 ) Bour. iv. 122. Jom. xiii. 286.(2) Jom . xiii. 287, 289. Nap. i . 292, 293. Dum.iii. 324, 325. Sav. i . 178. Bul. 260 , 271.(3)"Thecombat was engaged," says Kelierinann;"Desaix soon drove back the enemy's tirailleurs on their main body; but the sight of that formidable column of 6000 Hungarian grenadiers made our troops halt. I was advancing in line on their flank,concealed by the festoons; a frightful discharge took place; our line wavered, broke, and fled; the Austrians rapidly advanced to follow up theirsuccess, in all the disorder and security of victory.I see it; I am in the midst of them; they lay down their arms. The whole did not occupy so much time as it took me to write these six lines . "-See DUMAS, V. 361. The Duchess ofAbrantes states also that she repeatedly heard the battle of Marengo discussed by Lannes, Victor, and the other generals engaged, at her own table, and that they all ascrib- ed the victory to Kellermann's charge. -D'A- PRANTES, iii. 44, 45.(4) Sav. i, 178, 179. Bul. 271 , 275. Nap. i . 292,1800.J HISTORY OF EUROPE . 169of the Aus- trians.Final defeat This great achievement was decisive ofthe fate of the battle. Theremains of Victor and Lannes' corps no sooner beheld this success ,than they regained their former spirit, and turned fiercely upon their pursuers. The infantry of Kaim, overwhelmed by the tide offugitives, gave way;the cavalry, which already inundated the field , was seized with a suddenpanic, and, instead of striving to restore the day, galloped off to the rear,trampling down in their progress the unfortunate fugitives who were flyingbefore them. A general cry arose, “ To the bridges—to the bridges! " and thewhole army disbanding, rushed in confusion towards the Bormida. In thegeneral consternation , Marengo was carried , after a gallant defence, by theRepublicans; the cannoniers, finding the bridges choked up by the fugitivesplunged with their horses and guns into the stream, where twenty piecesstuck fast, and fell into the hands of the enemy. At length Melas, whohastened to the spot, rallied the rearguard in front of the bridges, and by itsheroic resistance, gained time for the army to pass the river; the troops ,regaining their ranks, re-formed upon the ground they had occupied at thecommencement of the day; and after twelve hours' incessant fighting, the sun set upon this field of carnage (1) .Loss sus- tained on Such was the memorable battle of Marengo; one of the mostboth sides. obstinately contested which had yet occurred during the war, inwhich both parties performed prodigies of valour, and which was attendedwith greater results perhaps than any conflict that had yet occurred in modernEurope. The Imperialists had to lament the loss of seven thousand menkilled and wounded, besides three thousand prisoners, eight standards, andtwenty pieces of cannon. The French sustained an equal loss in killed andwounded, besides one thousand prisoners taken in the early part of the day.But although the disproportion was not so great in the trophies of victory,the difference was prodigious in the effect it produced on the respectivearmies, and the ultimate issue of the campaign. The Austrians had foughtfor life or death, with their faces towards Vienna, to cut their way sword inhand through the French army. Defeat in these circumstances was irreparable ruin. By retiring either to Genoa or the Maritime Alps, they ran the riskof being cooped up in a corner of a hostile territory, without any chance ofregaining their own country, and the certainty of depriving the empire ofthe only army capable of defending its Italian possessions. The French, onthe other hand, had now firmly established themselves in the plains ofPiedmont; and could, by merely retaining their present position, effectuallycut off the Imperialists, and hinder their rendering any assistance to theHereditary States . In these circumstances, the victory gave the Republicans,as that under the walls of Turin had given the Imperialists a century before,the entire command of Italy. Such a result was in itself of vast importance;but coming as it did, in the outset of Napoléon's career as First Consul, itsconsequences were incalculable. It fixed him on the throne, revived the293. Dum. iii . 324, 325. Jom. xiii . 288, 289. Bot.iv. 30, 31. Mém du Dépôt de la Guerre, iv . 272.(1) Bul. 275, 280. Sav. i . 179. Nap. i . 293, 294.Jom, xiii. 290, 294. Dum. iii . 325, 326. Bot. iv.31. Saalfeld , iv. 230, 231. Gaz. Mil. d'Autriche ,Ann. 1823.There is a most extraordinary similarity between the crisis of Marengo and that of Waterloo, with this difference, that the rout of the French was complete before the arrival of Desaix, while not an English square was broken before the final charge of the old guard. But the defeat of the last attacks in both battles was accomplished in the same way.The rout of Zach's columns, by the fire of Desaix's division in front , aided by the charge of Kellermann in flank, was precisely similar to the defeat of the old guard at Mount St.- John by the English guards,aided by the happy flank attack of Major Gawler with the 52 and 71st regiments, and the gallant charge of Sir Hussey Vivian with the 10th and 18th hussars . In both cases the overthrow of the last columns of attack drew after it the total defeat of the army. See " Crisis ofWaterloo. " By MAJOR GAWLER and SIR H. VIVIAN. United Service Journal.July, 1833.170 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.military spirit of the French people, and precipitated the nation into thatcareer of conquest which led them to Cadiz and the Kremlin ( 1 ) .United with the great qualities of Napoléon's character was a selfish thirstfor glory, and consequent jealousy of any one who had either effectuallythwarted his designs, or rendered him such services as might diminish thelustre of his own exploits. His undying jealousy of Wellington was an indication of the first weakness; his oblivion of Kellermann's inappreciable service ,an instance of the second. When this young officer was brought into the presence of the First Consul after the battle, he coldly said , " You made a goodcharge this evening; " and immediately turning to Bessieres, added, " Theguard has covered itself with glory . "-" I am glad you are pleased," repliedKellermann, for it has placed the crown on your head . " He repeated thesame expression in a letter, which was opened at the post-office and broughtto Napoléon . The obligation was too great to be forgiven. Kellermann wasnot promoted like the other generals , and never afterwards enjoyed thefavour of the chief on whose brow he had placed the diadem ( 2) .Melas propension of arms.66While nothing but congratulation and triumph were heard in thepossus French lines, the Austrian camp exhibited the utmost consternation . The night was spent in re-forming the regiments, repairingthe losses of the artillery , and replenishing the exhausted stores of ammunition. A council of war was summoned; the majority, thunderstruck by themagnitude of the disaster and the hopeless nature of their situation , inclinedfor a treaty to evacuate the Piedmontese territory. "If we cut our waythrough," said they, " supposing us to be successful, we must sacrifice tenthousand men left in Genoa, and as many in the fortresses of Piedmont, andshall not be the less compelled to take refuge under the cannon of Mantua.It is better to save these twenty thousand men than to preserve towns forthe King of Sardinia. " In conformity with these views, a flag of truce wasdispatched on the following morning to the French headquarters, to proposeterms of capitulation . He arrived at their outposts just at the timewhen an attack on the tetes-de-pont on the Bormida was preparing; and, aftersome difficulty, the terms of the treaty were agreed upon between the twogenerals (3) .June 15.Armistice of By this convention it was provided that " there should be an arAlexandria . mistice between the two armies till an answer was obtained fromthe Court of Vienna. That in the mean time the Imperial army should occupy the country between the Mincio and the Po; that is , Peschiera, Mantua,Borgoforte, and from it theleft bank of the Po, and on its right bank, Ferrara,Ancona, and Tuscany; that the French should occupy the district betweenthe Chiesa, the Oglio, and the Po, and the space between the Chiesa and theMincio should not be occupied by either army. That the fortresses of Tortona,Milan , Turin , Pizzighittone, Arona, Placentia, Ceva, Savona, Urbia, Coni,Alexandria, and Genoa, should be surrendered to the French, with all their(1) Nap. i. 294. Jom . xiii . 295. 296. Dum, iii.328, 329. Bot. iv, 32 , 34. Austrian Official Account,Gaz. Mil. d'Autriche, 1823. Mémorial du Dépôt de la Guerre, iv . 333. Bul. 280, 281.In the preceding account ofthe battle ofMarengo,the author has corrected the various French and German accounts of the engagement hitherto pub- lished, by some Manuscript Notes by General Kel- lermann, who had so great a share in achieving the success, written on the margin of the collection of the various accounts of the battle, contained in the " Mémorial du Dépôt de la Guerre, " iv . 269, 343.For these valuable manuscript notes, the author isindebted to the kindness of his esteemed friend,Captain Basil Hall.(2 ) Bour. iv 125. Bot. iv. 34.Napoléon, at the same time, was perfectly aware of the immense service rendered by the charge of Kellermann; for he said in the evening to Bour rienne, " That little Kellermann made a happy charge. He struck in at the critical moment; we owe him much. On what trivial events do affairs depend! "-BOURRIENNE, iv . 124.(3) Jom, xiii. 296, 391. Nap. i . 294. Bul. 281,287.1800.]HISTORY OF EUROPE .171artillery and stores, the Austrians taking with them only their own cannon. "The evacuation of all these places, and the final retreat of the Austrian army,were to be completed by the 24th June ( 1 ) .Its immense Thus the complete reconquest of Piedmont and the Milanese, the results. cession oftwelve fortresses , armed with fifteen hundred pieces ofcannon, and the advance of the Republican eagles to the Mincio, were theimmediate effect of the stubborn resistance of Desaix and the happy chargeof Kellermann. A few battalions and eight hundred horse changed the faceof the world. But Napoléon must not be deprived of his share in these glorious results. These incidents were but the last steps in a chain of causeswhich his genius had prepared , and his skill brought to bear upon the finalissue of the campaign . He had thrown himself upon his adversary's communications without compromising his own, and thence its astonishing consequences. Defeated at Marengo , Napoléon could still have retired upon anequal force detached in his rear, and, in the worst event, have retired overthe St. -Gothard and the Simplon, with no other sacrifice but his artillery.To have achieved such results, at so inconsiderable a risk, is the greatesttriumphofgenius in the science of war (2) .the AusIs faithfully The convention of Alexandria was religiously observed by theobserved by Austrian commanders. The English expedition under Abercromby,trians. with twelve thousand men, arrived in the bay ofGenoa just in timeto see that important city surrendered to the Republican commanders; but,notwithstanding that important succour, German integrity swerved nothingfrom its good faith. Had this important reinforcement, instead of lying inactive at Minorca, arrived a fortnight sooner with the troops which so soonafterwards conquered in Egypt, what important effects might it have hadupon the fortune of the war! But the English at that period were ignorantof the importance of time in military operations, and but novices in theart of war. The time was yet to come when they were to appear in it asmasters (3).returns to Napoléon Napoléon, after this great victory, appointed Jourdan regent inMilan- the continental dominions ofthe King of Sardinia until their destinywas determined by a general peace, and returned to Milan to enjoy histriumph. He was received with extraordinary demonstrations of joy by theinconstant populace , and Italian adulation lavished on him those splendidepithets which, during three centuries of servitude, they have learned to bestow upon their rulers. He discoursed there much on peace, religion , litterature, and the sciences. The Ligurian republic was immediately re-organized, and regained its nominal independenec. He shortly after returned byMont Cenis and Lyon to Paris. When passing through that town, he laid,with extraordinary pomp, amidst an immense concourse of spectators , thefirst stone of the new Place Bellecour, erected on the site of that which hadbeen destroyed by the barbarity of the Convention . Napoléon wasin high spirits during the remainder of the journey; but histriumphs, great as they were, appeared to him but as nothing in comparisonof those which he yet desired to achieve. " Well, " said he, " a few moregreat events like those of this campaign, and I may really descend to posterity but still it is little enough; I have conquered, it is true, in less than twoyears, Cairo , Paris, Milan; but were I to die to-morrow, half a page of generalhistory would, after ten centuries, be all that would be devoted to my exAnd thence to Paris.(1 ) Nap. i . 295, 296. Jom. xiii . 300 .(2) Jom. xiii, 301 , 302.(3) Jom. xiii. 304, 305.172 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.ploits ." He reached Paris during the night; and nothing could exceed theuniversal transports on the following day when his arrival was known .July 2. The people had been kept in a cruel state of suspense during hisabsence; the first news they received of the battle of Marengo was from amercantile traveller who left the field at one o'clock , and reported that allwas lost (1 ) . Rich and poor now vied with each other in their demonstrations ofjoy; all business was suspended; nothing but songs of triumph wereheard in the streets; and at night a general illumination gave vent to the universal transports.Such was the memorable campaign of Marengo. Inferences of the mostimportant kind, both in a moral and political view, may be drawn from the events which occurred during its progress.on this campaign.Great changes aretocauses.Reflections I. Great changes in human affairs never take place from trivialcauses. The most important effects , indeed, are often apparentlyowing to inconsiderable springs; but the train has been laid in all such casesby a long course of previous events , and the last only puts thenever owing torch to its extremity. A fit of passion in Mrs. Masham arrested thecourse of Marlborough's victories, and preserved the totteringkingdom ofFrance; a charge of a few squadrons of horse, under Kellermann,at Marengo, fixed Napoléon on the consular throne; and another, with nogreater force, against the flank ofthe old guard at Waterloo, chained him tothe rock of St.-Helena. Superficial observers lament the subjection of humanaffairs to the caprice of fortune or the casualties of chance; but a more enlarged observation teaches us to recognise in these apparently trivial eventsthe operation ofgeneral laws; and the last link in a chain of causes whichhave all conspired to produce the general result. Mrs. Masham's passion wasthe ultimate cause of Marlborough's overthrow, but that event had beenprepared by the accumulating jealousy of the nation during the whole tideof his victories , and her indignation was but the drop which made the cupoverflow; Kellermann's charge, indeed , fixed Napoléon on the throne, but itwas the sufferings of the Revolution, the glories of the Italian campaigns, thetriumphs of the Pyramids, which induced the nation to hail his usurpationwith joy; the charge of the 10th and 18th hussars broke the last column ofthe Imperial array, but the foundation of the triumph of Wellington hadbeen laid by the long series of his peninsular victories and the bloody catastrophe ofthe Moscow campaign.nary resurFrance onof NapoExtraordi- II. The sudden resurrection of France, when Napoléon assumedrection of the helm , is one of the most extraordinary passages of Europeanthe accession history, and singularly descriptive of the irresistible reaction in theléon. favour of a firm government which inevitably arises from a longcourse of revolutionary convulsions. Let not future ages be deluded by theidea that a period of democratic anarchy is one of national strength; it is ,on the contrary , in the end , the certain forerunner of public calamity. Theglories of the Revolutionary wars were achieved under the despotic rule ofthe Convention, wielding ten times the power which was ever enjoyed byLouis XIV; the effects of democratic anarchy appeared upon its dissolution,in the disasters of the Directory. After the fall of the Committee of PublicSafety, the triumphs of France centred in Napoléon alone; wherever he didnot command in person , the greatest reverses were experienced . In 1795 theRepublicans were defeated by Clairfait on the Rhine; in 1796 by the Archduke Charles in Germany. In 1799 their reverses were unexampled both in(1) Nap. i . 301 , 303. Bour. iv. 164, 171 , 181. Bot. v. 36.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 173Italy and Germany; from the 9th Thermidor to the 18th Brumaire, a periodof above five years, the fortunes of the Republic were singly sustained by thesword of Napoléon and the lustre of his Italian campaigns. When he seizedthe helm in November, 1799, he found the armies defeated and ruined; thefrontier invaded, both on the sides of Italy and Germany, the arsenals empty,the soldiers in despair deserting their colours, the royalists revolting againstthe government, general anarchy in the interior, the treasury empty, theenergies of the Republic apparently exhausted . Instantly, as if by enchantment, every thing was changed; order re-appeared out of chaos, talentemerged from obscurity, vigour arose out of the elements of weakness. Thearsenals were filled , the veterans crowded to their eagles, the conscripts joyfully repaired to the frontier, la Vendée was pacified , the exchequer began tooverflow. In little more than six months after Napoléon's accession , theAustrians were forced to seek refuge under the cannon of Ulm, Italy wasregained, unanimity and enthusiasm prevailed among the people, and therevived energy of the nation was finally launched into the career of conquest. Changes so extraordinary cannot be explained by the influence ofany one man. Great as the abilities of Napoléon undoubtedly were, theycould not be equal to the Herculean task of reanimating a whole nation.It was the transition from anarchy to order, from the tyranny of demagogues to the ascendant of talent, from the weakness of popular to the vigourofmilitary government, which was the real cause of the change. The virtuous, the able, the brave, felt that they no longer required to remain inobscurity; that democratic jealousy would not now be permitted to extinguish rising ability; financial imbecility crush patriotic exertion; privatecupidity exhaust public resources; civil weakness paralyse military valour.The universal conviction that the reign of the multitude was at an end,produced the astonishing burst of talent which led to the glories of Marengo and Hohenlinden.the disastersto theCauses of III. The disastrous issue of the German campaign to the Impeof the cam. rialists, is not to be entirely ascribed either to the genius ofMoreau,Imperialists. or the magnitude of the force which the first consul placed at hiscommand. It was chiefly owing to the ruinous dispersion of the Austrianarmy and their obstinate adherence to the system of a cordon, when, bythe concentration of their enemy's troops, it had become indispensablynecessary to accumulate adequate forces on the menaced points. Kray, at theopening of the campaign, had nearly one hundred and ten thousand menat his command; but this immense force, irresistible when kept together,was so dispersed over a line above two hundred miles in length, from theAlps to the Maine, that he could not collect forty-five thousand men toresist the shock of the French centre, of nearly double that strength, atEngen or Biberach. The loss of these battles, by piercing the Allied line,compelled the whole body to fall back, and thus seventy thousand menabandoned Swabia and Franconia without firing a shot, while half theirnumber, added to the Austrian centre, would have prevented the Republicans ever crossing the Black Forest. The brief campaign of 1815 affordedanother example of the same truth; the Allied forces , quartered over allFlanders, though greatly superior, upon the whole to the army of Napoléon were inferior to their assailants, both at Ligny and Waterloo; andthe intrepid daring of Wellington, joined to the devoted heroism of histroops, alone prevented in that struggle the continued disasters of Biberachand Moeskirch. The successful stand, on the other hand, made by theAustrian army when concentrated under the cannon of Ulm, and the effec-174 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXI.tual covering which, in that confined spot, they gave to the whole Hereditary States, affords the clearest proof of the superior efficacy of such anassembled force to any cordon, however skilfully disposed , in arresting aninvading enemy. No army will ever advance into an enemy's country,leaving sixty or eighty thousand men together in their rear; for, in such a case, they are exposed to the danger of losing their communications, andbeing compelled, as at Marengo, to peril all upon the issue of a single battle;but nothing is easier than to make double that force, dispersed over a longline, abandon a whole frontier, by striking decisive blows with a superiorforce at a part of its extent. In fifteen days, the Imperial cordon was drivenback, by attacks on its centre, from the Rhine to the Danube; for six weeksits concentrated force in position at Ulm, not only arrested the victor, butcovered the Imperial frontier, and gained time for the revival of the spirit of the monarchy.IV. The successful stand which Kray, with a defeated army, made againstthe vast forces of Moreau for six weeks, under the cannon of Ulm, demonstrates the wisdom and foresight of the Archduke Charles in fortifying, atthe close of the preceding campaign, that important central position, and thejustice of his remark, that it is in the valley of the Danube that the blows areto be struck which are decisive of the fate of France or Austria (1 ) . The longcheck which this single fortress gave to the powerful and victorious army ofMoreau, suggests a doubt, whether central are not more serviceable thanfrontier fortifications; or , at least, whether a nation, in contemplation ofinvasion by a powerful and ambitious enemy, should not alwaysbe provided with some strongholds in the interior , to the shelterof which a defeated army may retire, and where it may bothrecruit its losses and recover its spirit. Certain it is , that it is the want ofsome such points d'appui that the sudden prostration of Austria, after thedefeats of Ulm and Eckmuhl; of Prussia , after that of Jena; and of France,after the disasters of 1814 and 1815, are mainly to be ascribed . But for thefortifications of Vienna, Austria, before the arrival of John Sobieski , wouldhave been overwhelmed by the arms of Soliman; without those of Genoa,the conquest ofItaly would have been complete, and the victorious Austriansgrouped in irresistible strength in the plains of Piedmont before the Republican eagles appeared on the St. -Bernard; and but for those ofTorres Vedras,the arms of England, instead of striking down the power of France on thefield ofWaterloo, would have sunk, with lustre for ever tarnished into thewaters of the Tagus. A mere fortified position, like that of the Drisa, towhich Barclay de Tolly retired in 1812, is not sufficient; it is an intrenchedcamp, connected with a strong fortress, which forms the real formidableobstacle. The defeat of the Prussians, in the first attack on Warsaw in 1794,and the astonishing stand made by Shrynecki, with forty thousand regulartroops, against the whole forces of the Russian empire in 1831 , prove theinestimable effect of central fortresses, such as Warsaw and Modlin, in forminga nucleus to the national strength , and enabling an inconsiderable to withstand the forces of a powerful monarchy. The difference between central andfrontier fortresses in this respect is great and important. The former constitute so many secure asylums, round which the national strength is agglomerated, in the last struggle for national independence, and the retreatingarmy finds itself strengthened in the heart of the empire by the garrisons ofthe interior fortresses and the new levies who are disciplined within their(1) ´Archduke ii. 264. Strategie, 1796.Great effect of central fortifications in a state.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 175walls, while their fortifications form an imposing stronghold , to the siege ofwhich the largest armies are hardly adequate the latter prove an impassablebarrier only to armies of inconsiderable magnitude; and if, by an overwhelming force, the protecting army is compelled to retire, it too often finds itselfseverely weakened by the great detachments doomed thereafter to uselessinactivity in the frontier fortresses . When Napoléon was struck to the earthin 1814, he still held the fortresses on the Elbe and the Rhine: above a hundred thousand veteran troops were there immured , when he maintained anunequal conflict with fifty thousand in the plains ofChampaigne; and that whichher boasted triple line offortresses could not do for France, would have beencertainly effected by an intrenched camp, like that at Ulm, on Montmartreand Belleville. The conclusion to be drawn from that is, not that frontierfortresses are totally useless and central ones are alone to be relied on, butthat the combination of the two is requisite to lasting security; the formerto cover the provinces and impede an inconsiderable enemy, the latter torepel those desperate strokes which are directed by a gigantic foe at the vitals of the state.the cam paign.Merits of V. The march of Napoléon across the St. -Bernard , and his con Napoléon in sequent seizure of the Austrian line of communication, is one ofthe greatest conceptions of military genius, and was deservedlycrowned by the triumph of Marengo; but, in the execution of this design, heincurred unnecessary hazard (1 ) , and all but lost his crown by the dispersionof his troops before the final struggle. The forces at his command, after hedebouched on the plains of Piedmont, were, including Moncey's division ,sixty thousand men; while the Imperialists by no exertions could havebrought forty thousand into the field to meet them, so widely were theirforces dispersed over the vast theatre of their conquests (2); whereas, whenthe die came to be cast on the field of Marengo, the Austrians had thirty-onethousand, and the French only twenty-nine thousand in line . This but illaccords with the principle which he himself has laid down, that the essenceofgood generalship consists, with equal or inferior forces, in being alwayssuperior at the point of attack. The march to Milan was the cause of thisweakness; while Lannes and Victor, with twenty thousand men, struggledwith an overwhelming enemy on the banks of the Bormida, twenty-ninethousand were in position or observation on the Mincio and the Po. So greata dispersion of force to secure the rear was altogether unnecessary; for, incase of disaster, the French army, after the fort of Bard had capitulated onthe 1st June, could have retreated as well by the St. -Bernard and Mont Cenis,as the Simplon and St.-Gothard . A forward movement, in conjunction withThureau, after the army, numbering forty thousand combatants, was concentrated at Ivrea on the 24th May, would have delivered Masséna, who did notcapitulate till the 4th June, and added his troops, ten thousand strong, tothe invading army, while Moncey, with sixteen thousand would have adequately protected the rear; and the retreat of Melas, then far advanced inthe defiles of the Maritime Alps, would have been equally cut off. The astonishing consequences which followed the battle of Marengo, afford no proofthat the campaign in this particular was not based on wrong principles; thesame results might have been gained without the same risk; and it is not thepart of a prudent general to commit to chance what may be gained by combination. Had the torrent of the Scrivia not swollen, and stopped the marchof the French army on the evening of June 15; had Desaix advanced an hour(1 ) Nap. i. 280. (2) Rapport Official d'Autriche, Gaz. Mil. 1823.176 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.later on the 14th; had Kellermann not opportunely charged an unsuspectingfoe when concealed by luxuriant vines; had Melas not detached his cavalry to the rear to observe Suchet, the fate of the action would probably have beenreversed, and Marengo been Pavia. No scruple need be felt at making theseobservations, even in reference to so great a commander. The military art,like every other branch of knowledge, is progressive; the achievements ofone age illuminate that which succeeds it, and mediocrity can, in the end,judge of what genius only could at first conceive. A school-boy can now solve a problem, to which the minds of Thales and Archimedes alone were adequate in the commencement of geometry.Austrian And of the VI. If the conduct of the Austrian commander is examined, itcommander. Will be found to be not less open to exception, previous to thebattle of Marengo, than that of the First Consul. The desire to retain everything, to guard at once all the points which had been gained , was the causeofa dispersion, on his part so much the more reprehensible than that of Napoléon, as, being in a conquered country, with all the fortresses in his possession, it was the less necessary. Two thousand men would have sufficed forthe garrison of Tortona, as many for that of Coni . The surplus troops thusacquired, with the cavalry detached to observe Suchet, would have formed aforce considerably superior to the reserve of Desaix, which would haveensured the victory . Of what avail were the four thousand men in either ofthese fortresses the next morning, when all the strong places of Piedmontwere surrendered to the enemy? Thrown into the scale when the beam quivered after the repulse of Desaix, they would have hurled Napoléon from theconsular throne (1) .convenandria conPropriety of VII. The conduct of the Austrian commander, during and aftertion of Alex- the battle, has been the subject of much severe animadversion sidered . from the German writers. Bulow, in particular, has charged himwith having unnecessarily surrendered the fortresses of Piedmont on the following day, when he had still at command a force capable of breakingthrough the enemy, and regaining his communications with Mantua (2) .Certain it is that Melas, whose conduct in the outset of the action is worthy ofthe highest praise, did not follow up his first successes so vigorously as seemsto have been possible; that his detachment of cavalry to the rear was unnecessary and eminently hurtful; and it is more than probable that, if Napoléon had been in his place, Marengo would have been the theatre of as greata reverse to the Republicans as Salamanca or Vittoria . But, in agreeing tothe armistice on the following day, his conduct appears less liable to exception. He had then only twenty thousand men on whom he could rely in thefield, and these, with the garrisons in the Piedmontese fortresses , formed thechief defence of the Austrian possessions in Italy. His chief duty was to preserve this nucleus of veteran troops for the monarchy, and transport themfroma situation where they were cut off from their communications and could beof little service to their country, to one in which they were restored to both.Perched on the Apennines, or shut up in the walls of Genoa, they wouldhave been exposed to the whole weight of the army of reserve, which mightthus have been raised , by the concentration of its forces from the rear, toforty-five thousand men, besides the victorious troops of Suchet, with thegarrison of Genoa, nearly twenty-five thousand more. It is doubtful whetherthe whole force of Melas, aided as it would have been by the expedition ofAbercromby and the English fleet, could have successfully withstood such a(1) Jom. xiii. 303, 304. (2) Bul. Feldzug, 1800, 292.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 177

concentration of seventy thousand combatants, flushed with victory, andheaded by Napoléon; and if they failed , disasters tenfold greater awaited themonarchy. Thirty thousand men might have been made prisoners at once,and the walls of Genoa witnessed as great a catastrophe as the heights ofUlm ( 1) .Inexpe dience of receivingoblique or der.VIII. The oblique attack, or the attack by column coming up aftercolumn by echellon, has frequently achieved the most decisive battle in the success in war; and the victories of Leuthen by Frederic, and Salamanca by Wellington, were chiefly owing to the skilful use of thatmethod of action. But to receive battle in that position is a very differentmatter. To do so is to expose the successive columns to be overwhelmed bya superior enemy, who, by the defeat of the first, acquires a superioritywhich it becomes afterwards a matter of extreme difficulty to counterbalance. The action of Montebello was an instance of the successful applicationand great effect of an attack in this order; the narrow escape from a catastrophe at Marengo, an example of the peril to which troops themselves attacked in such a situation are exposed . The difference between the two isimportant and obvious. When the attacking army advances in echellon, if itcan overthrow the first column of the enemy, it throws it back upon the onein rear, which soon finds itself overpowered by a torrent of fugitives, orshaken by the sight of its comrades in disorder; while, if it is stubbornly resisted, it is soon supported by fresh troops advancing on its flank, in perfectorder, to the attack. But when the troops in echellon stand still , all theseadvantages are reversed; the disorder created in front speedily spreads tothe rear, and the successive columns, instead of coming up to the aid of anadvancing, too often find themselves overwhelmed by the confusion of a retreating army ( 2) . Napoléon was perfectly aware of these principles; he neverintentionally received an attack in echellon; at Marengo, as at Eylau , he wasassailed unawares in that position by the enemy, and his ultimate extrication from destruction in both battles was owing to the opportune arrival oftroops, whom his first orders had removed far from the scene of action, orupon events on which no human foresight could have calculated at the commencement of the struggle.IX. When it is recollected that Abercromby's corps, twelve thousandstrong, lay inactive at port Mahon in Minorca during this interesting and important crisis, big as the event proved with the fate not only of the campaignbut of the war, it is impossible not to feel the most poignant regret at its absence from the scene of action; or to avoid the reflection , that England atthat period partook too much of the tardiness of her Saxon ancestors; andthat, like Athelstane the Unready, she was never ready to strike till the periodfor successful action had passed . What would have been the result if thisgallant force had been added to the Imperialists during their desperate strifearound Genoa, or thrown into the scale, when victory was so doubtful, tomeet the troops of Kellermann and Desaix at Marengo! When it is recollectedwhat these very men accomplished in the following year, when opposed toan equal force of Napoléon's veterans on the sands of Alexandria, it is impossible to doubt that their addition to the Allied forces in Italy at this juncture would in all probability have been attended with decisive effects . But,notwithstanding all this, it is impossible to say that the British governmentwere to blame for this apparently inexcusable inactivity of so important a(1 ) Rap. Off. d'Autriche, 1823. Mém . du Dép. de (2) Jom. xiii. 271 , 272.la Guerre, iv, 337, 339.12 IV.178 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXI.reserve. The equality of force at Marengo, it must always be recollected , wasnot only unforeseen, but could not have been calculated upon by any degreeof foresight. At the outset of the campaign the Imperialists were not onlyvictorious, but greatly superior to their antagonists in Italy; and even afterNapoléon and the formidable army of reserve were thrown into the balance,their advantage was so marked, that, but for a ruinous and unnecessary dispersion of force, they must have crushed him on that well-contested field.In these circumstances, no crisis in which their co-operation was likely to beattended with important consequences was to be anticipated in the north ofItaly; there was no apparent call upon them to alter the direction ofa forcedestined for important operations either on the shores of Provence or on thebanks ofthe Nile; and the British historian must therefore absolve the Englishgovernment from any serious blame in this matter, however much he maylament the absence of a band of veterans stationed so near the scene of action,which was adequate, as the event proved, to have turned the scales of for- tune and altered the destinies of the world.1800.] HISTORY OF Europe. 179CHAPTER XXXII.CAMPAIGN OF HOHENLINDEN.FROM THE ARMISTICE OF ALEXANDRIA TO THE PEACE OF LUNEVILLE.JUNE, 1800- FEB . 1801.ARGUMENT.Universal joy in France at the victory of Marengo-Treaty previously signed between Austria and England-Good faith of the Imperial Government in adhering to it-Count St. -Julien arrives at Paris and signs preliminaries, which are disavowed by the Imperial Cabinet- Ne gotiations with England for an armistice, which fail from the unreasonable demands of France-Conspiracy to assassinate Napoléon -Preparations of France for a renewal of hostilities-And of Austria-But Russia and Prussia keep aloof from the contest-English expedition under Sir James Pulteney fails at Ferrol -And from dread of the plague declines to attack Cadiz -Surrender of Malta to the British blockading squadron-Affairs of Italy Election of Pope Pius VII at Venice-Hostility of Naples and insurrection of Piedmont against France- TheFrench crush the insurrection in the Tuscan States with great cruelty -Leghorn is seized and the English merchandise confiscated-Last remnant of Swiss in dependence is destroyed -Capture of Surinam and Demerara by the English squadrons Permanent incorporation of the Netherlands with France- Description of the line ofthe Inn-Project of the Imperialists-Hostilities on the Lower Rhine. -The Austrians advance into Bavaria-Movements of Moreau-Great success of the Austrians in the outset-Frenchretire to Hohenlinden -Description of the field of battle-Able plans of Moreau-Battle of Hohenlinden-Dreadful struggle at the entrance of the Forest-Decisive charge of Richepanse The Austrian line of communication is intercepted-Great victory gained bythe French-Its prodigious consequences-Merit of Moreau in gaining it-The Austrians retire behind the Inn-Skilful manœuvre by which the passage of that river was effected by Mo reau-Rapid advance of the French towards Salzburg-They are defeated by the Austrian Cavalry in front of that town -But the Imperialists are nevertheless obliged to retire Mo reau pushes on towards Vienna-Great successes gained by his advanced guard-The Arch duke joins the army, but cannot arrest the disaster-An armistice is agreed to- Operations of the army on the Maine- And in the Grisons-Designs of Napoléon there-Description of the ridges to be surmounted - Napoléon's design for the passage of that mountain- Pre parations of Macdonald for crossing it -Description of the passage of the Splugen-Extreme difficulties experienced by the French troops in the passage-Heroism of Macdonald in per sisting notwithstanding-He arrives at Chiavenna, on the Lake of Como- Unworthy jea lousy of this passage displayed by Napoléon-He is placed under the orders of Frune- Dif ficult passage of the Col Apriga-Attack on the Mont Tonal-In which the French arerepulsed-Positions and forces of the French and Austrians in Italy-First operations of Brune-Passage of the Mincio-Desperate conflict of the troops who had passed over Brune at length relieves them, and the passage is completed-Great losses of the Imperia lists-Bellegarde retires to Caldiero -Advance of the Republicans in the valley of the Adige -Alarming situation of Laudon on the Upper Adige-Macdonald makes his way into the Italian Tyrol Laudon is surrounded at Trent- He escapes by a lateral path to Bassano Bellegarde retires to Bassano and Treviso-Armistice concluded at the latter place-Insur rection breaks out in Piedmont-Neapolitans invade the Roman states , and are totally de feated -Queen of Naples flies to St.-Petersburg to implore the aid of Paul- Napoléon will ingly yields to his intercession -Peace between France and Naples at Foligno-Its condi tions-French take possession of the whole Neapolitan territories-Siege of Elba-Its gallant defence by the English garrison-Treaty of Lunéville-The Emperor subscribes forthe empire as well as Austria -Extravagant joy excited by this peace at Paris-Important consequences of this treaty on the internal situation of Germany Reflections on this cam paign-The real object of the war was already gained by the Allies-Evidence of Napoleon's implacable hostility to England -Increasing and systematic pillage of the people by the Republican armies-Symptoms of patriotic and general resistance spring up.FRANCE Soon experienced the beneficial results of the triumphs in Italyand the successes in Germany. More passionately desirous than any other180 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXII.France atof Ma rengo.people in Europe of military glory, its citizens received with theutmost enthusiasm the accounts of their victories; and the angrythe victory passions of the Revolution , worn out by suffering , willingly turnedinto joyful comparison of their present triumphs with the disasterswhich had preceded the return of the first consul. The battle of Marengofixed Napoléon on the consular throne. The Jacobins of Paris, the Royalistsof the west, were alike overwhelmed by that auspicious event; and two August. English expeditions, which appeared, as usual too late, on thecoast of Britanny and la Vendée, under Sir Edward Pellew and Sir JamesPulteney ( 1 ) , were unable to rouse the inhabitants to resistance against thetriumphant authority of the capital .Universal joy inTwo days before intelligence was received of the battle of Marengo, a treaty for the further prosecution of the war had beensigned at Vienna, between Austria and Great Britain . By thisconvention it was provided, that within three months Englandwas to pay to Austria a loan of L.2,000,000 sterling, to bear nointerest during the continuance of the war, and that neither of the highcontracting parties should make any separate peace with the enemy, duringthe period of one year from its date (2) .June 20.Treaty pre viously signed be tween Austria and Eng.land.Good faith The disastrous intelligence of the defeat at Marengo , and the ofthe Im perial go vernment in adheringarmistice of Alexandria, followed up as it soon was by similarand still more pressing calamities in Germany, could not shake to it. the firmness or good faith of the Austrian cabinet. The inflexibleThugut, who then presided over its councils, opposed to all the representations with which he was assailed, as to the perils of the monarchy, thetreaty recently concluded with Great Britain , and the disgrace which wouldattach to the Imperial government if, on the first appearance of danger,engagements of such long endurance and so solemnly entered into were tobe abandoned . Nor did the situation of affairs justify any such despondingmeasures. If the battle of Marengo had lost Piedmont to the allied powers,the strength of the Imperial army was still unbroken; it had exchanged adisadvantageous offensive position in the Ligurian mountains for an advantageous defensive one on the frontiers of Lombardy; the cannon of Mantua,so formidable to France in 1796, still remained to arrest the progress ofthevictor, and the English forces of Abercromby, joined to the Neapolitantroops and the Imperial divisions in Ancona and Tuscany, would prove tooformidable a body on the right flank of the Republicans to permit anyconsiderable advance towards the Hereditary States . Nor were affairs byany means desperate in Germany. The advance of Moreau into Bavaria,while Ulm and Ingolstadt were unreduced , was a perilous measure; theline of the Inn furnished a defensive frontier not surpassed by any inEurope, flanked on one side by the mountains of Tyrol, and on the otherby the provinces of Bohemia, both in the possession of the Imperial forces;the strength of the monarchy weuld be more strongly felt, and reinforcements more readily obtained, when the enemy approached its frontiers,and the ancient patriotism of the inhabitants were called forth by the nearapproach of danger; and the disastrous issue of the campaign of 1796 to theRepublican forces proved how easy was the transition from an unsupportedadvance to a ruinous retreat. Finally, the treaty of Campo Formio had onlybeen signed after a whole campaign of disasters, and when the standards ofFrance were almost within sight of Vienna; and it would be disgraceful to( 1 ) Aun. Reg. 1800, 212, 213. Jøm . xiv. 4, 5. (2) Ann. Reg. 1800, 241. State Papers.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 181subscribe the same conditions when the Imperial banners were still on theMincio, or lose the fruits of a long series of triumphs in the terror producedby a single misfortune (1 ) .Count St. Julien ar rives at Paris, and to gain time;signs preσεInfluenced by these considerations, the Austrian cabinet resolvedand if they could not obtain tolerable terms of peace,run all the hazards of a renewal of the war. Count St. -Julienliminaries. arrived at Paris on the 21st July, as plenipotentiary on the partof Austria, bearing a letter from the Emperor, in which he stated: Youwill give credit to every thing which Count St.-Julien shall say on mypart, and I will ratify whatever he shall do. " In virtue of these powers,preliminaries of peace were signed at Paris in a few days by the French andAustrian ministers. The " treaty of Campo Formio was taken as the basisof the definitive pacification , unless where changes had become necessary;it was provided that the frontier of the Rhine should belong to France,and the indemnities stipulated for Austria by the secret articles of the treatyof Campo Formio were to be given in Italy instead of Germany (2) . ”Which are As this treaty was signed by Count St. - Julien in virtue of theletter from the Emperor only, and without an exchange of fullpowers, it was provided that " these preliminary articles shall beratified, and that they shall not bind their respective governments tillafter the ratification . " The cabinet of Vienna availed themselves of thisclause to avoid the ratification of these preliminary articles, in subscribingwhich their plenipotentiary had not entered into the views of his government.He was accordingly recalled , and the refusal to ratify notified on the 15thAugust, the appointed time, by Count Lehrbach, accompanied, however,by an intimation ofthe wish of the Imperial cabinet to make peace, of thetreaty which bound them not to do so without the concurrence of GreatBritain, and of the readiness ofthe latter power to enter into negotiations, onauthority of a letter from Lord Minto, the British ambassador at Vienna, to Baron Thugut (3).Napoléon either was, or affected to be, highly indignant at therefusal by Austria to ratify the preliminaries, and he immediately mistice. gave notice of the termination of the armistice on the 10th September, and sent orders for the second army of reserve, which was organizingat Dijon, to enter Switzerland on the 5th of that month, and ordered Augereau, with eighteen thousand men from Holland, to take a position on theLahn , in order to co-operate with the extreme left of Moreau's army. Buthe soon returned to more moderate sentiments, and dispatched full powersto M. Otto, who resided at London as agent for the exchange of prisoners,to conclude a naval armistice with Great Britain . The object of this proposal,hitherto unknown in European diplomacy, was to obtain the means, duringthe negotiations, of throwing supplies into Egypt and Malta, the first ofwhich stood greatly in need of assistance, while the latter was at the lastextremity from the vigilant blockade maintained for nearly two years bythe British cruisers (4) .No sooner was this proposal received by the English government, thanthey proceeded to signify their anxious desire to be included in the generalpacification, and proposed, for this purpose, that passports should be forwarded for Lord Grenville's brother to proceed, in the character of plenipotentiary of Great Britain, to the congress at Lunéville; but they declineddisavowedby the Im perial ca binet.Negotia tions with England for an ar(1) Jom. xiv, 7, 8.( 2) 28th July, 1800. State Papers, Ann. Reg.180, 278.(3) Dum. v. 8, 9. Nap. ii. 2, 3.(4) Parl. His. xxxv. 540, 542. Jom . xiv. 3, 4.Dum. 9, 10. Ann. Reg. 1800, 214.182 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.to agree to a naval armistice, as a thing totally unknown, till the preliminaries of peace had been signed. Napoléon, however, resolutely bent onsaving Malta and Egypt, continued to insist on the immediate adoption of anaval armistice as a sine qua non, and signified that, unless it was agreedto before the 11th September, he would recommence hostilities both in Italyand Germany (1).The urgency of the case, and the imminent danger which Austria wouldrun, ifthe war were renewed on the continent at so early a period, inducedthe cabinet ofLondon to forego the advantages which a declinature of the proposals of the First Consul promised to afford to the maritime interests ofGreat Britain. On the 7th September, therefore, they presented to M. Otto acounter project for the general suspension of hostilities between the belligerent powers . By this it was proposed that an armistice should take placeby sea and land , during which the ocean was to be open to the navigation oftrading vessels of both nations; Malta and the harbours of Egypt were to beput on the same footing as Ulm, Philipsburgh , and Ingolstadt, by the armisticeof Parsdorf; that is to say, they were to be provisioned for fourteen days,from time to time, during the dependence of the negotiation . The blockadeof Brest and the maritime ports was to be raised , but the British squadronswere to remain on their stations off their mouths, and ships of war were notto be permitted to sail . Nothing could be more equitable towards France, orgenerous towards Austria, than these propositions. They compensated therecent disasters of the Imperialists by land with concessions by the British atsea, where they had constantly been victorious, and had nothing to fear; theyplaced the blockaded fortresses which the French retained on the ocean, onthe same footing with those which the Imperialists still held in the centre ofGermany, and abandoned to the vanquished on one element those advantagesof a free navigation , which they could not obtain by force of arms, in consideration of the benefits accruing from a prolongation of the armistice totheir allies on another (2) .20th Sept.Napoléon, however, insisted upon a condition which ultimately proved fatalto the negotiation . This was, that the French ships of the line only should beconfined to their ports, but that frigates should have free liberty of egress;and that six vessels of that description should be allowed to go from Toulonto Alexandria without being visited by the English cruisers . He has told usin his " Memoirs" what he intended to have done with these frigates. Theywere to be armed en flute, and to have carried out three thousandsix hundred troops, besides great military stores , to Alexandria . Whatrendered this condition peculiarly unreasonable was, thať at themoment ( 20th September ) when M. Otto declared to the BritishGovernment that the condition as to these frigates was a sine quanon for the continuation of the negotiation , he addressed to Moreaua telegraphic despatch, “ not to agree to a prolongation of the armistice buton condition that Ulm, Ingolstadt, and Philipsburg, were placed in the handsofthe French as a guarantee. " Thus, at the very time when the first consulmade a condition for the preservation of the maritime blockaded fortresses asine qua non with the British Government, he made the immediate cession ofthe corresponding blockaded ones on the continent an indispensable condi tion of a continuation of the armistice with the Austrian Cabinet. In thesesimultaneous propositions is to be seen little of that spirit of moderationWhich fail,from the unreason able de mands of France.(1 ) Parl. His. xxxv. 544, 550. Dum, v. 10. 11 .Ann. Reg. 1800.(2) Parl. His. xxxv. p. 551 , 555. Dum. v. 11 , 12.Ann. Reg. 1800 , 215.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 183which he so loudly professed, but much of that inflexible desire for aggrandisement, which so long was attended with success, but ultimately occasionedhis ruin (1 ) .The Imperialists, with the dagger at their throats, were in no condition to resist the demands ofthe victor. A new convention was therefore concluded28th Sept. at Hohenlinden, on the 28th September, by which the cession ofthethree German fortresses was agreed to , and the armistice was prolonged forforty-five days. A similar convention, signed at Castiglione a few days afterwards, extended the armistice for the same period to the Italian peninsula ( 2) .9th Oct.The English Government, however, was under no such necessity; and asNapoléon peremptorily refused to abandon his condition as to despatching sixfrigates to Egypt, the negotiation was broken off, the Cabinet of theTuileries having declared that they would treat only with each of the twocourts separately . This was equivalent to its total abandonment, as both theallied powers had intimated to France, that they were bound by the recentconvention to treat only in concert with each other (3) .to assas sinate Na poléon.8th Oct. No sooner was it evident that Great Britain would not consent to Conspiracythe demands of the first consul, than he resolved to prosecute thewar with vigour against Austria. On the 8th October, accordingly,the portfolio ofthe war office was put into the hands of Carnot, with instructions to redouble his exertions to put all the armies immediately on a footingto resume hostilities: On the same day on which this took place, a plot toassassinate Napoléon at the opera was discovered by the police; Ceracchi andDemerville, the leaders of the conspiracy, and both determined Jacobins,were arrested and executed . It originated in the remains of the democraticfaction, and served to increase the already formed exasperation of the first consul at that party (4) .Prepara tions of During the interval of hostilities, both parties made the most inFrance for defatigable efforts to put their armies on a respectable footing, andprepare for a vigorous prosecution of the war. A corps of fifteenthousand men was formed at Dijon, under the name of the secondarmy ofreserve, the command of which was intrusted to General Macdonald,already well known by his campaigns in Naples, and the battle of the Trebbia.The official reports gave out that it was to consist of thirty thousand, andeven Macdonald himself was led to believe it amounted to that force; theobject in spreading this delusion was to augment the troops, which the Austrians, recollecting what the first army of reserve had effected , would deemit necessaryto watch his operations. It was destined to penetrate through theGrisons into the Tyrol, and threaten the flank of the Imperialists either inItaly or Germany, as circumstances might render advisable. Another army,20,000 strong, was assembled, under Augereau , on the Maine; it was intendedto advance along the course of that river to Wurtzburg, and threaten Bohemia, so as to prevent the troops in that province from undertaking any thingagainst the flanks or rear of the grand army under Moreau in Bavaria. Thatarmy was raised to above 110,000 men, all in the highest state of disciplineand equipment; the soldiers were all newly clothed, the artillery and cavalryremounted, and all the matériel in the finest possible state; the Republic hadnever, since the commencement of the war, had on foot an army so perfectin its composition, so admirably organized, and so completely furnished withall the appointments requisite for carrying on a campaign. The army of Italya renewal of hostili ties.(1 ) Parl. His. xxxv . 566 , 583. Nap. ii . 8 , 9. Dum,v. 12, 14. Ann. Reg. 1800, 215.(2) Jom. xiv. 15.(3) Dum. v. 13, 14. Nap. ii . 9.(4) Jom. xiv, 24.184 HISTORY OF europe. [CHAP. XXXII.was reinforced to 80,000 men; its cavalry and artillery were in an especialmanner augmented; and, besides these great forces, a reserve of 10,000 chosentroops was formed at Amiens, to watch the movements of the English expeditions; and which, as soon as they proceeded to the coast of Spain, was movedto the south to support the army of Italy or the Grisons. In all, the Republichad 240,000 men in the field , ready for active operations ( 1 ); and besidesthis, there was nearly an equal force in Egypt, Malta, in the dépôts of the interior, or stationed along the coasts.And of Austria on her part had made good use, during the four months Austria. of the armistice, of the resources of the monarchy, and the subsidiesof England. Never on any former occasion had the patriotic spirit of her inhabitants shone forth with more lustre, nor all ranks co-operated with moreenthusiastic zeal, in the measures for the common defence. No sooner was itannounced, by the refusal of Napoléon to treat with either court separately,that peace was no longer to be hoped for, than the generous flame, like anelectric shock, burst forth at once in every part of the monarchy. The Archduke Palatine repaired to Hungary, decreed the formation of a levy en masse,and threw himself on those generous feelings which , in the days of MariaTheresa, had saved the throne . The Emperor announced his resolution to puthimself at the head of the army, and actually repaired to the Inn for thatpurpose. His presence excited to the highest degree the spirit of the peopleand the soldiers. The Archduke Charles, in his government of Bohemia,pressed the organization of twelve thousand men, destined to co-operate withthe army on the Inn in resisting the menaced invasion; and the Empress sentto that accomplished prince a helmet set with magnificent jewels. Thesewarlike measures excited the utmost enthusiasm among all classes; thepeasantry every where flew to arms; the nobles vied with each other in theequipment of regiments of horse, or the contribution of large sums of money;every town and village resounded with the note of military preparation . Butunfortunately the jealousy, or erroneous views of the Aulic Council, werebut ill calculated to turn to the best account this general burst of patrioticspirit; the Archduke Charles, indeed, in accordance with the unanimouswishes ofthe army, was declared generalissimo, but instead of being sent tohead the forces on the Inn, he was retained in his subordinate situation ofthe government of Bohemia. Kray, whose talents at Ulm had so long arrestedthe progress of disaster , was dismissed to his estates in Hungary, while thecommand of his army was given to the Archduke John, a young man of greatpromise and thorough military education, but whose inexperience, eventhough aided by the councils of Lauer, the grand-master ofartillery, was butill calculated to contend with the scientific abilities ofMoreau ( 2) .Before the renewal of hostilities , Austria had greatly augmented her forcesin all quarters. Five thousand additional troops in the English pay had beenobtained from Bavaria; the cession of Philipsburgh, Ulm, and Ingolstadt, hadrendered disposable 18,000 more; and the recruits from the interior amountedto 15,000 men. These additions had so far counterbalanced the heavy lossessustained during the campaign by sickness, fatigue, and the sword, that theImperialists could reckon upon 110,000 effective men on the Inn, to defendthe frontiers of the Hereditary States. But this great force, after the usualsystem of the Austrians, was weakened by the vast extent of country overwhich it was spread . The right, 27,000 strong, occupied Ratisbon and the(1) Nap. ii . 20, 21. Dum, v. 16 , 17. Jom. xiv. (2) Dum. v. 21, 27, 80, 81. Jom, xiv. 13, 14.63, 65.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 185Palatinate; the left, consisting of 18,000 men, under Hiller, was stationed inthe German Tyrol: so that not more than 60,000 combatants could be reliedon to maintain the important line of the Inn. In Italy, Field-marshal Bellegarde had 100,000 under his command, but they too were weakened by theimmense line they had to defend; 15,000 were in the Italian Tyrol, underDavidowich; 10,000 in Ancona and Tuscany; 20,000 were formed of theNeapolitan troops, who could be little relied on so that, for the decisiveshock on the Mincio, not more than 60,000 effective men could be assembled (1).But Russia and Prussia Nor was the Imperial Cabinet less active in its endeavours tokeep aloof. awaken the northern powers to a sense of the dangers which menaced them, from the great abilities and evident ambition of the first consul. Special envoys were despatched to St.-Petersburg and Berlin to endeavour to rouse the Russian and Prussian cabinets into activity, but in vain.Frederick William persisted in the system of neutrality which he had so longpursued, and was destined so bitterly to expiate; and the Emperor Paul, intent upon his newly-acquired ideas of the freedom of the seas, refused toembroil himself with France, and in the pursuit of the imaginary vision ofmaritime independence, fixed upon Europe the real evils of territorial slavery.He retained a hundred and twenty thousand men inactive, under KUTUSOFFand Count Pahlen, on the frontiers of Lithuania, who, if thrown into the scaleat this critical moment, might have righted the balance when it was beginning to decline, and saved Russia from the rout of Austerlitz and the conflagration of Moscow (2) .4th June.It is painful to be obliged to add, that the military efforts of England,though intended to follow out the true spirit ofthe alliance, were not better calculated to aid the common cause. On the 4th June an attack wasmade on the forts in Quiberon bay, by the squadron under the command ofSir Edward Pellew; but after gaining a trifling success, and dismantling thefortifications, they embarked without making any permanent impression.Early in July a secret expedition, under the command of SirJames Pulteney, consisting of eight thousand men, sailed for thecoast of France. It first appeared off Belle-Isle; but as the strongworks on that island rendered any attack a difficult enterprise, itshortly made sail from the coast of France, and landed in the neighbourhoodof Ferrol. After two skirmishes , in which the Spaniards were defeated , theBritish took possession of the heights which overlook the harbour, and everything promised the immediate reduction of that important fortress, with theSept. 18. fleet within its walls , when the English commander, intimidated bythe rumour of reinforcements having reached the town , withdrew his forces,and made sail for Gibraltar, where Abercromby, with the expedition whichhad so long lain inactive at Port Mahon, awaited his arrival (3) .English ex pedition of Sir James Pulteney fails at Ferrol.July 8.dread of theclines to atAnd from The union of two squadrons, having on board above twenty thouplague, de- sand English troops, in the straits of Gibraltar, excited the utmost tack Cadiz. alarm through the whole Peninsula. This armament, the greatest which had yet sailed from the British shores during the whole war, menacedalike Carthagena, Seville and Cadiz. Reinforcements from all quarters were hastily directed to the lines of St. -Roch in front of Gibraltar; vessels weresunk at the entrance of the harbour of Cadiz, and all the means adoptedwhich could be thought of to repel the threatened attack . The British com(1 ) Nap. ii . 19, 20.20, 21.(2) Dum. v. 21 , 22.Jom. xiv. 72, 73. Dum. v.Jom. xiv. 23, 24.(3) Ann. Reg. 1800, 212, 213. Jom, xiv, 46, 47.Dum, v. 42.186 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP . XXXII.manders, instead of making sail, the moment they arrived , for the isle ofSt.-Leon, lay above a fortnight inactive in the straits of Gibraltar , and at Oct. 5. length appeared off Cadiz on the 5th October. Never was a more formidable armament assembled; the naval forces consisted of twenty sail oftheline, twenty- seven frigates, and eighty-four transports , having on board abovetwenty thousand foot soldiers . As far as the eye could reach, the ocean wascovered by the innumerable sails of the British armada, which seemed destined to revenge upon Spain the terrors of the celebrated armament whichhad been baffled by the firmness of Elizabeth . Noways intimidated by theformidable spectacle, the Spanish governor wrote a touching letter to the British commanders, in which he adjured them not to add to the calamities whichalready overwhelmed the inhabitants from an epidemic which carried offseveral hundreds of persons daily . They replied , that the town would not beattacked if the ships of war were delivered up; and as this was not acceded to,preparations were made for landing the troops; but before they could debark,the accounts, received of the yellow fever within its walls were so serious,that the British commanders apprehended that if the city were taken, theulterior objects of the expedition might be frustrated by the effect ofthe contagion among the troops, and withdrew from the infected isle to the straits ofGibraltar ( 1 ) .of Malta toblockadingSurrender But while the honour of the British arms was tarnished by thethe British failure of such mighty forces on the western coast of Europe, ansquadron. event of the utmost importance to the future progress of the maritime war occurred in the Mediterranean. Malta, which for above two yearshad been closely blockaded by the British forces by land and sea , began, inthe course of this summer, to experience the pangs of hunger. Two frigatessailed from the harbour in the end of August with part of the garrison, one ofwhich was speedily taken by the British cruizers. At length, all their meansof subsistence having been exhausted, a capitulation was entered into in themiddle of September, in virtue of which the French were to be conveyed asprisoners of war, not to serve till regularly exchanged, to Marseille; and thisnoble fortress, embracing the finest harbour in the world within its impregnable walls, long the bulwark of Christendom against the Turks, and now theundisputed mistress ofthe Mediterranean, was permanently annexed to theBritish dominions ( 2) .Italy. ElecVII atAffairs of The hopes ofthe Imperial cabinet, in the event ofa renewal ofthetion of Pius war, were not a little founded on the hostile attitude of the south Venice. of Italy, to which, it was hoped , the arrival of the English expedition under Abercromby would give a certain degree of consistency. PopePius VI had sunk under the hardships of his captivity in France, and died inMarch of this year. The choice of the Roman Conclave, assembled , under theImperial influence , at Venice , fell on the Cardinal Chiaramonte, who assumedthe tiara, under the title of Pius VII. At the same time when he ascended thePapal throne the inhabitants ofRome were suffering severely under the exactions of the Neapolitans, and he wisely resolved to do his utmost to alleviatetheir misfortunes. Without, therefore, engaging openly in the war, he lenta willing ear to the propositions which the first consul, who was extremelydesirous ofthe support of the supreme pontiff, instantly made to him. Butthe other parts of Italy were in the most hostile state . A body of ten thousand Neapolitans had taken a position on the Tronto between the Upper(1) Ann. Reg. 1800, 216. Jom, xiv, 47, 48. Dum.iv. 342, 347.(2) Ann. Reg. 1800 , 215. Jom. xiv. 13, 14. Bot.iv. 49, 50.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 187Hostility of Naples, and insurrectionsagainst France.Abruzze and the march of Ancona; a Neapolitan division , underCount Roger de Damas, was in the Roman states; Piedmont, in con- in Piedmont sternation at the recent annexation of the Novarese territory to theCisalpine republic, and the innumerable oppressions ofthe Frencharmies, was in so agitated a state, that a spark might blow it into open com- bustion; while the peasants of Tuscany, in open insurrection to support theImperial cause, presented a tumultuary array of seven or eight thousandmen. These bands, it is true, were little formidable to regular troops in thefield; but as long as they continued in arms, they required to be watched bydetachments, which diminished the strength of the army; and it was one ofthe motives which induced Napoléon to accede to the prolongation of the armistice with Austria, that it would give him time, during its continuance, to clear his flank of these troublesome irregulars (1) .crush the Tuscangreat cruelty.The French As the armistice, by a strange oversight, did not extend to theItalian powers, and the English expedition was detained in uselessstates with demonstrations on the coast of Spain, it was no difficult matter forthe French troops to effect this object. General Sommariva, to whomthe Grand Duke of Tuscany had intrusted the military forces of his states, wasrapidly proceeding with the organization of the peasants in the Apennines,when Dupont, early in October, intimated to him, that unless the insurrectionwas forthwith disbanded , he would move against Tuscany with a formidableforce. As these summonses met with no attention , the French troops advanced in great force, in three columns. After a vain attempt to defend theApennines, Florence was occupied on the 15th . The Austrians, under Som- Oct. 15. mariva, retired towards Ancona, and the greater part of the insurgents retired to Arezzo, where they resolved to defend themselves to the last Oct. 18. extremity. An attempt to force open the gates having failed , theFrench General Meunier made preparations for a general assault, which tookplace on the following morning at five o'clock. Nothing could resist the impetuosity of the French columns; the grenadiers mounted thescaling ladders amidst a shower of balls; quickly they made themselves masters ofthe rampart, and chasing the unhappy peasants from house to house,and street to street, soon filled the town with conflagration and carnage. Theslaughter was dreadful; a few escaped by subterraneous passages, and madegood their flight into the country; others retired into the citadel , which wassoon obliged to surrender at discretion , and was razed to the ground; but byfar the greater number perished in the town, under the sword of an irritatedand relentless victor (2) .Oct. 19.seized, andmerchan- dise confis cated.Leghorn is This bloody stroke proved fatal to the Tuscan insurrection . Thethe English fugitives who escaped the carnage, spread far and wide the mostdismal accounts of the fate of their unhappy comrades, and thepeasants, thunderstruck with the rapidity and severity ofthe blow,lost no time in deprecating the wrath of an enemy who appeared irresistible.Sommariva, fettered by the armistice with Austria, retired entirely from theTuscan states, and the inhabitants, left to their own means of defence, hadno resource but in immediate submission. A strong division was immediately despatched to Leghorn, which entered the place without opposition, and after the barbarous method of carrying on war now adopted by the first consul, instantly confiscated the whole English property in the harbour andtown. Forty-six vessels, with their cargoes, besides 750,000 quintals of wheat(1) Bot. iv. 40, 50. Dum. v. 62, 63. Nap. ii . 11.Jom. xiv. 141, 142.(2) Bot. iv. 50, 55. Dum. v. 67, 68. Jom. xiv.144, 145. Nap. ii . 18, 19.188 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXII.and barley, and 90,000 quintals of dried vegetables, were thus obtained forthe use of the army, an acquisition of great importance to its future operations (1); but which, like all other ill -gotten gains, in the end recoiled uponthe heads ofthose who acquired them, and contributed to form that deep anduniversal hatred at the French dominion, which at length precipitated Napo léon from the throne.Oct 16. At the same period the Swiss, whose divisions and democratic Last rem nant of transports had exposed their country to the severities of Republi Swiss inde can conquest, were doomed to drain to the dregs the cup of misery pendence destroyed . and humiliation. The shadow even of their independence vanishedbefore the armed intervention of the first consul. The numerous insurrectionsof the peasants against the enormous requisitions of the Republican agents;the obstinate resistance of the partizans of the ancient constitutions; the general anarchy and dissolution of government which prevailed , loudly calledfor a remedy. Napoléon applied it , by causing his minister Reinhard to declare to the democratic despots who ruled the country, that he would recognise no authority but that of the executive commission to whom he transmitted his orders; a declaration which at once brought the whole country under the immediate sway of the central government at the Tuileries (2) .Surinamrara .incorporaCapture of The English in the course of this year made themselves masters ofand Deme- Surinam, Berbice, St. -Eustache, and Demerara, Dutch settlementsPermanent on the mainland and in the islands of the West Indies. At the sametime Napoléon published an edict, permanently incorporating theprovinces acquired by the Republic on the left bank of the Rhine, · France. and extending the French laws and institutions to these valuableacquisitions. Thus, while England was extending its mighty arms over bothhemispheres ( 3), France was laying its iron grasp on the richest and mostimportant provinces of Europe. The strife could not be other than desperate between two such powers.of the Nether lands with28th Nov. Such was the state of Europe when the armistice of Hohenlindenwas denounced by the first consul, and hostilities recommenced at all points in the end of November.of the line Description Had the Aulic Council determined to remain on the defensive, noof the Inn. line was more capable of opposing an obstinate resistance to theinvader than that of the Inn . That river, which does not yield to the Rhineeither in the impetuosity or the volume of waters which it rolls towards theDanube, meanders in the Tyrol, as far as Kufstein, between inaccessible ridgesof mountains, whose sides, darkened with pine forests, are surmounted bybare peaks, occasionally streaked, even in the height of summer, with snow.From thence to Muhldorf it flows in a deep bed , cut by the vehemence of thetorrent through solid rock, whose sides present a series of perpendicular precipices on either bank, excepting only in a few well-known points, whichwere strongly guarded, and armed with cannon. This powerful line, supported on the left by the fortress of Kufstein, and on the right by that ofBraunau, both of which were in a formidable state of defence, was flankedon either side by two immense bastions , equally menacing to an invadingenemy, the one formed by the Tyrol, with its warlike and devoted popula tion and inaccessible mountains, the other by Bohemia and the chain of theBohmerwald, which skirts the Danube from Lintz to Straubing, where theArchduke Charles was organizing a numerous body of forces (4) .(1) Dum. v. 69. Nap. ii . 18. Jom, xiv. 145, 146.(2) Dum . v. 71.(3) Dum. v. 24, 25.(4) Personal observations. Jom. xiv. 73, 74.Dum , v. 82. Nap. ii. 27.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 189Had the Austrians, headed by the Archduke Charles, remained on the defensive in this strong position, it is probable that all the disasters of the campaign would have been avoided. It was next to impossible to force such acentral line, defended by eighty thousand men, under the direction of thatgreat commander; while to attempt to turn it , either by the Tyrol or Bohemia, would have been equally perilous . To detach thirty thousand men intothe defiles leading into Bohemia would have been imminently hazardous,when so large a force threatened the centre of the invader; while a similarmovement into the Tyrol, besides being attended with the same danger, wouldhave incurred the hazard of being defeated by the Prince of Reuss, who occupied the impregnable passes and fortresses which guarded the entranceinto that difficult country. But from these difficulties the French were relieved by the resolution of the Imperialists to cross the Inn, and carry thewar vigorously into the heart of Bavaria, a project which might have led tovictory if conducted by the experience and ability of the Archduke Charles ,but terminated in nothing but disaster in the hands of his brave but inexperienced successor (1) .Project of Impe Although the offensive movement ofthe Imperialists led to such rialists. calamitous results, it was skilfully combined, and promised in theoutset the most brilliant success. The Republican right, under Lecourbe,stretched through the Voralberg mountains to Feldkirch in the Tyrol; thecentre, under Moreau in person, was in position at Ebersberg, on the highroad leading from Munich to Haag; the left, commanded by Grenier, wasstationed at Hohenlinden, on the road to Muhldorf. The project of theImperialists was to detach Klenau from Ratisbon towards Landshut, where hewas to be joined by Keinmayor with twenty thousand men (2); meanwhilethe centre was to advance by echellons towards Hohenlinden, and bear theweight oftheir forces on the Republican left, where the least resistance mightbe expected.on the Lower24th Nov. Hostilities were commenced by Augereau, who was at the headof the Gallo-Batavian army. He denounced the armistice four days beforehis colleagues, and advanced, at the head of twenty thousand men, fromFrankfort by the course of the Maine towards Wurtzburg. Though the Imperial forces in that quarter were nearly equal to his own, they opposed buta feeble resistance, from being composed chiefly of the troops recently leviedin Bohemia and the states of Mayence, little calculated to resist the French Operations veterans . After a slight combat, the Imperialists were repulsed atRhine. all points; the Baron Albini, after an ephemeral success at Aschaffenbourg, was driven with loss out of that town and forced back toSchweinfurth, while Dumonceau pushed on to Wurtzburg, and summonedthe garrison, which shut itself in the citadel. The first effect of these disasterswas to dissolve the insurrectionary troops of Mayence under Albini, whonever appeared again during the campaign. The Austrian general Simbschen,reduced by this defection to thirteen thousand men, took a position at 3d Dec. Bourg-Eberach to cover Bamberg; he was there attacked on thefollowing day by Augereau, and after an obstinate conflict driven back toPommersfield. Satisfied with this success , the French general established his troops behind the Regnitz to await the fall of the citadel of Wurtzburg, whichDumonceau was beginning to besiege in regular form (3) . These advantageswere much more important upon the issue ofthe campaign than might have(1 ) Jom. xiv. 76.(2) Jom . xiv. 79. Dum. v. 96, 97.(3) Duin. v. 86, 95. Nap. ii . 23, 24. Jom . xiv.81, 85.190 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.been supposed from the quality and numbers of the troops engaged; for byclearing the extreme left of Moreau they permitted him to draw his left wing,under Sainte Suzanne, nearer to his centre, and reinforce the grand army onthe Inn, in the precise quarter where it was menaced by the Imperialists .27th Nov. The Ausvance into Bavaria.Meanwhile, operations of the most decisive importance had takentrians ad- place on the Inn. On the 27th November the Imperialists broke upto execute their intended concentration on the right towards Landshut; but the heavy rains which fell at that time retarded considerably themarch oftheir columns; and it was not till the 29th that their advanced guardreached that place . At the same time Moreau concentrated his forces in thecentre, and advanced by Haag towards Ampfing and Muhldorf. Fearful ofcontinuing his flank movement in presence of a powerful enemy, whothreatened to fall perpendicularly on his line of march, the archduke arrestedhis columns, and ran the hazard of a general battle on the direct road toMunich. They accordingly, on the 30th, retraced their steps, and movedthrough cross roads towards Ampfing and Dorfen . This lateral movementperformed amidst torrents of rain, and in dreadful roads, completed theexhaustion of the Austrian troops, but it led, in the first instance to the mostpromising results (1).Move- ments of By a singular accident, Moreau had heard nothing of the advanceMoreau. of the Imperialists towards Landshut, far less of their cross movement to Ampfing; but some confused accounts had merely reached the Republican head-quarters of considerable assemblages of the enemy towardsMuhldorf, and the French general, desirous to explore his way, pushedforward strong reconnoitring parties in that direction. His right occupiedRosenheim, his left and centre were gradually approaching the Austriancolumns by Haag and Wasserbourg. The effect of this movement was to bringthe Imperial army, sixty thousand strong, and massed together, perpendicularly against the left ofthe French, who, ignorant of their danger, were advancing in straggling and detached columns to discover where they were (2) .The effect of this state of things, and of the able manœuvre ofthe archduke,speedily shewed itself. The French army, turned and out-generaled, wasexposed to be cut up in detail , while separated in a line of march by an enemy Dec. I. drawn up in battle array on one of its flanks . Grenier, who wasthe first in advance, was leisurely approaching Ampfing, when he was suddenly assailed by vast masses of the enemy, in admirable order and battlearray; he was speedily thrown into confusion, and put to the rout. In vain Great suc- cess of the Austrians in the out- set.Ney displayed all his talent and resolution to sustain the weight ofthe Imperial columns; his troops, after a brave resistance , werebroken and driven back upon the division of Grandjean, while thatof Hardy, which advanced to its support, shared the same fate. At the sametime Legrand , after a sharp conflict in the valley of the Issen , was constrainedto fall back to the neighbourhood of Dorfen. The Imperialists were every where successful . They had attacked , in compact and regular masses, theenemy's divisions while in march and separated , and spread alarm anddiscouragement from the general's tent to the sentinels' outposts (3) .French re- tire to Ho- henlinden.So far the most brilliant success had attended the Austian advance, and if it had been vigorously followed up by a generalcapable of appreciating the immense advantages which it offered, and forcingback the enemy's retreating columns without intermission upon those which(1) Jom. xiv. 85, 87. Dum. v. 100. 105.(2) Nap. ii. 30. Jom, xiv. 88 , 90. Dum. v. 104,105.(3) Jom. xiv, 90, 91. Nap. ii , 30, 31. Dum. v.104, 109.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 191Dec. 2.of the field ofcame up to their support, it might have led to the total defeat of the Frencharmy, and changed the whole fortune of the campaign. But the ArchdukeJohn, satisfied with this first advantage, allowed the enemy to recover fromtheir consternation . On the following day no forward movement wasmade, and Moreau , skilfully availing himself of that respite, retired throughthe forest of HOHENLINDEN to the ground which he had originally occupied,and carefully studied as the probable theatre of a decisive conflict ( 1 ) .Description The space which lies between the Inn and the Iser, which is fromtwelve to fifteen leagues in breadth, is intersected in its centre by battle. this forest, now celebrated not less in history than poetry ( 2) . Parallel to the course of the two rivers its woods form a natural barrier orstockade, six or seven leagues long , and from a league to a league and a halfbroad. Two great roads only, that from Munich to Wasserbourg, and fromMunich to Muhldorf, traverse that thick and gloomy forest, where the pinetrees approach each other so closely, as in most places to render the passageofcavalry or artillery, excepting on the great roads, impossible. The villageof Hohenlinden is at the entrance on the Munich side of the one defile, thatof Matenpot at the mouth of that leading to Muhldorf. The village of Ebersberg forms the entrance of the other defile leading to Wasserbourg. Betweenthese two roads the broken and uneven surface of the forest is traversed onlyby country paths, almost impracticable during the storms of winter even tofoot soldiers (3) .Able plan of Moreau.Moreau with his staff had carefully reconnoitred this ground; and as soon as it became evident that the archduke was to advancethrough its dangerous defiles, he prepared, with the art of a consummategeneral, to turn it to the best account. Rapidly concentrating his forces inthe plain at the entrance of the defiles on the Munich side, he at the sametime gave orders to Richepanse, with his division , to advance across theforest, so as to fall, early on the morning of the 3d, perpendicularly on theline of the great road from Hohenlinden to Muhldorf. He naturally anticipated that this movement would bring him on the flank of the Austriancentre, when entangled in the defile, with its long train of artillery and chariots; and that if the Republican force at the entrance of the pass could onlymaintain its ground till this side attack took place, the ruin of the wholecolumn, or at least the capture of all its cannon, would be the result. Toeffect this object, he concentrated all the forces he could command at themouth of the defile; but so unforeseen was the attack, that not above twothirds of his army could take a part in the action; neither the right-wingunder Lecourbe, nor the half of the left, under Sainte Suzanne, could beexpected to arrive so as to render any assistance (4) .Hohenlin- Battle of The Imperialists had committed the great error of allowing theden, Dec. 3. surprised Republicans all the 2d to concentrate their scatteredforces, but they did not on the following day repeat their mistake. Early on the morning of the 3d, a day ever memorable in the military annals of France, all their troops were in motion, and they plunged, in three great columns, into the forest to approach the enemy. The centre, forty thousand strong, advanced by the great road from Muhldorf to Munich, the only roadwhich was practicable , in the dreadful state of the weather, for artillery; above a hundred pieces of cannon and five hundred chariots encumbered its(1 ) Nap. ii . 31. Dum. v. 107, 108. Jom, xiv.91 , 92.(2) The reader will recollect Mr. Campbell's noble Ode to Hohenlinden.(3) Dum. v. 109, 110. Personal observation.(4) Nap. ii. 31 , 32. Jom, xiv. 94, 96. Dum. v.111 , 112. Mém. du Dépôt de la Guerre, v. 242.192 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.movements. The infantry marched first; then came the long train ofartilleryand caissons; the cavalry closed the procession. The right wing, under thecommand of general Latour, consisting of twenty-five thousand men, followed the inferior road leading from Wasserbourg to Munich; Keinmayermoved on the flank of that column, with his light troops, through the forest;while the left wing, under Riesch, was directed to proceed by a cross pathbyAlbichen to St.-Christophe. The Imperial columns, animated by their success on the preceding days, joyfully commenced their march over the yetunstained snow two hours before it was daylight, deeming the enemy in fullretreat, and little anticipating any resistance before their forces were unitedand disposed in battle array, in the open plain, on the Munich side of theforest (1 ).Dreadful struggle at the en trance of the forest.From the outset , however, the most sinister presages attended theirsteps. During the night the wind had changed; the heavy rain of the preceding days turned into snow, which fell , as at Eyleau, in such thick flakesas to render it impossible to see twenty yards before the head of the column,while the dreary expanse of the forest presented , under the trees, a uniformwhite surface , on which it was impossible to distinguish the beaten track (2).The cross-paths between the roads which the troops followed, bad at anytime, were almost impassable in such a storm; and each body, isolated in thesnowy wilderness, was left to its own resources , without either receivingintelligence or deriving assistanee from the other. The central column, which advanced along the only good road, outstripped theothers; and its head had traversed the forest, and approachedHohenlinden about nine o'clock . It was there met by the division ofGrouchy,and a furious conflict immediately commenced; the Austrians endeavouringto debouche from the defile and extend themselves along the front of thewood, the French to coerce their movements and drive them back into theforest. Both parties made the most incredible efforts; the snow which fellwithout interruption, prevented the opposing lines from seeing each other;but they aimed at the flash which appeared through the gloom, and rushedforward with blind fury to the deadly charge of the bayonet. Insensibly,however, the Austrians gained ground; their ranks were gradually extendingin front ofthe wood, when Generals Grouchy and Grandjean put themselvesat the head of fresh battalions, and by a decisive charge drove them back intothe forest. The imperial ranks were broken by the trees, but still they resisted bravely in the entangled thickets; posted behind the trunks, they keptup a murderous fire on the enemy; and the contending armies, broken intosingle file, fought, man to man, with invincible resolution (3) .While this desperate conflict was going on in front of Hohenlinden, theleading ranks of the Austrian right began to appear at the entrance oftheforest on the other road. Ney instantly repaired with his division to the sceneof danger, and by a vigorous charge on the flank of the enemy's column,which was in the act of deploying, not only drove it back into the wood, butcaptured eight pieces of cannon, and a thousand prisoners (4) .The effect of these vigorous efforts on the part of Moreau, in preventing the(1 ) Nap. ii . 33. Mén. v. 251. Dum. v. 114, 116 .Jom. xiv. 95, 97.(2) " On Linden, when the sun was low,All bloodless lay the untrodden snow,And dark as winter was the flow Of Iser rolling rapidly."(3) Dum. v. 117 , 118. Jom . xiv. 96, 97. Mém. v.260, 267. Nap. ii . 32, 33.'Tis morn, but scarce yon level sun Can pierce the war clouds rolling dun Where furious Frank and fiery Hun,Shout in their sulphurous canopy."(4) Ney's Mem. ii . 48, 57. Nap. ii . 34. Dum. v.118. •1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 193Charge ofpanse.deploying of the heads of the Imperial columns from the forest, was to introduce vacillation and confusion into the long train in their centre, which,unable to advance from the combat in its front, and pressed on by the crowdin its rear, soon began to fall into confusion. They were in this state , jammedup amidst long files of cannon and waggons, when the division of Richepanse, which had broken up early in the morning from Ebersberg, on theMunich side of the one defile, and struggled on with invincible resolutionthrough dreadful roads across the forest, arrived in the neighbourhood ofMatenpot, on the Muhldorf side of the other, directly in the rear of the centreDecisive of the Austrian army, and at the close of its protracted array. ButRiche- just as it was approaching this decisive point, and slowly advancing in open column through the forest, this division was itselfpierced through the centre, near St. -Christophe, by the Austrian left wing,under Riesch, which, moving up by the valley of Albichen, to gain thechaussée of Wasserbourg, by which it was destined to pierce through theforest, fell perpendicularly on its line of march. Thus Richepanse, with halfhis division, found himself irretrievably separated from the remainder; themanœuvre which he was destined to have performed on the centre of theImperialists was turned against himself, and with a single brigade he wasplaced between that immense body and their left wing. An ordinary general, in such alarming circumstances, would have sought safety in flight, andthus, by allowing the Imperial centre to continue its advance, endangered thevictory; but Richepanse, whose able mind was penetrated with the importance ofhis mission, bravely resolved to push on with the single brigade whichremained under his command, and fall on the rear of the grand column ofthe enemy. He sent orders, therefore, to his separated brigade to maintainitself to the last extremity at St. -Christophe, and advanced with the utmostintrepidity towards Matenpot and the line of march of the grand Austriancolumn (1) .trian line ofcation is inThe Aus- When the troops approached the great road, they came upon thecommuni- cuirassiers of Lichtenstein who formed part of that vast body, whotercepted. had dismounted, and were reposing leisurely under the trees untilthe great park of artillery and the reserves of Kollowrath had passed thedefile . It may easily be imagined with what astonishment they beheld thisnew enemy on their flank, who was the more unexpected, as they knewthat their left wing, under Riesch, had passed through the forest, and theydeemed themselves perfectly secure on that side. They made, in conse quence, little resistance, and were speedily driven off the chaussée. Not content with this success, Richepanse left to his cavalry the charge of keepingoff the Imperial cuirassiers, and advanced himself with the two remaining regiments of infantry to attack the rear ofthe Imperial centre in the forest ofHohenlinden. The appearance of this force, amounting to nearly three thou sand men, behind them, excited the utmost alarm in the Austrian column.The troops of that nation are proverbially more sensitive than any in Europeto the danger of being turned when in a line of march. A brigade of theBavarian reserve was speedily directed to the menaced point, but it wasoverwhelmed in its advance by the crowds of fugitives , and thrown into suchdisorder by the overturned cannon and caissons which blocked up the road,that it never reached the enemy. Three Hungarian battalions were nextbrought up, but after resisting bravely, amidst the general consternationaround them, they too at length were broken and fled . This little action(1 ) Nap. ii . 34, 35, Jom. xiv. 97, 99. Dum. v. 119, 120. Mém. v. 270, 274.IV.13194 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.

decided the victory; the whole Austrian artillery lay exposed to the attacksof the victor in a situation where it was incapable ofmaking any resistance (1 ) .Moreau, at the entrance of the defile in front of Hohenlinden, was stillmaintaining an anxious conflict, when the sound of cannon in the directionof Matenpot, and the appearance of hesitation and confusion in the enemy'scolumns, announced that the decisive attack in the chaussée behind them, byRichepanse, had taken place. He instantly directed Grouchy and Ney to makea combined charge in front on the enemy. The French battalions, which hadso long maintained an obstinate defence, now commenced a furious onset,and the Austrian centre, shaken by the alarm in its rear, was violently assailedin front. The combined effort was irresistible . Ney, at the head of the Republican grenadiers, pressed forward in pursuit of the fugitives, along thechaussée, until the loud shouts of the troops announced that they had joinedthe victorious Richepanse, who was advancing along the same road to meethim, as fast as its innumerable incumbrances would permit. No words canpaint the confusion which now ensued in the Austrian column. The artillerydrivers cut their traces, and galloped in all directions into the forest; theinfantry disbanded and fled; the cavalry rushed in tumultuous squadrons tothe rear, trampling under foot whatever opposed their passage; the waggonswere abandoned to their fate, and amidst the universal wreck, 97 pieces ofcannon, 500 caissons, and 7000 prisoners fell into the enemy's hands (2) .While this decisive success was gained in the centre, the columnstory gained of Latour and Keinmayer, who had succeeded in debouching from French. the forest and united in the plain on its other side, violently assailed the Republican left, where Grenier, with inferior forces, defended theother road to Munich. Notwithstanding all his efforts, and the assistance of apart of the division of Ney, he was sensibly losing ground, when the intelligence of the defeat of the centre compelled the enemy to abandon his advantages, and retire precipitately into the forest. Grenier instantly resumedthe offensive, and by a general charge of all , his forces, succeeded in overwhelming the Austrians while struggling through the defile, and taking sixpieces of cannon and fifteen hundred prisoners. At the same time, GeneralDecaen, with a fresh brigade, disengaged the half of Richepanse's division ,cut off during his advance, which was hard pressed between General Riesch'scorps and the retiring columns of the centre, who still preserved their ranks.Before night, the Republicans, at all points, had passed the forest. Four oftheir divisions were assembled at Matenpot, and the head-quarters were advanced to Haag, while the Imperialists, weakened by the loss of above100 pieces of cannon, and 14,000 soldiers, took advantage of the night towithdraw their shattered forces across the Inn (3) .Great vicby theSuch was the great and memorable battle of Hohenlinden, themost decisive, with the exception of that of Rivoli, which had yetbeen gained by either party during the war, and superior even to that renowned conflict in the trophies by which it was graced, and the immenseconsequences by which it was followed . The loss of the French on that andthe preceding days was 9000 men, but that of the Imperialists was nearlytwice as great, when the deserters and missing were taken into account; theylost two-thirds of their artillery, and the moral consequences of the defeatwere fatal to the campaign. The victory of Marengo itself was less momentIts prodi gious con sequences.( 1) Nap. ii . 35, 36. Jom. xiv. 99, 100. Dum. v.121 , 122.(2) Jom . xiv. 99, 101. Mém. v. 272, 284. Duia.v. 121, 124. Nap. ii . 36 , 37.(3) Nap. ii. 36, 37. Dum. v. 127, 128. Jɔm. xiv.101 , 105. Mém. v. 280, 285,1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 195ous in its military consequences. It merely gave the Republicans possessionof the Sardinian fortresses and the Cisalpine republic; but the disaster ofHohenlinden threw the army of Germany without resource on the HereditaryStates , and at once prostrated the strength of the monarchy (1 ) .Merit of Moreau in Common justice must award to Moreau the merit of skilful comgaining it . bination, and admirable use of the advantages of ground in thisgreat victory; but it is at the same time manifest that he owed much tochance, and that fortune crowned a well- conceived plan of defence by adecisive offensive movement. The whole arrangements of the French general were defensive; he merely wished to gain time, in order to enable hisright and left wings, under Lecourbe and Sainte- Suzanne, to arrive and takea part in the action . By the movements on previous days, he was so far outgeneraled, that, though his army on the whole was greatly superior to thatof his opponents, he was obliged to fight at Ampfing with an inferiority ofoneto two, and at Hohenlinden on equal terms. The movement of General Richepanse, however well conceived to retard or prevent the passage of the forestby the Austrian army, could not have been reckoned upon as likely to produce decisive success; for if he had advanced half an hour later, or if Riesch'scolumn, which it should have done, according to the Austrian disposition,had arrived half an hour sooner, he would have fallen into the midst ofsuperior forces, and both his division and that of Decaen, which followed hisfootsteps, would probably have perished. The imprudence ofthe Austriansin engaging in these perilous defiles in presence of the enemy's army, and

  • not arranging matters so that all their columns might reach the enemy at the

same time, undoubtedly was the principal cause of the disaster which followed; but although Moreau's arrangements were such as would probably atall events have secured for him the victory, it was the fortunate accidentswhich occurred during the action which occasioned its decisive result (2) .Thunderstruck by this great disaster, the whole Imperial army trians re- retired behind the Inn, and made a show of maintaining itself onthe Inn. that formidable line of defence. But it was but a show. From thefirst the disposition of its columns, disposed in part in echellon along the roadto Salzbourg, indicated an intention of retreating in that direction . Aftermaturely weighing all the circumstances of the case, Moreau resolved toforce the passage of the Upper Inn, on the road to Salzbourg; but in order to deceive the enemy, he caused all the boats of the Iser to be assembled atMunich, collected the bulk of his forces in that direction , and gave out thathe was about to cross the lower part of the river. By adopting this line of´advance, the French general had the prospect of cutting off the Imperialistsfrom their left wing, hitherto untouched, in the Tyrol; menacing UpperAustria and Vienna, and endangering the retreat of Bellegarde from theplains of Italy. These advantages were so important, that they overbalancedthe obvious difficulties of the advance in that direction , arising from thenecessity of crossing three mountain streams, the Inn , the Alza, and theSalza, and the obstacles that might be thrown in their way from the strengthof the mountain ridges in the neighbourhood of Salzbourg (3) .The Austire behind(1 ), Jom. xiv. 107. Nap. ii . 131. Dum. v. 129.(2) Jom. xiv. 106, 107. Nap. ii . 52, 54.Napoléon's observations on this battle, and the whole campaign of Moreau, have been here adopted only in so far as they appear to be consonant to reason and justice. They are distinguished by his usual ability, but strongly tinctured by that en- venomed feeling towards his great rival, whichformed so powerful a feature in his character. Jea- lousy towards every one who had either essentially injured or rivalled his reputation, and a total disre- gard of truth when recounting their operations, are two of the defects in so great a man, upon which it is at once the most necessary and the most painful duty ofthe historian to dwell.(3) Jom. xiv. 111, 112. 8 Dum. v. 133, 134, 135.196 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.Skilful manœuvre,by which the passage of that river was effected by Moreau.While the boats of the Iser were publicly conducted, with theutmost possible éclat, to the lower Inn, Lecourbe caused a bridgeequipage to be secretly transported in the night to Rosenheim, onthe road to Salzbourg, and having collected thirty- five thousandmen in the neighbourhood, established a battery of twenty-eightpieces during the night of the 8th December at Neuperen, where the Innflows in a narrow channel, and which is the only point in that quarter wherethe right bank is commanded by the left. At six o'clock on the followingmorning, while it was still pitch-dark, the French cannon, whose arrivalwas wholly unknown to the Austrian videttes, opened a furious fire, so welldirected that the Imperialists were obliged to retire; and the Republicansinstantly constructed a bridge, and threw across so strong a body of troops asgave them a solid footing on the left bank. At the same time a battery wasplaced in front of the bridge at Rosenheim, in order to prevent the burningof the remaining arches of that wooden structure, of which one only hadbeen destroyed; but the corps of the Prince of Condé, which was stationedon the opposite bank, faithfully discharged its duty, and the whole bridgewas soon consumed. In consequence of this circumstance, Lecourbe's troopswere obliged to make a circuit by the passage at Neuperen , but so dilatorywere the movements of the Imperialists , that no sufficient force could be collected to oppose their progress; a second bridge of boats was constructednear Rosenheim, by which Richepanse's division was passed over, and theAustrians, abandoning the whole line of the Upper Inn, retired behind theSalza. Thus was one of the most formidable military lines in Europe bro-,ken through in the space of a few hours, without the loss of a single man (1 ) .This extraordinary success was chiefly owing to the Imperialists havingbeen led, by the demonstrations of Moreau against the Lower Inn, to concentrate the right wing oftheir army, which had suffered least in the disastrousbattle of Hohenlinden, in that quarter, which removed it three or four marches from the scene where the real attack was made. No sooner did theyreceive intelligence ofthe passage of Lecourbe over the Upper Inn, than theyhastily moved all their disposable troops towards the menaced point; butfinding that the enemy were established on the right bank in too great forceto be dislodged , they fell back on all sides, and abandoning the whole line ofthe Inn, concentrated their army behind the Alza, between Altenmarkt andthe lake of Sine, to cover the roads to Salzbourg and Vienna (2) .vance oftowardsRapid ad- Moreau, conceiving with reason that the spirit of the Austrianthe French army must be severely weakened by such a succession of disasters,Salzbourg . resolved to push his advantages to the utmost. The Austrians nowexperienced the ruinous consequences attending the system of extending themselves over a vast line in equal force throughout, which, since the commencement of the war, they had so obstinately followed; they found themselves unable to arrest the march of the victor at any point, and by the rapidadvance of Lecourbe were irrecoverably separated from their left wingin theTyrol. Moreau having resolved not to allow them to establish themselves ina solid manner behind the Salza, pushed rapidly forward across the Achenand the Traun to Salzbourg. He experienced no considerable opposition till he reached the neighbourhood of that town, but when Lecourbe,with the advanced guard, approached the Saal, he found the bulk of theAustrian army, thirty thousand strong, including ten thousand cavalry,posted in a strong position covering the approach to Salzbourg. Its front was(1) Dum. v. 134, 140. Jom. xiv. 112, 115. Nap. (2) Jon. xiv. 114, 116. Dum, vg 141, 143.Dec. 12.ii. 38, 39.1800.]197 HISTORY OF EUROPE.covered by the Saal, the rapid course of which offered no inconsiderableobstacle to an attacking force; its right rested on inaccessible rocks, and itsleft was protected by the confluence of the Saal and the Salza. But this position, how strong soever, had its dangers; it was liable to be turned by apassage of the Salza , effected below the town between Lauffen and Salzbourg,in which case the army ran the risk of being cut off from Vienna, or thrownback in disorder upon the two bridges of boats which preserved its communication with the right bank of the river (1).Lecourbe commenced the attack with his accustomed vigour; Gudin car13th Dec. ried the village of Salzbourghoffen, and made six hundred prisoners; but Montrichard was so rudely handled by the Imperial cavalry, that hewas driven back in disorder , with the loss of five hundred men. But this success was of little avail , for Moreau ordered Decaen to cross the Salza at Lauffen, an operation which was most successfully performed . While the attention of the Imperialists was drawn to the broken arches of the bridge by aviolent cannonade, this able general directed four hundred chosen troops toa point a little lower down, who, undeterred by the violence and cold of thewinter torrent, threw themselves into the stream, swam across, and madethemselves masters of some boats on the opposite side, by which the passage was speedily effected . Moreau was no sooner informed of this success,than he pushed Richepanse, with two fresh divisions, across at this place,and advanced against Salzbourg by the right bank. Encouraged by this support, Lecourbe, on the day following, renewed his attack on theAustrian rear-guard, commanded by the Archduke John in person,posted in front of Salzbourg. His troops advanced in two columns,one bythe road of Reichenthal, the other formed in front ofVaal;a thick fog covered the ground, and the French tirailleurs advanced inconsiderately to the attack, deeming the Austrians in full retreat, and desirous ofhaving the honour of first reaching Salzbourg. They were received by the fireofthirty pieces ofcannon, whose discharges soon dissipated the mist, and discovered two formidable lines of cavalry drawn up in battle array. Lecourbebrought up his horse, but they were overwhelmed by the first line of the Imperial cavalry, which broke into a splendid charge when the Republicansapproached their position . Lecourbe finding himself unequal to the task ofopposing such formidables forces, drew back his wings behind the Saal, andposted his infantry in the rear ofthe village of Vaal. He there maintained himself with difficulty till the approach of night, glad to purchase his safety bythe loss oftwothousand men left on the field of battle ( 2) .14th Dec. They are defeated by the Austrian cavalry in front of that town.But theists are nevertheHad it not been for the passage of the river at Lauffen, this bril Imperial- liant achievement might have been attended with important conlesobliged sequences; but that disastrous circumstance rendered the position to retire. at Salzbourg no longer tenable. Moreau, at the head of twentythousand men, was rapidly advancing up the right bank, and the ArchdukeJohn, unable to oppose such superior forces, was compelled to retire duringthe night, leaving that important town to its fate. Decaen, with the advanced guard ofMoreau, took possession of Salzbourg, without opposition, onthe following morning, and the Republican standards for the first time wavedon the picturesque towers ofthat romantic city (3) .The occupation of Salzbourg, and the abandonment of the line of the Salza,decided the fate of the monarchy. The shattered remains of the grand army,E(1) Jom . xiv . 115, 116. Dum. v. 195, 197. Nap.ii. 39, 40.(2) Nap. ii . 40 , 41. Jom. xiv. 116, 120. Dum, v198, 206.(3) Nap. ii . 40. Dum. 200 , 207.198 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.which had been unable to maintain the formidable lines of twosuch rivers, broken in numbers, subdued in spirit, were unablethereafter to make any head against a numerous enemy, flushedwith victory , and conducted with consummate military skill. Emboldened bythe unexpected facility with which he had passed these considerable rivers,Moreau resolved to give the enemy no time to recover from his consternation,but to push on at once towards Vienna, and decide the war in the centre ofthe Hereditary States, before the other French armies had begun seriously toskirmish on the frontier. He disquieted himself little about the forces in theTyrol, deeming the troops in that province sufficiently occupied with the invasion of Lombardy by Brune, and the march of Macdonald through the Grisons, which shall immediately be noticed . Satisfied with the precautions,therefore, of leaving on the right small bodies as he advanced , to mark theprincipal passes into that mountainous region , and on the left of detachingSainte-Suzanne with his wing to watch the motions of Klenau, who was threatening the Gallo- Batavian army at Wurtzburg, he himself pushed on with hiswhole centre and right wing in pursuit of the enemy ( 1 ) .Great suc cesses gain ed by his advancedRichepanse, who conducted his advanced guard, marched with so muchexpedition, that he came up with the Austrian rear at Herdorf. Notwithstanding the fatigue of his troops , who the day before had marchedtwelve leagues, he attacked the enemy at daybreak, routed them,and made a thousand prisoners . The two following days was a continued running fight; the Austrians retired , combating all the way, to Schwanstadt.This indefatigable leader was closely followed by Decaen and Grouchy, whọcame up to his support the moment that any serious resistance arrested hiscolumns; while Lecourbe, at the head of the other wing of the invading army,advanced by the mountain road, in order to turn the streams where theywere easily fordable , and constantly menace the left flank of the enemy. Infront of Schwanstadt the Imperialists made an effort to arrest thisterrible advanced guard . Three thousand cavalry, supported byguard. rocky thickets , lined with tirailleurs on either flank, stood firm ,and awaited the onset of the Republicans; but they were now in a state ofexultation which nothing could resist . The infantry advanced to within threehundred paces of that formidable mass of cavalry, without noticing the tirailleurs, who rattled incessantly on either flank, and then breaking into acharge, approached the horse with levelled bayonets with so muchresolution , that the Austrians broke and fled , and nearly a thousand menwere killed or made prisoners. On the following day, a scene of dreadfulconfusion ensued , when the Austrian rear-guard crossed the Traun . A column of twelve hundred , under Prince Lichtenstein, stationed in front ofthetown of Lambach, where the passage was going forward , made such a heroicresistance as gave time to the greater part of the cannon and baggage to defileover the bridge; but at length it fell a victim to its devotion, and was almostall slain or made prisoners . Immediately the whole remaining Imperialistswho had not passed fled towards the defile: they were rapidly followed bythe Republicans. A scene of indescribable horror ensued; in the mêlée offugitives, carriages, and trampling squadrons, the arches were fired , andmultitudes threw themselves into the stream; but such was the resolution ofthe French grenadiers, that, regardless alike of the flames and the discharges of from the opposite bank, they rushed across; by their exertions theDec. 19.grapeMoreau pushes on towards Vienna.Dec. 16.Dec. 17 and 18.(1) Jom. xiv. 121 , 123. Dum. v. 207, 208.1800.]HISTORY OF EUROPE. 199bridge was preserved from destruction, and was speedily passed by thetriumphant French battalions (1) .The Archthe army,arrest theDec. 20. Affairs were in this disastrous state when the Archduke Charles,duke joins whom the unanimous cries of the nation had called to the post ofbut cannot danger, as the only means left of saving the monarchy, arrived ,disaster. and took the command ofthe army. The arrival of that distinguishedleader, who brought with him a few battalions, for a moment revived thespirits of the soldiers; but that gleam was of short duration . He had flattered himself that he would be able to arrest the progress of the enemy in upperAustria, while Klenau made a diversion on the side of Bohemia, and Hiller onthat of Tyrol, so as to menace his communications in Bavaria and Swabia.But the appearance of the army as it crossed the Traun rendered it evidentto his experienced eye that it was too late to calculate on the success of thesemovements. Instead of the proud battalions whom he had led to victory atStockach and Zurich, the archduke beheld only a confused mass of infantry,cavalry, and artillery covering the roads; the bands of discipline were broken;the soldiers neither grouped around their colours nor listened to the voice oftheir officers; dejection and despair were painted in every countenance. Eventhe sight of their beloved chief, the saviour of Germany, could hardly inducethe extenuated veterans to lift their eyes from the ground . He saw that it wastoo late to remedy the disorder, but still he bravely resolved to do his utmostto arrest it, and rather give battle under the walls of Vienna, than purchase,by an ignominious peace, the retreat of the conqueror (2) .An armis- tice is agreed to.Dec. 20.The spirits of the troops, revived for a moment by the arrival oftheir favourite leader, were irretrievably damped by the order tocontinue the retreat, after the passage of the Traun, to Steyer. Thearchduke gave the most pressing orders to hasten the advance of the Hungarian insurrection , and urge forward the armaments in the capital; but inthe midst of these energetic measures, the rout of the rear-guard under PrinceSchwartzenberg, who was overwhelmed at Kremsmunster onthe Steyer, withthe loss of twelve hundred men, gave him melancholy proof that the troopswere so completely dejected , that no reliance could be placed on their exer- Dec. 21. tions. Penetrated with grief at this disaster, he despatched a messenger to Moreau , soliciting an armistice , which, after some hesitation, wassigned on the 25th by the French general, and repose given to the troops ,worn out by a month's incessant marching and misfortunes (3) .Operations To complete the picture of the memorable campaign of 1800 inof the army Germany, it only remains to notice the concluding operations ofthe Gallo-Batavian army on the Maine. After the action at BourgEberach and the investment of the citadel of Wurtzburg. Augereau endeavoured to put himself in communication with the grand army under Moreau.His situation soon became critical when the advance of that army after thebattle of Hohenlinden left him entirely to his own resources; and it was rendered doubly so by the approach of Klenau with ten thousand regularAustrian troops on his right flank, while Simbschen with twelve thousandtroops menaced his left. The danger soon became pressing; a division ofhis Dec. 18. troops was attacked on the 18th in front of Nuremberg by Klenau,and after a gallant resistance , forced to retreat; while his left with difficultymaintained itself against Simbschen. Disconcerted by these simultaneousattacks, the French general on the two following days retired behind theon the .Maine.(1) Nap. ii . 40, 41. Dum. v. 208, 214. Jom. xiv.125, 128.(2) Jom, xiv. 129. Dum. v. 217, 218.(3) Dum. v. 221, 222. Nap. ii . 41, 42. Jom. xiv.130, 131.200 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.Dec. 21. Rednitz. On the 21st he was again attacked and defeated at Neukerchen by the united Imperial generals; but they were unable to followup their advantages, from having received orders on the night of their victory to retire to Bohemia, in order to succour the heart of the monarchy, nowviolently assailed by the enemy ( 1 ) . They were in the course of executingthese orders, when the armistice of Steyer put a period to their operations .Thus the Republican army, in a short campaign of little more than threeweeks, in the middle of winter, and in the most severe weather, marchedninety leagues; crossed three considerable rivers in presence of the enemy;made twenty thousand prisoners; killed, wounded, or dispersed as many;captured 150 pieces of cannon, 400 caissons, and 4000 carriages; and neverhalted till its advanced guard , arrested by an armistice , was within twentyleagues of Vienna. Such results require no eulogium; the annals of warhave few such triumphs to recount, and they deservedly placed Moreau inthe very highest rank of the captains of the eighteenth century (2).in the Grisons.Napoléon there.Operations While these great events were in progress in Germany, operationsinferior indeed in magnitude, but equal in the heroism withDesigns of which they were conducted, and superior in the romantic interestwith which they were attended, took place in the snowy amphitheatre of the Alps. It has been already noticed, that the second army ofreserve , consisting of fifteen thousand men, was moved forward in Octoberto the valley of the Rhine, in the Grisons; and that it was destined to menacethe rear ofthe Imperial army on the Mincio, while Brune attacked it in front.This auxiliary corps would probably have rendered more essential serviceif it had been directed to the grand army of Moreau , which was destined tooperate in the valley of the Danube, the true avenue to the Austrian states;but such a disposition would ill have accorded with the views of the firstconsul, who was little anxious to put a preponderating force , so near theirfrontier, into the hands of a dreaded rival, and destined for himself the principal part in the campaign, with the troops which he was to lead by the NoricAlps to Vienna. Independently of this secret feeling, which undoubtedlyhad its weight, Napoléon was misled by the great results of the Italian campaigns of 1796 and 1797, and the paralysing effect of the march of the armyof reserve across the St. - Bernard in the present year. He conceived thatItaly was the theatre where the decisive events were to take place, and hadyet to learn the superior importance of the valley of the Danube, in whichhe himself on future occasions was destined to strike such redoubtableblows (3) . It is fortunate for the historian , that this destination ofMacdonald'scorps took place, as it brought to light the intrepidity and heroism of thatgallant officer, of whose descent Scotland has so much reason to be proud;while it led to the interesting episode of the passage of the Splugen, perhapsthe most wonderful achievement of modern war, and which has been portrayed by one of its ablest leaders, with the fidelity of Xenophon, and thepencil of Livy (4).The army of Macdonald , which was announced to consist of forty thousandmen, and was furnished with staff and other appointments adequate to thatnumber, in reality amounted only to fifteen thousand troops . Macdonald nosooner discovered this great deficiency than he made the most urgent repre- sentations to the first consul, and requested that the chosen reserve of ten(1) Nap. ii . 25 , 26. Dum. v. 229, 241. Jom. xiv.131, 137.(2) Jom , xiv. 137, 139.(3) Jom. xiv. 64. Arch. i . 264. Nap. ii . 61 .(4) Count Mathieu Dumas.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 201thousand men, which Murat was leading from the camp at Amiens to theplains ofItaly, should be put under his orders. But Napoléon , who intendedthis corps in the Alps to operate on the campaign, more by the apprehensions it excited among the Imperialists than its actual achievements in thefield , refused to change the destination of Murat's division , and it continuedits route for the banks of the Mincio. He still believed that the frontier oftheInn would sufficiently cover the Hereditary States on that side, and that itwas by accumulating ninety thousand men in the southern Tyrol and Italy,that the decisive blow against the Austrian power was to be struck. The command of this great army, destined to dictate peace under the walls of Vienna,he ultimately designed for himself ( 1) .Descrip- tion of the road over the Splu- gen.Of all the passages from Switzerland to Italy, there was nonewhich presented more serious natural obstacles, and was morecarefully guarded by the enemy, than that which leads over theSplugen into the Italian Tyrol. It is first necessary to pass from the valley ofthe Rhine, near its source, over the Splugen into that of the Adda, whichdescends in a rapid course from the Julian Alps to Chiavenna and the lake ofComo; from thence, if an advance to the eastward is required, the ColApriga, a steep ridge entangled with wood and lofty chesnuts, must be surmounted, which brings the traveller into the valley of the Oglio; betweenwhich and the stream of the Adige there is interposed the rugged ridge ofthe Monte Tonal, whose snowy summit was occupied and had been carefullyfortified by the Austrian troops (2) . Macdonald no sooner was made acquainted with these obstacles than he despatched his chief of the staff, General Mathieu Dumas, to lay before the first consul an account of the almostinsuperable difficulties which opposed his progress. No man could be betterqualified than the officer whose graphic pencil has so well described thepassage to discharge this delicate mission; for he was equally competentto appreciatethe military projects of the general- in-chief, and to portray thephysical obstructions which opposed their execution. Napoléonlistened attentively to his statement; interrogated him minutely mountain. on the force and positions of Hiller's corps, and the divisions ofLaudon, Davidowich, and Wukassowich, which were stationed near the headof the valleys which in that part of the Alps separate Italy from Germany;and then replied , " We will wrest from them without a combat that immense fortress of the Tyrol; we must manœuvre on their flanks; menacetheir last line of retreat , and they will immediately evacuate all the uppervalleys . I will make no change on my dispositions. Return quickly; tellMacdonald that an army can always pass, in every season, where two mencan place their feet. It is indispensable that, in fifteen days after the commencement of hostilities, the army of the Grisons should have seen thesources of the Adda, the Oglio, and the Adige; that it should have opened itsfire on the Monte Tonal which separates them; and that, having descendedto Trent, it should form the left wing of the army of Italy, and threaten , inconcert with the troops on the Mincio, the rear of Bellegarde's army. I shalltake care to forward to it the necessary reinforcements; it is not by thenumerical force of an army, but by its destination and the importance of itsoperations, that I estimate the merit due to its commander (3). "Napoleon's designs for the passage of thatHaving received these verbal instructions, Macdonald prepared , with thedevotion of a good soldier, to obey his commands. His troops advanced the(1 ) Dum. v. 148, 149. Nap. ii . 61 .(2) Personal observation.(3) Dum. v. 153, 154.202 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.tions offor crossingPrepara- moment the armistice was denounced, into the upper Rheinthal,Macdonald and concentrated between Coire and Tusis, at the entrance ofthe Splugen. the celebrated defile of the Via Mala, which is the commencement of the ascent of the Splugen , while, at the same time, to distract theenemy, and conceal his real designs, demonstrations were made towardsFeldkirch, as if it was intended to break into the Tyrol in that quarter. A fewdays were spent at Tusis in organizing the army, and making the necessarypreparations for the formidable undertaking which awaited them, of crossingin the depth of winter the snowy summits of the mountains. All the artillerywas dismounted, and placed on sledges constructed in the country, to whichoxen were harnessed; the artillery ammunition was divided, and placed onthe backs of mules, and in addition to his ordinary arms, ball cartridge andknapsack, every soldier received five days' provisions, and five packets ofcartridges to bear on his shoulders over the rugged ascent. Had he lived tosee the French infantry preparing, in the middle of December, under theweight of these enormous burdens, to cross the snow-clad ridges of theRhætian Alps, by paths hardly accessible at that season to the mountaineersof the country, the eloquent historian of the Decline and Fall of the RomanEmpire would have expunged from his immortal work the reflection on thecomparative hardihood of ancient and modern times ( 1) .tion of thethe SpluDescrip- Tusis is situated at the confluence of the Albula and the Rhine, atpassage of the foot of a range of pine-clad cliffs of great elevation , which run gen. across the valley, and in former times had formed a barrier, creating a lake in the valley of Schams, a few miles farther up its course. Through this enormous mass, three or four miles broad, the Rhine has, in the courseofages, found its way in a narrow bed, seldom more than thirty or forty,sometimes not more than eight or ten yards broad, shut in on either side by stupendous cliffs which rise to the height of two or three thousand feet aboveits rocky channel. The road, conducted along the sides of these perpendicular precipices , repeatedly crosses the stream by stone bridges , of a singlearch, thrown from one cliff to the other, at the height of three or four hundred feet above the raging torrent. Innumerable cascades descend fromthese lofty precipices , and are conducted in subterraneous channels underthe road, or lost in the sable forests of pine which clothe their feet. Impetuousas the Rhine is in this extraordinary channel, the roar of its waters is scarcelyheard at the immense elevation above it at which the bridges are placed . The darkness of the road, overshadowed by primeval pines of gigantic stature,conducted through galleries cut out of the solid rock, or on arches thrownover the awful abyss; the solitude and solemnity of the impenetrable forestsaround, the stupendous precipices above and beneath , which make the pas senger feel as if he were suspended in middle air, conspiré to render thispass the most extraordinary and sublime in the whole amphitheatre of the central Alps ( 2).Emerging from this gloomy defile, the road taverses for two leagues theopen and smiling valley of Schams; it next ascends by a winding course thepine-clad cliffs of La Rofla, and at length reaches in a narrow and desolate(1 ) Dum. v. 154, 161. See Gibbon, chap. i. Jom.xiv. 146, 147.(2) Personal observations. Dum. v. 151. Ebel .Art. Via. Mala.The defile of the Via Mala is not so celebrated asits matchless features deserve; but the admirable road which is now conducted through its romantic cliffs, and over the Splugen , must ultimately bring it into more general notice . It exceeds in sublimityand horror any scene in the Alps. There is no single pass in the Simplon, Mont Cenis, the Great St.-Bernard, the Little St.- Bernard, the St. - Gothard,the Bernhardin , the Brenner, or the Col de Tende,which can stand in comparison. It approaches more nearly to the savage character of the Breach of Ro land, or the Circle of Gabarnie in the Pyrenees, but exceeds in stupendous features either of these ex traordinary scenes.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 203pastoral valley the village of Splugen , situated at the foot of the ascent of themountain of the same name. Here the road, leaving the waters of the Rhine,which descend cold and clear from the glaciers of Hinter Rhin, turns sharpto the left hand, and ascends a lateral valley as far as its upper extremity,when it emerges upon the bare face of the mountain above the region ofwood, and by a painful ascent , often of forty- five degrees elevation , reachesthe summit in an hour and a half. This description applies to the old road asit stood in 1800. The new road, over the same ground, is wound gradually upthe ascent, with that admirable skill which has rendered the works of theFrench and Italian engineers in the Alps the object of deserved admirationto the whole civilized world. The wearied traveller then beholds with joy the' waters flowing towards the Italian streams, in a narrow plain about fourhundred yards broad, situated between two glaciers at the base of overhanging mountains of snow. From thence to Isola , on the Italian side of thedeclivity, is a descent of two leagues, conducted in many places down zig-zagslopes, attended with great danger. On the right, for several miles, is a continued precipice, or rocky descent, in many places three or four hundredfeet deep, while, on the left, the road is cut out of the solid rock, on the bareface of the mountain, exposing the traveller to be overwhelmed by theavalanches, which, loosened on the heights above by the warmth of thesouthern sun, often sweep with irresistible violence to the bottom of thedeclivity (1) .In summer, when the road is well cleared , it is possible to go in three hoursfrom the village of Splugen to the hospice on the summit; but when thenewly fallen snow has effaced all traces of the path in those elevated regions,above the zone of the arbutus and rhododendron; when the avalanches orthe violence of the winds have carried off the black poles which mark thecourse of the road, it is not possible to ascend with safety to the higher partsof the mountain. The traveller must advance with cautious steps, sounding,as he proceeds, as in an unknown sea beset with shoals; the most experiencedguides hesitate as to the direction which they should take; for in that snowywilderness the horizon is bounded by icy peaks, affording few landmarks todirect their steps, even if they should be perceived for a few minutes from´amidst the mantle of clouds which usually envelope their summits (2) .It may easily be conceived, from this description, what labours arerequisite during the winter season to open this passage. It is nécessary foran extent of five leagues, from the village of Splugen, to that of Isola , eitherto clear away the snow, so as to come to the earth , or to form a passableroad over its top; and the most indefatigable efforts cannot always securesuccess in such an enterprise. The frequent variations of the atmosphere,the clouds which suddenly rise up from the valleys beneath , the terriblestorms of wind which arise in these elevated regions, the avalanches whichdescend with irresistible force from the overhanging glaciers, in an instantdestroy the labour of weeks, and obliterate , by a colossus of snow, the greatest efforts of human industry (3) .Such were the difficulties which awaited Macdonald in the first mountainridge which lay before him in the passage of the Alps. He arrived with the Nov. 26. advanced guard, on the evening of the 26th, at the village ofSplugen, the point where the mountain passage, properly speaking, begins,with a company of sappers, and the first sledges conveying the artillery.(1 ) Dum. v. 164, 165. Personal observation.(2) Dum. v. 164.(3) Ibid. v. 165.204 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.Extreme difficulties experi- enced by the French troops inNov. 27.The country guides placed poles along the ascent; the labourersfollowed and cleared away the snow; the strongest dragoons nextmarched to beat down the road by their horses ' feet; they hadthe passage. already, after incredible fatigue, nearly reached the summit, whenthe wind suddenly rose, an avalanche fell from the mountain , and sweepingacross the road, precipitated thirty dragoons at the head of the column intothe gulph beneath, where they were dashed to pieces between theice and the rocks. General La Riboissière , who led the van, was a-head ofthe cataract of snow, and reached the hospice; but the remainder of thecolumn, thunderstruck by the catastrophe, returned to Splugen; and thewind, which continued for the three succeeding days to blow with greatviolence, detached so many avalanches , that the road was entirely blockedup in the upper regions, and the guides declared that no possible effortscould render it passable in less than fifteen days (1) .Macdonald, however, was not to be daunted by any such obstacles. Independently of his anxiety to fulfil his destined part in the campaign, necessity forced him on, for the unwonted accumulation of men and horses inthose elevated Alpine regions promised very soon to consume the whole Dec. 1. subsistence of the country, and expose the troops to the greatestdangers from actual want. He instantly made the best arrangement whichcircumstances would admit for re -opening the passage. First marched fourof the strongest oxen that could be found in the Grisons, led by the mostexperienced guides; they were followed by forty robust peasants, whocleared or beat down the snow; two companies of sappers followed andimproved the track; behind them marched the remnant of the squadronof dragoons, which had suffered so much on the first ascent, and who bravelydemanded the post of danger in renewing the attempt. After them came aconvoy of artillery and a hundred beasts of burden, and a strong rear-guardclosed the party. By incredible efforts the head of the column, before night,reached the hospice, and although many men and horses were swallowedup in the ascent, the order and discipline so necessary to the success of theenterprise were maintained throughout. They here joined general La Riboissière, who continued the same efforts on the Italian side; and led thisadventurous advanced guard in safety to the sunny fields of Campo Dolcinoat the southern base of the mountain . Two other columns, arrayed in thesame order, followed on the 2d and 3d December, in clear frosty weather,with much less difficulty, because the road was beaten down by the footsteps of those who had preceded them; but several men died of the excessivecold on the higher parts ofthe mountain (2) .Macdonaldwithstand- ing.Heroism of Encouraged by this success, Macdonald advanced with the rein persist- mainder of his army to Splugen on the 4th December, and leaving ing, not- only a slight rear-guard on the northern side of the mountain,commenced his march on the morning of the 5th, at the head ofseven thousand men. Though no tempest had been felt in the deep valleyof the Rhine, the snow had fallen during the night in such quantities, that from the very outset the traces of the track were lost , and the road requiredto be made anew, as at the commencement of the ascent. The guides refusedto proceed; but Macdonald insisted upon making the attempt, and after sixhours of unheard-of fatigues, the head of his column succeeded in reachingthe summit. In the narrow plain between the glaciers, however, they(1) Jom, xiv. 154, 155. Dum, v. 168, 169. (2) Dum. v, 170, 171. Jom. xiv. 156. Bot. iv.58, 59.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 205found the road blocked up by an immense mass of snow, formed by anavalanche newly fallen, upon which the guides refused to enter, and inconsequence the soldiers returned , unanimously exclaiming that the passagewas closed. Macdonald instantly hastened to the front, revived the sinkingspirits of his men, encouraged the faltering courage of the guides, andadvancing himself at the head of the column, plunged into the perilousmass, sounding every step as he advanced with a long staff, which oftensunk deep into the abyss . " Soldiers," said he, " the army of reserve hassurmounted the St.-Bernard; you must overcome the Splugen; your gloryrequires that you should rise victorious over difficulties to appearanceinsuperable. Your destinies call you into Italy? advance and conquer, firstthe mountains and the snow, then the plains and the armies ( 1 ) . " Put toshame by such an example, the troops and the peasants redoubled theirefforts; the vast walls of ice and snow were cut through, and althoughthe hurricane increased with frightful rapidity, and repeatedly filled uptheir excavations, they at length succeeded in rendering the passage practicable. The tempest continued to blow with dreadful violence during thepassage to the hospice and the descent of the Cardinal; the columns wererepeatedly cut through by avalanches, which fell across the road (2) , andmore than one regiment was entirely dispersed in the icy wilderness . Atlength, by the heroic exertions of the officers, whom the example of theirgeneral had inspired with extraordinary ardour, the head-quarters reachedIsola, and rested there during the two succeeding days, to rally the regiments,which the hardships of the passage had broken into a confused mass ofinsulated men, but above one hundred soldiers , and as many horses andmules, were swallowed up in the abysses of the mountains, and never moreheard of (3) .""(1 ) A parallel incident occurred in ancient times,and, what is very extraordinary, during the decay of Roman virtue. " The Emperor Majorian, says Gibbon, "led his troops over the Alps in a severe winter. The Emperor led the way on foot, and in complete armour, sounding with his long staff the depth of the ice or snow, and encouraging the Scyth ians, who complained of the extreme cold, by the cheerful assurance that they should be satisfied withtheheat of Africa ."--Decline and Fall, c. xxxvi.(2) Bot. iv. 59. Jom. xiv. 156, 157. Dum. v. 171 .174.(3) Bot. iv. 59. Jom. xiv, 156 , 157. Dum. v.171 , 174.Unworthy The passage of the Splugen by Mac jealousy of donald is the most memorable and this passage extraordinary undertaking ofthe kind displayed by recorded in modern war, so far asthe Napoléon. obstacles of nature are concerned . It yields only to the march of Suwarrow over the St. Gothard, the Shachenthal, and the Engiberg, where,in addition to similar natural difficulties, the efforts of an able and indefatigable enemy were to be over.come. The passage of the St.-Bernard by Napoléon in fine weather, and without opposition , will bear 10 comparison with either the one or the other. That he himself was conscious of this, is obvious from the striking terms of disparagement in which he speaks of Macdonald's exertions inthis passage; an instance of that jealousy ofevery rival in any of his great achievements, which is almost inconceivable in so great a inan. " The passage of the Splugen, "says he, " presented, without doubt, some difficu!ties; but winter is by no means the season of the year in which such operations are conducted with most difficulty; the snow is then firm, the weather settled, and there is nothing tofearfrom the avalanches,which constitute the true and only danger to be ap.prehended in the Alps In December, you often meet with the finest weather, on these elevated mountains, or dry frost, during which the air is perfectly calm. "-NAPOLÉON, ii . 61 , 62. Recollect ing that this was written after the first consul had received the full details from Macdonald ofthe ex.traordinary difficulties of the passage, it is inexcu sable, and clearly betrays a consciousness of the inferiority of his own passage over the St.- Bernard.In his official despatch, by orders ofthe first consul,to Macdonald, Berthier says, " I have received the relation which the chief of your staff has transmit ted to me relative to the passage of the Splugen by the army which you command. I have commu nicated the details to the consuls, and they have enjoined me to make known to you their high satis faction at the intrepidity and heroic constancy which the officers, and soldiers, and generals, have evinced in this passage, which will form a memo.rable epoch in our military annals. The consuls,confident in your talents, behold with interest the new position of the army of the Grisons. I impa tiently expect the details of the celebrated passage of the Splugen, and the losses which it occasioned,to enable them to appreciate the admiration and gratitude which is due to the chiefs and soldiers of your army." [ 14th Dec. 1800. See Dum. vi. 255.Pièces Just. ]It was equally unworthy of Napoléon to say in his Memoirs:-"The march of Macdonald produced no good effect, and contributed in no respect to the success of the campaign; for the corps of Baraguay d'Hilliers, detached into the Upper Engadine, was too weak to effect any thing of importance. Mac donald arrived at Trieste on the 7th January, when the enemy was already chased from it bythe left of the army of Italy, bythe corps under the orders of Moncey and Rochambeau. " (Nap. ii. 62, 63. ] Had206 / HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXII.Late on the evening of the 6th December, the greater part of thetroops and a large part of the artillery had passed the mountain,and head-quarters were advanced to Chiavenna, at the upper extremity of the lake of Como. No sooner did Hilliers hear of thisadvance, than he moved forward his columns towards the head of the valleyof the Inn to assail him; but the intelligence of the disastrous battle of Hohenlinden arrived that very day, and by rendering it evident that all the forcesof the monarchy would be required to defend the capital, precluded the possibility offollowing up any distant enterprises . The Austrians therefore tookpost on the summits of the Albula, the Julierberg , and the Broglio , the threeridges which separate the Italian from the German side of the mountains inthat quarter, and strongly reinforced the division on the Tonal, the only passbetween the valley of the Oglio , to which Macdonald was hastening, and thatof the Adige, which was the ultimate object of his efforts ( 1 ) .He is placed un der the orders of Brune.While still on the banks of the Adda, the French general had themisfortune to receive intelligence of the capture of a battalion ofdismounted hussars, which negligently lay in the elevated valleyat its upper extremity, by a well- concerted surprise from the Imperial forcesin the Engadine. At the same time, he received orders from the first consulto place himself under the command of General Brune, of whose army he wasto form the left wing; a mortifying circumstance to a general who had justachieved so important a service in a separate command as the passage of theSplugen, but which abated nothing of his zeal in the public cause . He suggested to Brune that two divisions should be detached from the army of Italyto reinforce his corps, and thus with a body of twenty-four thousand men hewould advance across the mountains to Trieste, and effect a decisive operationon the rear of the Imperial army. But the general-in-chief refused to complywith this request, which was evidently hazardous, as exposing to overwhelming attacks in detail two separate armies, too far severed from each other tobe able to render any effectual assistance in case of need ( 2) .Napoléon's orders had directed Macdonald to penetrate as soon aspossible into the valley of the Adige, in order to threaten the flankand rear of the Imperialists on the Mincio. For this purpose it wasnecessary to cross the Col Apriga, which lay between the valley of the Addaand that of the Oglio, and afterwards surmount the icy summit of Mont Tonal,between the latter stream and that of the Adige. The passage of the MonteApriga, though considerably less elevated than the Splugen, was even moredifficult by reason ofthe extreme steepness of the ascents, the entangled woodwhich encumbered its lower region , and the dreadful nature of the road,which in many places is little better than the bed of a torrent. In sevenhours, however, all these difficulties were overcome; the army found itself onthe banks ofthe Oglio , and extended its outposts as far as Bornio at the upperextremity ofthe valley (5).Attack on the Mont There still remained, however, the Herculean task of surmount Tonal. ing the Tonal, a mountain ridge of great elevation , which could bereached at that rude season only by a path through the snow, in which theDec. 7.He arrives at Chia venna on the lake of Como.Difficult passage of the Col Apriga.Napoléon forgotten that Macdonald's advance, by paralysing Laudon and Wukassowich, enabled Brune to achieve the passage of the Mincio; and that, if it had not been for the credulity of Moncey,he would have compelled the surrender of the former at La Pietro with 7000 men? The great truth," Magna est veritas et prævalebit, " does not seem ever to have crossed Napoléon's mind; he never contemplated the minute exainination to which hisaccount of transactions would be exposed by poste rity, and thought he could deceive future ages, as he did his own, by means of sycophantish writers and an enslaved press.(1 ) Jom. xiv. 158 , 159.(2) Jom, xiv. 159, 161 .185.(3) Jom. xiv. 158, 159.iv. 61.1Dum. v. 174, 175.Dum. v. 176 , 178, 184, "Dum, v. 180, 182. Bot,1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 207Dec. 22.troops were confined to single files. The summit, as usual in these elevatedregions, consisted of a small plain three hundred yards broad, situated between two enormous and inaccessible glaciers . Across this narrowspace the Austrians had drawn a triple line ofintrenchments, faced for themost part by enormous blocks of ice, cut in the form of regular masonry, andeven more difficult to scale than walls of granite . Notwithstanding these obstacles, the French grenadiers, after a painful ascent by the narrow and slippery path, reached the front of the intrenchments. Though received by ashower of balls, they succeeded in forcing the external palisades; but all theirefforts were ineffectual against the walls of ice which formed the innerstrength of the works. They were in consequence obliged to retreat, andbrought back the disheartening report that this important position was impregnable (1 ).Dec. 31.In whichare re pulsed.Sensible, however, of the vital importance of forcing this passage,the French Macdonald resolved to make another attempt. Eight days afterwards, another column was formed, under the command of Vandamme, and approached the terrible intrenchments . The Austrians had in theinterval added much to the strength of the works; but they were assaultedwith so much vigour, that two external forts were carried; still, however,when they approached the principal intrenchment, the fire from its summit,and from a block-house on an elevated position in its rear, was so violent,that all the efforts of the Republicans were again ineffectual, and they wereforced to retire , after staining with their bravest blood the cold and icy summit of the mountain . Macdonald was in some degree consoled for this disasterby the success of his left wing, which spread itself into the Engadine, drivingthe Imperialists before it, and made itself master of the well-known stationsof Glurens and Martinsbruck, on the Tyrolean side of the mountains ( 2) .The importance of these operations, and the obstinacy with which the attack and defence of the inhospitable Alpine ridges were conducted at this inclement season, will be best understood by casting a glance over the positionsand movements of the contending armies in the Italian plains at this period.When hostilities were recommenced to the south of the Alps bythe denunciation of the armistice, the Imperial army, sixty-fiveFrench and thousand strong, of which fifteen thousand were cavalry, occupiedPositions and forces of theAustrians in Italy. the formidable line of the Mincio, covered by a hundred pieces ofcannon, flanked on the one extremity by the Po, on the other by the lake ofGuarda, and strengthened by the strong fortress of Mantua, and the inferiorfortifications of Peschiera and Borghetto, which gave them the immense advantage of being able to debouche at pleasure on either side of the river (3) .The Imperialists had received orders to remain on the defensive in this excellent position until their flanks were secured , and the prospect of an advantageous attack was afforded by the advance of the Neapolitan troops over thehills of Tuscany, and the descent of Laudon and Wukassowich from the mountains of Tyrol.The French forces in Italy were immense. In the peninsula altogether there were 95,000 men, besides 27,000 who encumbered the hospitals . Ofthis great body, 61,000 infantry, 9,000 cavalry, and 178 pieces of cannon,were ready for active operations on the Mincio, while the remainder occupied(1 ) Jom. xiv . 161 , 162. Dum. v. 186 , 188. Bot.iv. 61. Personal observation.(2) Jom. xiv. 162, 163. Dum. v. 188, 191. Bot.iv . 61.(3) Dum. v. 243, 244. Jom. xiv. 166, 167. Bot.iv. 63.208 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.Tuscany, Lombardy, Piedmont, and Liguria. During the five months thatthese troops had occupied the fertile plains of the Po, they had profited to anextraordinary degree by the resources of the country. The soldiers had beencompletely new clothed, the artillery horses renewed, the cavalry was admirably mounted, the magazines were full, the troops in the highest state ofdiscipline, spirits, and equipment. But these vast supplies, wrung by theterrors of military execution from an unhappy and impoverished people, hadexcited the utmost discontent in the peninsula. The inhabitants comparedthe high-sounding proclamations of the invaders with the sad consequences which had followed their footsteps, and , rendered more sullen by the disappointment of their hopes than even the serious injuries they had undergone,were ready uponany reverse to have risen unanimously upon their oppressors.This state ofthings was well known to the French commanders, and to securetheir flanks and rear they were obliged to detach twenty-five thousand fromthe grand army on the Mincio, how well soever they were aware that it wasthere the fate of Italy was to be decided ( 1 ) .Hostilities were first commenced by Brune, who found the spiritofhis troops so much elevated by the intelligence of the battle ofHohenlinden, and the passage of the Splugen by Macdonald, thattheir ardour could no longer be restrained . The firing commenced on the16th, but nothing except inconsiderable skirmishes ensued before the 28th.The Mincio, in its course of twenty miles from the lake of Guarda to Mantua,though fordable in many places in summer, was absolutely impassable inwinter; and the five bridges which were thrown over its current at Peschiera,Salcconzo, Valleggio , Volta, and Goito were either within the walls offortifications, or strongly intrenched and barricaded . The left bank, in the hands ofthe Austrians, was generally more elevated than the right, in the possessionofthe Republicans; but at Mozambano and Molino, near Pozzuolo, the righthad the advantage, which evidently pointed out these stations as the mostadvantageous for forcing a passage. For these reasons they had been fortifiedwith care by the Austrian engineers, who had pushed their intrenchments,which were occupied by twenty thousand combatants under Hohenzollern, toa considerable distance from the right bank of the river; and against theseadvanced works it first behoved Brune to direct his efforts ( 2) .Dec. 16.First ope rations of Brune.Passage of On the 20th the whole French army approached the Mincio in fourcolumns. The right, under Dupont, moved towards the shores of the Mantuan lake: the centre, under Suchet, advanced direct upon Volta;the third column, destined to mask Peschiera, was ordered to take post nearPonti; the left and the reserve were directed against Mozambano. The Frenchgeneral had intended to have made feigned attacks only on the centre and right, and to have attempted to force the passage in good earnest near the lake of Guarda, and at the foot of the mountains; but the course of events fell out otherwise. As the Republicans approached the Mincio, the Imperialists , whohad orders not to engage in any serious affair on the right bank, seeing theyhad the whole French army on their hands, successively abandoned all thepositions they had fortified with so much care, and withdrew to the other side, leaving only detachments to occupy Valleggio and the tête-de-pont, ofBorghetto, on the Republican side. The French patrols, in consequence,every where approached the river; and Dupont, ignorant that the attack on his side was intended only to be a feint, and that the left was the real pointthe Mincio.Dec. 20 .(1 ) Eot. iv. 62, ( 3. Jom. xiv. 164, 166. Nap. ii.64, 65.(2) Nap. ii. 66, 67. Bot. iv. 62, 63. Jom. xiv.174, 175. Dum. v. 243, 244.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 209Dec. 25.of attack, made the most active preparations for effecting a passage. He succeeded so well, that, early on the morning of the 25th, he hadthrown a battalion over, near Molino, which speedily established a bridge,and soon enabled a whole division to obtain a firm footing on the left bank.Hardly was the passage completed, when orders arrived from the commanderin-chiefto cover, by a fire of cannon, merely the bridge which had beenestablished, and allow no troops to pass over to the other side . But this despatch arrived too late; the division of Watrin was already over; the enemy'stroops opposed to it were hourly and rapidly increasing, and any attempt tofall back to the bridge would have exposed it to certain and irremediableruin. In these trying circumstances Dupont conceived that the execution ofbis orders had become impossible, and resolved to retain the advantage hehad gained, by aiding Watrin with his remaining troops. In this resolutionhe was confirmed by Suchet, who was no sooner informed that the passagewas irrevocably engaged on the right, than he resolved to support it with allhis forces, and hastening to the bridge at Molino, crossed over with his wholecorps. On their side, the Imperialists, who had judiciously placed the bulkof their army in mass, a little in the rear ofthe centre of the line, no soonerheard ofthe passage at Molino than they directed an overwhelming conflict of force to assail the advanced guard of the enemy. But for the timely Desperatethe troops who had crossed over.assistance afforded by Suchet, Dupont's troops would have been totally destroyed; as it was, a furious combat ensued, which continued with various success till night, in which the Republicans only maintained their ground by the sacrifice of the bravest of their men. For long theFrench infantry repulsed with invincible firmness the repeated and vehement charges of the Austrian cavalry; but at length they were driven, by adesperate effort of the Hungarian grenadiers, out of the village of Pozzuolo ,and forced in disorder to the water's edge. All seemed lost; when the Imperialists, checked by a terrible discharge of grape from the batteries on theFrench side, hesitated in their advance; and Dupont took advantage of theirirresolution to animate his men, and lead them back to the charge, whichwas executed with such vigour, that Puzzuolo was regained, and the Imperialists repulsed with the loss of seven hundred prisoners and five pieces ofcannon. The Austrians, however, brought up fresh troops; Pozzuolo wasagain carried at the point of the bayonet; Suchet advanced with his divisionand retook it; it was again carried by the Imperialists, and continued to bealternately conquered and reconquered till nightfall, when it finally remainedin the hands ofthe Austrians (1 ) . Even the darkness of a winter night couldnot suspend this terrible combat: between eleven and twelve the fitful gleamsof the moon, through a tempestuous and cloudy sky, enabled the Republicans to perceive two deep masses of grenadiers who silently approachedtheir intrenchments. They were received with a general discharge of firearms of all sorts; the batteries thundered from the opposite bank; for a fewminutes a volcano seemed to have burst forth on the shore of the Mincio, butall the efforts ofthe Imperialists were unavailing; and after a gallant strugglethey were obliged to retire, leaving the French in possession of their bloodstained intrenchments (2) .Brune, during this bloody conflict, remained in a state of the greatest irresolution, hesitating between his original design of effecting a passage at Mo(1 ) Bellegarde says it remained in the hands of the Austrians: Oudinot affirms it was ultimately carried by the French. The well-known veracity ofthe German character makes it probable the former was the true account.(2) Nap. ii . 67, 75. Bot. iv. 63, 64. Dum, v. 251 ,266. Jom. xiv. 175, 185.IV. 14210 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXII.Brune at length re- lieveszambano , and the new project to which he was urged, of supporting theground, won at so dear a price, in the lower part of the stream. He thus ranthe risk oflosing his whole right wing, which was in truth only saved by thedesperate valour of the troops of whom it was composed ( 1 ) . At length heresolved to pursue his original design, and form a passage at Mozambano.Dec. 26. For this purpose, Marmont, at daybreak, on the 26th December,established a battery of forty pieces of cannon on the heights above thatplace, which commanded the left bank, and despatched orders to Dupontand Suchet to keep themselves within their intrenchments until they heardthe firing warmly engaged on their left. Under cover of a thickfog, the passage was speedily effected , and the French advancedguard soon after came to blows with the enemy. It was evident,however, that they fought only to cover their retreat; Oudinot, atthe head of the Republican grenadiers, bravely resisted till sufficient reinforcements passed over, to enable them to resumethe offensive, which they didwith such vigour, that the Imperialists were driven back to Valleggio , fromwhence they continued their retreat in the night, leaving Borghetto to itsfate, which, next day, after repulsing an assault with great loss, surrenderedwith the garrison of eight hundred men. In effect, Bellegarde, conceiving thepassage of the river effected by the bridge established at Molino, had resolvedupon a general retreat; his troops fell back in all quarters towards the Adige,leaving garrisons in Mantua, Verona, Legnago, and Peschiera, which reducedhis effective force to forty thousand combatants ( 2) .them, and the passage is com- pleted.Great loss- es of the Imperial- ists.In the passage of the Mincio, the Austrians lost above seven thousand men, of whom one-half were prisoners, and forty pieces ofcannon, but its moral consequences, as is generally the case with afirst decisive success, determined the fate of the campaign. The French resumed the career of victory with their wonted alacrity; the Imperialists fellinto the despondency which is the sure prelude to defeat; and the disastrousintelligence they received from the Bavarian frontier contributed to spreadthe disheartening impression that the Republicans were invincible undertheir new leader, and that no chance of safety remained to the monarchy,but in a speedy submission to the conqueror (3) .retires to Bellegarde Brune, however, advanced cautiously after his victory. LeavingCaldiero. detachments to mask Mantua, Verona, and Peschiera, he approached the Adige in the end of December. To effect the passage of that river, the French general made use of the same stratagem which had beenattempted for the passage ofthe Mincio, viz . , to make demonstrations bothagainst the lower and upper part of the stream; and while the enemy weredistracted in their attention by a multiplicity of attacks , the artillery andbridge equipage were secretly conducted to Bassolengo. Sixty pieces of cannon were established there in battery, on the heights of the right bank, ontheJan. 1, 1801. morning of the 1st January, which opened their fire at daybreak,under cover of which a bridge was speedily constructed without oppositionfrom the enemy. The troops passed over, and established themselves on theleft bank without firing a shot; the Imperialists were much less solicitousabout interrupting their operations than effecting a junction with the corps ofWukassowhich and Laudon, which were hastening by the defiles of theBrenta towards the plain of Bassano. Bellegarde withdrew his forces on all(1) For this be incurred the just and merited cen- sure ofthe first cousul. -See NAPOLÉON, ii. 75, 76.(2) Jom, xiv. 188, 192. Dum. v. 268, 275. Nap.ii. 76, 78. Bot, iv. 64, 65.(3) Dum. v. 275 , 276. Jom . xiv. 192, 193. Nap.ii. 80.1800. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 211sides, and concentrated them in the strong position of Caldiero, already signalized by a victory over Napoléon, while the Republicans closely followedhis footsteps, and extending their left up the rocky gorge of the Adige, madethemselves masters, after severe combats, of the narrow defile of Corona andthe immortal plateau of Rivoli ( 1) .Advance of the Repubvalley ofJan. 2.The Republicans, under Moncey, pursued their advantages; thelicans in the Imperialists, under Laudon, long and obstinately defended thethe Adige. town of Alta, in the valley of the Adige, but were driven from itwith the loss of five hundred prisoners; they again held firm in the intrenchments of S.-Marco, but were at length forced to retreat, and took refuge inthe defile of Calliano , already celebrated by so many combats. At the sametime, the Italian division of Count Theodore Lecchi ascended thevalley of the Oglio, and entered into communication with Macdonald's corpsimmediately after its repulse from the icy ramparts of Mont Tonal; while detachments in the rear formed the blockade of Mantua, Peschiera, Verona, andLegnago. Laudon retired with six thousand men to Roveredo, from whencehe was soon after driven, and fell back, disputing every inch of ground, tothe foot of the fort of Pietra, overhanging the deep and rapid stream of theAdige between that town and Trent (2) .Bellegarde, finding his force so materially weakened by the garrisons whichhe was obliged to throw into the fortified towns on the Mincio, and the lossessustained in the passage of that river, had given orders to Wukassowich andLaudon, whose united forces exceeded twenty thousand men, to fall back fromthe Italian Tyrol, throughthe defiles of the Brenta, and join him inthe plains ofBassano, in the rear of Calliano; and it was to give them time to accomplishthis junction that he took post on the almost impregnable heights ofCalliano.Laudon was commencing this movement when he was rudelyassailed by the division of Moncey, and harassed in his retreat upthe valley of the Adige in the manner which has been mentioned.But a greater danger awaited him. On the very day on which he retired tothe castellated defile of La Pietra, he received the alarming intelligence thatTrent, directly in his rear, and by which he required to pass to gain the upperextremity of the Brenta, was occupied by Macdonald, at the head of ninethousand men! To understand how this happened, it is necessary to resumethe narrative of the army ofthe Grisons, after its repulse from the glaciers of Mont Tonal (3).Alarming situation of Laudon on the Upper Adige.Macdonald After that check, Macdonald had collected in the Val Camonica,including the Italian division of Lecchi, above nine thousand men;and with them he eagerly sought for some defile or mountain- pathbywhich to penetrate across the rocky chain which separates that valley fromthat of the Sarca, from whence he could reach Trent and the banks of theAdige. But these rugged cliffs, which push out, with hardly any declivity,almost to Brescia, in the plain of Lombardy, defeated all his efforts; and itbecame necessary to turn their southern extremity by Pisogno, at the headof the lake of Iseo, from thence cross the Col di San Zeno , into the valley ofSabia, and again surmount another ridge into the Val Trompia, in order toascend by the beautiful sides of the Chiesa into the valley of Sarca. This longcircuit, which would have been completely avoided by forcing the passage ofMont Tonal, irritated to the highest degree the French troops, who had expected at once, after surmounting the Splugen, to take a part in the gloriesmakes his way into the Italian Tyrol.(1 ) Jom. xiv. 196, 197. Dum. v. 276, 290. Nap.ii. 78, 79. Bot, iv. 66.(2) Jom, xiv. 198, 199. Dum. v, 288, 290.(3) Bot. iv. 66, 67. Jom. xiv. 198, 199. Dum. v.284, 285.212 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP . XXXII .of the campaign. Their impatience increased when, at their arrival at Pisogno, Macdonald received and published the account of the passage ofthe Mincio, and the retreat of the Imperial army towards the Adige. He was therejoined by General Rochambeau with three thousand men from Brune's army,who had at length become sensible of the importance of the operations in theAlps on the flanks and rear of the retreating army, and received the mostpressing invitation to accelerate his march so as to cut off some of its detached columns. The difficulties of the ridge of San Zeno, however, had almost arrested the soldiers whom the snows of the Splugen had been unableto overcome; a few horses only could be got over by cutting through blocksof ice as hard as rock on the summit, and the greater part of the cavalry andartillery required to descend by the smiling shores of the lago Iseo to Brescia, and ascend again the vine-clad banks of the Chiesa. Such, however, wasthe vigour of the Republican troops, that they overcame all these obstacles;on the 6th January they arrived at Storo in the Italian Tyrol; while the leftwing, under Baraguay d'Hilliers, surmounted the higher ridges at the sourcesof the Adige, and following the retreating Austrian columns, descended byGlurens and Schlanders upon Meran on the banks of the Upper Adige ( 1) .Thus, after surmounting incredible difficulties , the object of the first consulwas at length gained; the whole mountain ridges were crossed , and the Imperialists turned by the upper extremity of all the valleys where their forcesin the Italian Tyrol were situated.surrounded Laudon is The approach of these different columns, amounted in all toat Trent. twenty-five thousand men, and conducted with equal skill andvigour, from the north, south, and west, convinced the Austrian generalsthat they had not a moment to lose in concentrating their troops at Trent, and regaining, by the defile of the Brenta, the army of Bellegarde at Bassano.IfWukassowich ascended towards Bolzano to aid in repelling Baraguay d'Hil- liers, who was descending the Adige, he ran the risk ofleaving Laudon to beoverwhelmed be Moncey; if he moved towards Roveredo to the support ofthe latter general, he abandoned the avenues of Trent and the line of communication in his rear to Macdonald . In these critical circumstances he rapidly withdrew his right to Trent, ordered the troops who covered La Sarca to defend that city against Macdonald as long as possible, and enjoined Laudon tomaintain himself till the last extremity in the important defile of La Pietra.But Macdonald, who was now fully aware of the situation of Laudon, made incredible exertions; in one day he marched forty miles; crossed the Col Vezzano; forced the passage of the Adige, and entered Trent. Wukassowichhastily retired by the great road to the defiles of the Brenta; but Laudon, with seven thousand men, who was still posted at La Pietra, was left tohis fate, with a superior enemy in his front, and the army of the Grisons in his rear, occupying the only road by which he could retreat (2) .Jan. 7.He escapes by a lateral path to Bassano.The only remaining chance of safety to Laudon was by a ruggedpath, which leads over the mountains from Pietra to Levico on theBrenta. It was impossible that his corps could retire by this defile,passable only by single file , if they were attacked either by Moncey or Macdonald, and Laudon was well aware that the former, with fifteen thousandmen, was preparing to assail him on the following morning, and that thelatter, notwithstanding the fatigue of his troops, had already pushed a patrol beyond Trent, on the road to Roveredo, and would advance to the sup-(1) Dum. v. 285, 287. Jom. xiv. 198, 199. Bot,iv. 67.(2) Dum . v. 285, 292. Jom. xiv. 201 , 202. Bot.iv. 67.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE . 213port ofhis comrade the moment that the combat was seriously engaged . Inthis extremity he made use of a ruse de guerre, if that name can properly beapplied to a fabrication inconsistent with the proverbial German faith . Hesent an officer of his staff to Moncey, announcing the conclusion of an armistice between Brune and Bellegarde , similar to that already concluded in Germany, and proposing a suspension of arms. Moncey suspecting no deceit, fellinto the snare; he agreed to the proposal, upon condition that the pass ofLaPietra and the town of Trent should be placed in his hands, which beingagreed to , and its execution prepared for the following day, Laudon in themeantime, in the night, withdrew his troops, man by man, through the narrow straits of Caldonazzo by paths among the rocks, where two file could notpass abreast, to Levico on the shores of the Brenta in the Val Sugana, and theFrench advanced guard , proceeding next day to take possession of Trent, wasastonished to find it already in the hands of Macdonald, and discover the extent of the danger from which their unsuspecting honesty had delivered theImperial general (1) .Jan. 10.retreats toBellegarde, finding that Wukassowich and Laudon had effectedBellegarde their junction in the valley of the Brenta, deemed it no longer ne Treviso. cessary to retain his position on the heights of Caldiero , but retiredleisurely, and facing about at every halt, to Bassano, where he effected hisjunction with the divisions which had descended from the Tyrol. This greatreinforcement gave him a marked superiority over his adversary: and though he fell back to the neighbourhood of Treviso, he was making preparationsto give battle in front of that town, when operations on both sides were concluded by the armistice of Treviso, which at length put a period to this murderous contest.Jan. 16.Armistice By this convention , the Austrians agreed to give up Peschiera,of Treviso. Verona, Legnago, Ancona, and Ferrara, which gave Brune anexcellent base for future operations; but they retained possession of Mantua,the key of Lombardy, and the great object of the first consul's desires . Thiswas the more irritating to Napoléon, as Murat's corps, twelve thousandstrong, had already reached the Italian plains , and Brune himself hadwritten to Government only three days before, that he would agree to noarmistice, unless Mantua, as well as the other fortresses, were put intohis hands. The truth is, that in the interval circumstances had changed; theImperialists were concentrated in the immense plains ofTreviso, where theircavalry could act with peculiar effect; the divisions from Tyrol had joinedtheir ranks; while Brune, whose army was severely weakened by the numerous blockading divisions left in his rear, could not oppose to them an equalforce. But Napoléon, whose impatient spirit, fed by repeated victories, couldbrook no obstacle, was indignant at this concession to the Imperialists; hemanifested his high displeasure at Brune, whom he never again employed in an important command, and announced to his ministers at Lunéville thathe would instantly resume hostilities , both in Germany and Italy, unlessMantua were abandoned. The disastrous state of affairs in the former country had taken away from the Austrians all power of resistance; they yieldedto his desires , and a few days afterwards the peace of LUNEVILLE put an endto the disastrous war of the second coalition (2) .Before proceeding to the conditions of this celebrated treaty, it is necessary to resume the thread of the events in the southern part of the Italianpeninsula previous to the general pacification .(1 ) Bot. iv. 67. Dum v. 292, 295. Jom, xiv.202, 203.( 2) Nap. ii . 80, 82. Bot. iv . 68, 69. Jom. xiv.209, 210. Dum. v. 300, 303214 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.Insurrec tion breaks out inJan. 15,1801.At the moment when this double armistice consolidated theFrench power in Italy and Germany, a dangerous insurrectionPiedmont, broke out in Piedmont. The people of that country were exasperated to the highest degree at the endless and vexatious requisitions of the French troops; the most ardent democrats were thunderstruckby the annexation of the territory of Vercelli to the Cisalpine republic, andthe clergy and nobles justly apprehensive of the extinction of their rights andproperties, from the continued ascendant of France. Fed by so many sources, the flame of discontent, though long smothered, at length broke out;the peasants of the Valley of Aosta took up arms, expelled the French detachments, and shut up their depôt of conscripts in the fortress of Ivrea, whilesymptoms of insurrection appeared at Turin ( 1) . But the vigour of Soultovercame the danger; he speedily surrounded and disarmed the insurgentquarter of the capital, and the appearance of Murat, who at that momentdescended from the mountains in their rear , extinguished the revolt in theAlpine valleys . The revolutionary party of Piedmont found themselves inextricably enveloped in a despotic net from which it was impossible to escape.The cannon of Marengo had shaken the throne of the Two Sicilies; the court of Naples was conscious that the sanguinary execustates, and tions which had disgraced its return to the shores of Campania,Neapoli tans invade the Romanare totally defeated.had exposed it to the utmost danger from the vengeance ofthe popular party; and that it had little to hope fromthe mercy of the first consul,if the Imperial standards were finally chased from Italy. Feeling its very exis tence thus endangered , the Cabinet of Ferdinand IV had made exertions disproportioned to the strength of the kingdom. An army, sixteen thousandstrong, splendid in appearance, and formidable, if numerical strength onlywere considered , under the command ofCount Roger de Damas, had advancedthrough the Roman states, and taken post on the confines of Tuscany, readyto foment the discontent of its inhabitants, which the enormous requisitionsof the French authorities had exasperated to the greatest degree, and act inconjunction with the Imperialists at Sommariva, whose head-quarters were Jan. 10. at Ancona. The weakness of Miollis , the French commander in Tuscany, whose forces had been reduced, by the garrisons left in Lucca, Leghorn,and Florence, to four thousand men, encouraged them to attempt an offensive movement. They advanced to Sienna, which rose in insurrection againstthe French, while Arezzo, supported by detachments from Ancona, againdisplayed the standard of revolt. But on this, as on every other occasionduring the war, the utter loss of military character by the Neapolitans waspainfully conspicuous. Miollis collected six thousand veterans from theneighbouring garrisons , and advanced against the invaders. The vanguard Jan, 14. ofFerdinand fled at the bare sight of the enemy. In vain the infantry were formed into squares and encouraged to stand; they broke at thefirst charge of the Piedmontese columns, supported by a single squadron andthree companies of French grenadiers: the superb hussars fled in confusion,trampling under foot their own flying regiments; and the whole army soonbecame a useless crowd of fugitives, which hastened , like a flock of sheep,towards the Roman frontier, without having sustained any serious loss. Onthis occasion the French hardly fired a shot, and the Neapolitans were discomfited by the mere sight of the Piedmontese levies; a striking proof howmuch more rapidly military virtue had declined in the south than the northof the peninsula (2) .(1) Jom. xiv. 210, 211. Bot. iv. 69. Dum. v.321, 322.(2) Bot. iv. 70. Dum. v. 314, 329. Jom, xiv.214, 215. Nap. ii . 94, 85.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 215Even, however, if the Neapolitan troops had combated with the valour ofthe ancient Samnites, the result would have been the same. Sommariva nosooner heard of this disaster at Sienna than he retraced his steps towardsAncona; the insurgents at Arezzo made haste to offer their submission to theconqueror; Murat's corps, ten thousand strong, was approaching Parma;Jan. 16. and the armistice of Treviso, a few days after , put a final period tothe co-operation of the Imperialists . Ancona was delivered up agreeablyto the convention; Ferras passed into the hands of the Republicans; southernItaly lay open to the invader; and the unwarlike Neapolitans were left aloneto combat a power before which the veteran bands of Austria andRussia had fallen ( 1 ) . Napoléon openly expressed his determination to overturn the throne of the Two Sicilies, and Murat, at the head of an army oftwenty-eight thousand men, composed ofhis own corps, that of Miollis , andtwo divisions of veterans from the Mincio, soon after crossed the Apennines,to carry into execution the mandates of Republican vengeance.Jan. 20.Queen of Naples flies to St.- Pe- tersburgthe aid ofBut the Court of Naples had not trusted merely to its militarypreparations; the address of the queen extricated the throne fromto implore the imminent danger to which it was exposed, and gave it a fewPaul. years longer of a precarious existence. No sooner had the battle ofMarengo and the armistice of Alexandria opened the eyes of this able andenterprising, though vehement and impassioned woman to the imminence ofthe danger which threatened the Neapolitan throne, if it were left alone toresist the redoubtable forces of France, than she adopted the only resolutionwhich could ward off the impending calamities. Setting off in person fromPalermo, shortly before the winter campaign commenced , she undertook ajourney to St. -Petersburg to implore the powerful intercession of the Czar,should events prove adverse, to appease the wrath of the conqueror. It soonappeared how prophetic had been her anticipations. The Emperor Paul,whose chivalrous character and early hostility to the principles of the Revolution had been by no means extinguished by his admiration for Napoléon,was highly flattered by this adventurous step. The prospect of a queen setting out in the depth of winter to undertake the arduous journey from Palermo to St. -Petersburg to implore his aid , was as flattering to his vanity asthe renown of upholding a tottering throne was agreeable to his romanticideas of government ( 2) . He warmly espoused the cause of the unfortunateprincess, and not only promised to intercede with all his influence in herfavour with the first consul, but forthwith despatched M. Lowascheff, anofficer high in his household, and who enjoyed his intimate confidence, togive additional weight to his mediation with the Cabinet of the Tuileries.Napoléon Napoléon had many reasons for yielding to the efforts of theyields to his northern emperor. A conqueror, who had recently usurped the sion. oldest throne in Europe, was naturally desirous to appear on confidential terms with its greatest potentate; and the sovereign who had justplaced himself at the head of the northern maritime coalition against Englandcould hardly be expected to intercede in vain at the court of its inveterateenemy. For these reasons, M. Lowascheff was received with extraordinarydistinction at Paris. On the road to Italy he was treated with the honoursusually reserved for crowned heads; and the Italians, who recollected thedesperate strife between the Russians and Republicans, beheld with astonishment the new-born harmony which had risen up between their envoys. Hearrived at Florence at the same time that General Murat made his entry. Thewillinglyinterces-( 1 ) Nap. ii . 84 , 85. Dum. v. 328 , 331. Jom. xiv .215, 217. Bot. iv. 70 , 71.(2) Bot. iv . 71. Dum. v. 317, 319. Jom, xiv , 211,212 .216 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.city was brilliantly illuminated in the evening; every where in public theyappeared together, overshadowed by a tri- colour and a Russian standard;and the Russian envoy declared to the bewildered Florentines , " that twogreat nations should for ever be united for the repose ofmankind ( 1 ) . ”Backed by such powerful influence, and the terrors of thirty thousand French soldiers on the Tiber, the negotiation was not long ofbeing brought to a termination. Napoléon had directed that theaffairs of Naples should be altogether excluded from the articlesof the armistice at Treviso , in order that he might alone regulate the destiniesof a kingdom, the old ally of England , and the impassioned enemy of theRevolution. The terms prescribed to Murat, and embodied in the armistice ofFoligno, were less distinguished by severity towards the Neapolitans thanhostility to the English; and this treaty is remarkable as containing the firstofficial enunciation of the CONTINENTAL SYSTEM, to which, through the wholeremainder of his carcer, he so inflexibly adhered, and which had so large ashare, through the misery which it occasioned , in bringing about his ultimateoverthrow ( 2) .Peace be tween France and Naples at Foligno.Feb. 9.Its condi. By the armistice of Foligno it was provided that the Neapolitan tions. troops should forthwith evacuate the Roman states, but that, evenafter their retreat, the Republicans should continue to occupy Narni and theline of the Nera, to its junction with the Tiber; that " all the ports of Naplesand Sicily should instantly be closed against English vessels of merchandiseas well as war, and remain shut till the conclusion of a general peace; thatall prosecutions on account of political offences should cease, and the scientificmen, unworthily detained at Naples on their return from Egypt, should beinstantly set at liberty (3 )."takethe whole NeapolitanBy the treaty of Foligno , which was signed soon afterwards, theambitious projects of the first consul were more completely devesession of loped, and the first indications were manifested of that resolutionto envelope the continent in an iron net, which was afterwards soterritories. completely carried into effect. By this treaty it was provided,that " all the harbours ofthe kingdoms of Naples and Sicily should be closedto all English or Turkish vessels until the conclusion of a general peace;that Porto Longone in the island of Elba, Piombino in Tuscany, and a smallterritory on the sea-coast of that duchy, should be ceded to France; that allpolitical prosecutions should cease, and the sum of 50,000 francs be paidby the Neapolitan Government to the victims of former disorders on thereturn of the court of Sicily; that the statues and paintings taken from Romeby the Neapolitan troops should be restored; and that, in case of a menacedattack from the troops ofTurkey or England, a French corps, equal to whatshould be sent by the Emperor of Russia, should be placed at his disposal. "Under these last words was veiled the most important article in the treaty,which was speedily carried into effect, and revealed the resolution of theFrench Government to take military possession of the whole peninsula. Onthe 1st April, only three days after the signature of this treaty, and beforeeither any requisition had been made by the Neapolitan Government or anydanger menaced their dominions, a corps of twelve thousand men, under thecommand of General Soult, set out from the French lines , and before the endof the same month took possession of the fortresses of Tarentum, Otranto,Brindisi, and all the harbours in the extremity of Calabria . By a secret articleMarch 28,1801.French(1) Jom. xiv. 217, 218. Dum, v. 333. 334. Bot.iv. 71.(2) Jom, xiv. 219, 229. Dum. v. 341. 342. Bot.iv. 72, 73.( 3) Dum. 'v. 341.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 217Siege of Elba,in the treaty, the Neapolitan Government were to pay 500,000 francs ( L.20,000)a-month for the pay and equipment of this corps, besides furnishing gratisall the provisions it might require ( 1 ) . The object of this occupation was tofacilitate the establishment of a communication with the army in Egypt, andit excited the utmost solicitude in the breast of Napoléon . His instructions toSoult are extremely curious, as proving how early he had embraced the newpolitical principles on which his government was thereafter founded . Amongother things, he directed that the general " should engage in no revolution ,but, on the contrary, severely repress any appearance of it which might breakout; that he should communicate to all his officers that the French Government had no desire to revolutionize Naples; that with all his staff he shouldgo to mass on every festival with military music, and always endeavour to conciliate the priests and Neapolitan authorities; that he should maintain hisarmy at the expense of Tuscany and Naples, as the Republic was so overwhelmed by the return of its armies to the territory of France, that he couldnot send them a single farthing. " Finally, he gave minute directions for thereduction of porto Ferraio and the island of Elba, little anticipating that hewas seeking to acquire for the Republic his own future place of exile ( 2) .This little island, which has since acquired such interest from theJuly, 1801. residence of Napoléon in 1814, was at first deemed an easy conquest by the French general. But he soon found that he had a very differentenemy to deal with from the pusillanimous troops of Naples. The English garrison of porto Ferraio consisted merely of three hundred British soldiers,of eight hundred Tuscan troops, and four hundred Corsicans in the pay ofGreat Britain; but into this motley assemblage the governor, Colonel Airley ,had infused his own undaunted resolution . At first the French commencedthe siege with fifteen hundred men only; but finding that number totallyinadequate, they gradually augmented their force to six thousand men, whilethree frigates maintained a strict blockade, which soon reduced the garrisonto great straits from want of provisions . But in the end of July, Sir JohnBorlase Warren hove in sight with an English squadron; the French cruizersinstantly took refuge in the harbour of Leghorn; and the Republicans, intheir turn, began to experience the hardships of a blockade. Three Frenchfrigates were captured in endeavouring to convey supplies across the straitsofPiombino to the besiegers, but as in spite of these disasters the labours ofthe siege advanced , a general effort was made on the 13th September to destroy the works. Two thousand men, consisting of the Swiss regiment ofWatteville and detachments from the marines of the fleet , were landed, andattacked the Republicans in rear, while Airley, by a vigorous sortie,assailed them in front . The attack was at first successful , and someof the batteries which commanded the entrance ofthe harbour weretaken and spiked; but the Republicans having returned in greater force, thebesieged were obliged to retire, and the troops who had landed were againembarked . Notwithstanding this, however, the most vigorous defence was made; the terrors of a bombardment were tried in vain to shake the resolution of the garrison; and after a siege of five months, the governor had theglory of surrendering the fortress intrusted to his charge only in consequenceof an express condition in the treaty of Amiens ( 3) . This successful resistance by a handful of men to the troops who had vanquished the greatestmilitary monarchies of Europe, excited a great sensation both in Englandand on the continent, and served as a presage of that desperate struggle which(3) Article 7, Treaty of Amiens.Its gallant defence by the English garrison.(1) Dum. vi. 268. Pièces Just.(2 ) Dum, vi. 270, 280. Pièces Just . Nap. ii . 89.218 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP . XXXII.awaited them, when, after trampling under foot the southern hosts, theyencountered the stubborn valour of northern freedom. "It was," says theimpartial French historian, " an extraordinary spectacle in the midst of thetriumphal songs, and in the bosom of a continental peace, so long desired , sopainfully acquired, to behold an island , of easy access and almost touchingthe continent, the scene of a long-continued and doubtful strife ( 1 ); andEurope beheld with amazement, in that island , a single fortress arrest the arms which the forces of the coalition had been unable to subdue."By the treaty of Lunéville, which the Emperor Francis wasobliged to subscribe, " not only as Emperor of Austria, but in thename of the German empire, " Belgium and all the left bank of theRhine were again formally ceded to France; Lombardy was erected into anindependent state, and the Adige declared the boundary betwixt it and thedominions of Austria; Venice, with all its territorial possessions as far as theAdige, was guaranteed to Austria; the Duke of Modena received the Brisgauin exchange for his duchy, which was annexed to the Cisalpine republic;the Grand Duke of Tuscany, the emperor's brother, gave up his dominionsto the infant Duke of Farma, a branch of the Spanish family, on the promiseofan indemnity in Germany; France abandoned Kehl , Cassel, and Ehrenbreitzen, on condition that these forts should remain in the situation inwhich they were when given up; the princes dispossessed by the cession ofthe left bank of the Rhine were promised an indemnity in the bosom of theEmpire; the independence of the Batavian , Helvetic , Cisalpine, and Ligurianrepublics was guaranteed, and their inhabitants declared " to have the powerof choosing whatever form of government they preferred (2) ."Feb. 9,1801.Treaty of Lunéville.These conditions did not differ materially from those contained in thetreaty of Campo Formio, or from those offered by Napoléon previous to therenewal of the war; a remarkable circumstance, when it is recollected howvast an addition the victories of Marengo, Hohenlinden, and the Mincio hadsince made to the preponderance of the French arms.Emperor subscribes for the em pire as well as Austria.The article which compelled the Emperor to subscribe this treaty,as head of the empire as well as Emperor of Austria, gave rise inthe sequel, as shall be shown, to the most painful internal divisionsin Germany. By a fundamental law of the empire, the Emperor could notbind the electors and states of which he was the head, without either theirconcurrence or express powers to that effect previously conferred. The wantof such powers had rendered inextricable the separate interests referred tothe Congress at Rastadt; but Napoléon, whose impatient disposition couldnot brook such formalities, cut the matter short at Luneville, by throwinghis sword into the scale, and insisting that the emperor should sign for theempire as well as himself; leaving him to vindicate such a step as he bestcould to the princes and states of the Imperial Confederacy. The Emperorhesitated long before he subscribed such a condition , which left the seeds ofinterminable discord in the Germanic body; but the conqueror was inexorable, and no means of evasion could be found. He vindicated himself to theelectors in a dignified letter, dated 8th February, 1801 , the day before thatwhen the treaty was signed , in which, after premising that his Imperialauthority was restrained by the Germanic constitutions on that point in aprecise manner, and therefore that he had been compelled to sign, as headof the empire, without any title so to do, he added, " But, on the otherhand, the consideration of the melancholy situation in which, at that period,(1) Dum . v. 353, 359. Ann . Reg. 1801, p. 179.Jom. xiv. 371, 374.(2) See the Treaty in Dumas, vi . 282, et seq.Pièces Just.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 219a large part of Germany was placed, the prospect of the still more calamitousfate with which the superiority of the French menaced the empire if thepeace was any longer deferred ( 1 ); in fine, the general wish, which wasloudlyexpressed, in favour ofan instant accommodation , were so many powerful motives which forbade me to refuse the concurrence of my minister to thisdemand of the French plenipotentiary . " The electors and princes of theempire felt the force of this touching appeal; they commiserated the situation of the first monarch in Christendom, compelled to throw himself on hissubjects for forgiveness of a step which he could not avoid; and one of thefirst steps of the Diet of the empire, assembled after the treaty of Lunévillewas signed, was to give it their solemn ratification, grounded on the extraordinary situation in which the Emperor was then placed. But the questionof indemnities to the dispossessed princes was long and warmly agitated . Itcontinued for above two years to distract the Germanic body; the intervention both of France and Russia was required to prevent the sword beingdrawn in these internal disputes; and by the magnitude of the changeswhich were ultimately made, and the habit of looking to foreign protectionwhich was acquired, the foundation was laid of that league to support separate interests which afterwards, under the name of the CONFEDERATION OF THERHINE, So well served the purposes of French ambition, and dissolved thevenerable fabric of the German empire (2) . ”on this Reflections The winter campaign of 1800 demonstrates, in the most strikingcampaign . manner, the justice of the observation by the Archduke Charles,that the valley of the Danube is the quarter where vital blows against theAustrian monarchy are to be struck, and the importance of frontier or central fortifications to arrest the march of a victorious invader. The disaster ofMarengo was soon repaired , and did not prevent the Austrians again takingthe field at the head of an army which almost balanced the Republicanforces; but the battle of Hohenlinden at once laid open the vitals of the monarchy. The reason is to be found in the numerous fortresses which coveredthe Imperial frontiers in Lombardy, and the total want of any such barrierbetween Austria and Bavaria. After the passage of the Mincio, the army ofBrune was so severely weakened , by the detachments left in the rear to blockade the fortresses on that river, that he was unequal to any farther offen(1) See the original, Dum, vi . 298. Pièces Just ,(2) Dum. vi, 29, 30. Hard. viii . 52.March 20, This glorious peace excited , as might 1801. Extra- well have been expected, the most en vagant joy thusiastic joy in Paris. It was an at this peace nounced in these terms to the inhabi in Paris, tants by Napoléon: -" A gloriouspeace has terminated the continental war. Your frontiers are extended to the limits assigned to them by nature; nations long separated from you rejoin their brethren, and increase by a sixth your numbers, your territory, and your resources. This success you owe chiefly to the courage ofyour soldiers, to their patience in fatigue, their passion for liberty and glory: but you owe it not less to the happy restoration of concord, and that union of feelings and interests, which has more than once saved France from ruin. As long as you were di vided, your enemies never lost the hope of subjugat ing you; they hoped that you would be vanquished by yourselve and that the power which had triumphed over all their efforts would crumble away in the convulsions of discord and anarchy. Their hope has been disappointed; may it never revive.Remain for ever united by the recollection of your domestic misfortunes, by thesentiment of your pre.sent grandeur and force. Beware of lowering bybase passions a name which so many exploits have consecrated to glory and immortality." Let a generous emulation second our arts and our industry; let useful labours embellish that France which external nations will never mention but with admiration and respect; let the stranger who hastens to visit it, find among you the gentle and hospitable virtues which distinguished your ancestors Let all professions raise themselves to the dignity ofthe French name; let commerce, while it reforms its relations with other people, acquire the consistency which fixes its enterprises, not on hazardous speculations, but constant relations. Thus our commerce will resume the rank which is due to it; thus will be fortified the bonds which unite us tothe most enlightened people of the continent; thus will that nation, even , which has armed itself against France, be taught to abjure its excessive pretensions,and at length learn the great truth , that , for people as individuals , there can be no security for real prospe rity but in the happiness of all. " [Dum. vi . 296. Piè cesJust. ] It is curious to observe how early, amidst his continental triumphs, the ambition of the first consul was directed to commercial and maritimne greatness, in the effort to attain which he was led to indulge in such implacable hostility to this country220 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXII.sive movements, and if the war had continued , he would probably have beencompelled to retreat; but, after the battle of Hohenlinden , the undiminishedbattalions of Moreau poured in resistless strength into the undefended Hereditary States . The Archduke Charles had long before foreseen this; by thefortifications of Ulm he enabled Kray for six weeks to arrest the victor in themiddle of his career; and so sensible was Napoléon of their importance, thathis first measure, when they fell into his hands, was to level them with theground.The real object of the wargained byThe peace of Lunéville was the first considerable pause in the continentalstrife; and already it had become manifest that the objects of the war hadbeen changed, and that hostilities were now to be carried on, for the subjugation of a different power from that which was at first contemplated.The extinction of the revolutionary spirit, the stoppage of the insidious system of propagandism, by which the French democracywas already were shaking all the thrones, and endangering all the institutionsthe Allies. and liberties of Europe, was the real object of the war. The restoration of the Bourbons was never considered of importance, farther than asaffording a guarantee, and what at first appeared the best guarantee, againstthat tremendous danger. By the result of a struggle of nine years' duration ,this object had been gained , not indeed in the way which at first would havebeen deemed most likely to effect it , but in a manner which experience soonproved was far more efficacious . The restoration of a brave and honourable,but weak and unwarlike race of monarchs, would have been but a feeblebarrier against the turbulent spirit of French democracy; but the elevationof an energetic and resolute conqueror to the throne, who guided the armyby his authority and dazzled the people by his victories, proved perfectlysufficient to coerce its excesses . Napoléon said truly, " that he was the bestfriend which the cause of order in Europe ever had , and that he did morefor its sovereigns, by the spirit which he repressed in France, than evil bythe victories which he gained in Germany." The conquests which he achievedaffected only the external power or present liberty of nations; they did notchange the internal frame of government, or prevent the future resurrectionof freedom; and when his military despotism was subverted , the face of European society reappeared from under the mask of slavery without any material alteration; but the innovations of the National Assembly totally subverted the fabric of a constitutional monarchy, and by destroying all the intermediate classes between the throne and the peasantry, left to the people ofFrance no alternative for the remainder of their history but American equality or Asiatic despotism . The cause of order and freedom, therefore, gainedimmensely by the accession of Napoléon to the throne. Great as were the dangers to the independence of the surrounding states from the military powerwhich he wielded, they were trifling in comparison of the perils to the veryexistence of liberty, which arose from the democratic innovations of hispredecessors .Evidence of Napohostility toBut though the cause of liberty was thus relieved from its mostléon's im- pressing dangers, the moment that the first consul seized the helm,placable the peril to the independence of the surrounding states, and ofEngland. England in particular, became extreme. His conduct soon shewedwhat his memoirs have since confessed, that he had formed , from the verycommencement, a resolution to make France the first of European powers,and turn all the energies of their combined forces against the existence ofGreat Britain. Already his measures were all directed to this end; he madeit the first condition of peace to all the vanquished nations, that they should1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 221exclude English ships fromtheir harbours, and he had contrived, by flattering the vanity of the Emperor of Russia, and skilfully fomenting the jealousyof the neutral states, to combine a formidable maritime league against England in the north of Europe. Thus, as time rolled on, the war totally alteredits object; and the danger of subjugation changed sides. Commenced to stopthe revolutionary propagandism of France, it terminated by being directedagainst the maritime preponderance ofGreat Britain; and England, which setout with heading the confederacy, ended by finding herself compelled tocombat for her existence against the power ofcombined Europe.Increasing In the progress of the conflict also, a change not less important inand atic system pillage the mode of carrying on the war had arisen; and the Revolutionary by the Re publican armies, compelled by the penury of their domestic resources, had armies.adopted a system of extorting supplies from the vanquished states,hitherto unknown in modern warfare. It is the boast of the philosophichistorian that civilisation had softened even the rude features of war inmodern Europe; that industry securely reaped its harvest amidst hostilesquadrons, and the invaded territory felt the enemy's presence rather by thequickened sale for its produce than the ruthless hand of the spoiler (1) . Butthough this was true when Gibbon wrote, the French Revolution had introduced a very different system, and made war retrograde to the rapine andspoliation of barbarous times. The Revolutionary armies issued from theRepublic as the Goths from the regions of the north, powerful in numbers,destitute of resources, starving from want, but determined to seck for plenty,at the sword's point, from the countries through which they passed; theprinciple on which they uniformly acted was to make war maintain war, andlevy in its theatre, whether a hostile or neutral territory, the means of carryingon the contest. They formed no magazines; brought with them no money;paid for nothing; but by the terrors of military execution wrung from thewretched inhabitants the most ample supplies. " The army of Moreau, " saysGeneral Mathieu-Dumas, " ransacked the country between the Rhine and theInn, devoured its subsistence, and reduced the inhabitants to despair, whileit maintained the strictest discipline. The devastation of war for centuriesbefore, even that of the Thirty Years, was nothing in comparison . Since theperiod when regular armies had been formed, the losses occasioned by the marches and combats of armies were passing evils; the conquest of a countrydid not draw after it its ruin . If a few districts or some towns carried byassault were abandoned to the fury of the soldiers , the inexorable pen ofhistory loaded with reproaches the captains who permitted, or the sovereignswho did not punish such outrages. But Moreau's army levied , in a few months,above twenty millions in requisitions; enormous contributions were unceasingly exacted; the people were overwhelmed; the governments of the oppressed states entirely exhausted . It was reserved for our age to witness, inthe midst of the rapid progress of civilization , and after so many eloquentdeclamations in favour of humanity, the scourge of war immeasurably extended; the art of government become in the hands of the conqueror aninstrument of extortion , and systematic robbery be styled , by the leaders ofregeneration, the right of conquest ( 2) . 'Symptoms Even in this gloomy state of the political horizon, however, theei patriotic streaks of light were becoming visible which were destined toexpand into all the lustre of day. The invasion of the French troops,their continued residence in other states , had already gone far to,,and general resistance springing up.(1) Gibbon. (2) Duin. v. 72, 73.222 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXII.dispel those illusions in their favour, to which, even more than the terror oftheir arms, their astonishing successes had been owing . Their standardswere no longer hailed with enthusiasm by the people who had experiencedtheir presence; the declaration of war to the palace and peace to the cottagehad ceased to deceive mankind. The consequences of their conquests hadbeen felt; requisitions and taxes-merciless requisitions , grievous taxes- hadbeen found to follow rapidly in the footsteps of these alluring expressions;penury, want, and starvation were seen to stalk in the rear of the tri-colorflag . Already the symptoms of POPULAR RESISTANCE were to be seen; thepeasantry even of the unwarlike Italian peninsula had repeatedly andspontaneously flown to arms; the patriotic efforts of Austria had recalled theglorious days of Maria Theresa, and the heroic sacrifices of the Forest Cantonshad emulated the virtues, if not the triumphs, of Sempach and Morgarten.Unmarked as it was amidst the blaze of military glory, the sacred flame wasbeginning to spread which was destined to set free mankind; banished fromthe court and the castle, the stern resolution to resist was gathering strengthamong the cottages of the poor. It is in such reflections that the philosophicmind best derives consolation for the many evils arising from the ambition ofthe rulers, and the wickedness of the agitators of mankind; and by observinghow uniformly, when oppression becomes intolerable, an under currentbegins to flow, destined ultimately to correct it, that the surest foundation islaid for confidence in the final arrangements of Supreme Wisdom, amidst themisfortunes or the vices of the world.1801.]HISTORY OF EUROPE .223CHAPTER XXXIII.FROM THE PEACE OF LUNEVILLE TO THE DISSOLUTION OF THE NORTHERN MARITIMECONFEDERACY.NOVEMBER 1799-MAY, 1801.ARGUMENT.Origin of the difference between the laws of war at sea and land -Early usages of war on both elements-Gradual change at land-Original customs still kept up at sea-Common maritime law of Europe as to neutral vessels-Principles of that law-It was universal in Europe prior to 1780-But these rights were sometimes abated by special treaty- Origin of resistance to them-Armed neutrality -Subsequently abandoned by the Northern Powers in their own case-Treaties with Russia, Sweden, and America since 1780, recognising this right to England -But neutrals suffered severely in the close of the war-Excessive violence of the Directory against America -Napoléon terminates the differences of France with that power-Maritime treaty between France and America-Revival of the principles of the armed neutrality-Lord Whitworth is sent to Copenhagen-And enters into an accommoda tion-Growing irritation of the Emperor Paul at the Allies -Politic conduct of Napoléon Difference about Malta-Violent Proceedings of Paul against England-He is joined by Sweden, Denmark, and Prussia-His warm advances to Napoléon -General maritime con federacy signed on 16th December - Its threatening consequences to England-Measures of retaliation by Mr. Pitt-Diplomatic debate with the neutral powers-Hanover is invaded by Prussia-Meeting of Parliament-Perilous situation of England - Debates on the neutral question-Mr. Pitt resigns in consequence of the Catholic claims-But this was only the ostensible ground-Vigorous measures of his successors for the prosecution of the war -Prosperous state of Great Britain at this period-Its income, expenditure, exports and imports-Naval forces of the confederacy-Energetic measures of the British Government -Nelson appointed second in command of the fleet destined for the Baltic-British fleet sails from the Downs-And approaches the Sound-Splendid appearance of that strait-Un daunted spirit of the Danes-Passage of the English fleet-Preparations of the Danes - Nel son's plan of attack-Great difficulty experienced by the pilots in conducting the fleet to the enemy-Battle of Copenhagen-Heroic deeds on both sides-Nelson's proposal for an armistice-Melancholy appearance of the Danes after the battle -Armistice agreed on for fourteen weeks-Hanover overrun by Prussia- Designs of Paul and Napoléon against Bri tish India-Death of the Emperor Paul-Causes of that catastrophe-General irritation at the Czar-Symptoms of insanity in his conduct-Conspiracy among the nobles for his de thronement - Particulars of his assassination -Accession of Alexander-Immediate ap proach to an accommodation with England - His character and early pacific and popular measures-Nelson sails for Cronstadt-His conciliatory steps there-Peace with Russia,and abandonment of the principles of the armed neutrality-Napoléon's indignation at it Dissolution of the naval confederacy-Reflections on these events.Origin of the differat sea andTHERE arises, from the very nature of the elements on which they ence of the are respectively exercised , an essential difference between the lawslaws of war of war at sea and at land. Territorial conquests are attended by land . immediate and important advantages to the victorious power; itgains possession of a fruitful country, ofopulent cities, of spacious harbours,and costly fortresses; it steps at once into the authority of the ruling government over the subject state , and all its resources in money, provisions, men,and implements of war are at its command. But the victor at sea finds himself in a very different situation . The most decisive sea-fights draw after themno acquisition of inhabitants, wealth, or resources; the ocean is unproductivealike oftaxes or tribute, and among the solitary recesses ofthe deep you willsearch in vain for the populous cities or fertile fields which reward the valour224 HISTORY Of Europe . [CHAP. XXXIII.of terrestrial ambition. The more a power extends itself at land, the moreformidable does it become, because it unites to its own the forces of the vanquished state; the more it extends itself at sea, the more is it weakened,because the surface which it must protect is augmented, without any proportional addition to the means by which its empire is to be maintained.In the infancy of mankind the usages of war are the same on both elements.Alike at sea as on shore the persons and property of the vanquished are at the disposal of the conquerors; and from the sack of cities and the sale ofcaptives the vast sums are obtained which constitute the object and thereward of such inhuman hostility. The liberty for which the Greeksand Romans contended was not mere national independence or elements. civil privileges , but liberation from domestic or predal servitude,from the degradation of helots, or the lash of patricians. Such is to this daythe custom in all the uncivilized portions of the globe , in Asia, Africa , andamong the savages of America, and such, till comparatively recent times, wasthe practice even among the Christian monarchies and chivalrous nobility ofmodern Europe. But with the growth of opulence, and the extension ofmore humane ideas, these rigid usages have been universally softened amongthe European nations. As agriculture and commerce improved, it was foundto be as impossible as it was inhuman to carry off all the property of the vanquished people, the growth, perhaps, of centuries of industry. The revenue and public possessions of the state furnished an ample fund to reward the conquering power, while the regular pay and fixed maintenance at thepublic expense of the soldiers took away the pretext for private pillage as ameasure of necessity. All nations , subject in their turn to the vicissitudes offortune, found it for their interest to adopt this lenient system , which somaterially diminished the horrors of war; and hence the practiceEarly usages of war on bothGradual change at land. became general, excepting in the storming of towns, and other extreme cases , where the vehemence of passion bid defiance to the restraintsof discipline, to respect private property in the course of hostilities, and lookfor remuneration only to the public revenue, or property of the state. It isthe disgrace of the leaders of the French Revolution, amidst all their declamation in favour of humanity, to have departed from these beneficent usages,and, under the specious names of contributions , and of making war supportwar, to have restored at the opening of the nineteenth the rapacious oppression of the ninth century.Original Humanity would have just reason to rejoice, if it were practicableusages still to establish a similar system of restrained hostility at sea; if theprinciple of confining the right of capture to public property could kept up at sea.be introduced on the one element as well as the other, and the private merchant were in safety to navigate the deep amidst hostile fleets in the samemanner as the carrier at land securely traverses opposing armies. But it hasnever been found practicable to introduce such a limitation , nor has it everbeen attempted, even by the most civilized nations, as a restraint upon theirown hostilities, however loudly they may sometimes have demanded it as abridle upon those of their enemies. And when the utter sterility of theocean, except as forming a highway for the intercourse of mankind, is considered, it does not appear probable, that until the human heart is essentially changed, such an alteration, how desirable soever by the weakerstates, ever will be adopted. It may become general when ambition andnational rivalry cease to sway the human heart, but not till then. Certain itis, that of all nations upon earth, revolutionary France had the least title tocontend for such a change; she having not only introduced new usages of1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 225unprecedented rigour in modern times, at least in her warfare at land, butissued and acted upon edicts for her maritime hostility on principles worthyonly of Turkish barbarity ( 1) .Common maritime But it is not merely with the subjects of nations in a state oflaw ofEu- hostility that belligerents are brought in contact during modernrope as to warfare; they find themselves continually in collision also with vessels. NEUTRAL VESSELS trading with their enemies, and endeavouring,from the prospect of high profits, to furnish them with those articles whichthey are prevented from receiving directly from the trade of their ownsubjects . Here new and important interests arise, and some limitation of therigour of maritime usage evidently becomes indispensable. If the superiorpower at sea can at pleasure declare any enemy's territory in a state ofblockade, and make prize of all neutral vessels navigating to any of itsharbours, it will not only speedily find itself involved in hostilities with allmaritime states, but engaged in a species of warfare from which itself atsome future period may derive essential injury. On the other hand, it isequally impossible to maintain that the vessels of other states are to beentirely exempted from restraint in such cases; or that a belligerent power,whose warlike operations are dependent perhaps upon intercepting thesupplies in progress towards its antagonist, is patiently to see all its enterprises defeated , merely because they are conveyed under the cover of aneutral flag instead of its enemy's bottoms. Such a pretension would rendermaritime success of no avail , and wars interminable, by enabling the weaker power, under fictitious cover, securely to repair all its losses . Theseconsiderations are so obvious, and are brought so frequently into collisionin maritime warfare, that they early introduced a system of internationallaw, which for centuries has been recognised in all the states of Europe,and is summed up in the following propositions by the greatest masters ofthat important branch of jurisprudence that ever appeared in this or any other country.Principles 1. That it is not lawful for neutral nations to carry on, in timeofthat law. of war, for the advantage or on the behalf of one of the belligerentpowers, those branches of their commerce from which they are excluded in time of peace.2. That every belligerent power may capture the property of its enemieswherever it shall meet with it on the high seas, and may for that purposedetain and bring into port neutral vessels laden wholly or in part with anysuch property.3. That under the description of contraband of war, which neutrals areprohibited from carrying to the belligerent powers, the law of nations, ifnot restrained by special treaty , includes all naval as well as military stores,and generally all articles serving principally to afford to one belligerentpower the instrument and means of annoyance to be used against the other.4. That it is lawful for naval powers, when engaged in war, to blockadethe ports of their enemies by cruising squadrons bona fide allotted to that service, and duly competent to its execution. That such blockade is validand legitimate, although there be no design to attack or reduce by force theport, fort, or arsenal to which it is applied; and that the fact of the blockade,(1 ) The decree of the Directory, 18th January,1798, declares, that all vessels found on the high seas with any English goods whatever on board, to whomeverbelonging, shall be good prize; that neutral sailors found on board English vessels shall be put to death, and that the harbours of France shall beshut against all vessels which had touched at an English harbour; and it requires certificates of origin, under the hands of French consuls, exactly as the Berlin and Milan decrees afterwards did.ROLINSON'S Admiralty Reports, i . 341.IV.15226 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII .with due notice given thereof to neutral powers, shall affect not only vesselsactually intercepted in the attempt to enter the blockaded port, but thosealso which shall be elsewhere met with, and shall be found to have beendestined to such port, under the circumstances of the fact and notice of theblockade.5. That the right of visiting and searching neutral vessels is a necessaryconsequence of these principles; and that, by the law of nations ( whenunrestrained by particular treaty ) , this right is not in any manner affectedby the presence of a neutral ship of war, having under its convoy merchantships, either of its own nation or of any other country (1) .In these propositions are contained the general principles of the maritimecode of the whole European nations, as it has been exercised by all statestowards each other, and laid down by all authorities on the subject fromthe dawn of civilisation. The special application of these principles to thequestion immediately at issue between the contending powers in 1801 iscontained in the following propositions , laid down as incontestable law bythat great master of maritime and international law, Sir William Scott:Sir Wil- 1. " That the right of visiting and searching merchant shipsexposition upon the high seas, whatever be the ships, whatever be the carritime law. goes , whatever be the destinations , is an incontestable right of thelawfully commissioned cruizers of a belligerent nation (2) .liam Scott'sof the ma2. " That the authority of the sovereign of the neutral country beinginterposed in any matter of mere force cannot legally vary the rights of alegally commissioned belligerent cruizer, or deprive him ofhis right to searchat common law (3) .the 3. "That the penalty for the violent contravention of this right ,confiscation of the property so withheld from visitation and search (4) .4. " That nothing farther is necessary to constitute blockade, than thatthere should be a force stationed to prevent communication, and a duenotice or prohibition given to the party (5) .5. " That articles tending probably to aid the hostilities of one of thebelligerents, as arms, ammunition, stores, and, in some cases, provisions,are contraband of war, and as such liable to seizure by the vessels of theother party, with the vessel in which they are conveyed (6) .(1 ) Lord Grenville's speech, 13th Nov. 1801 , on the convention with Russia. Parl. Hist. xxxvi. 211,212.(2) " This right of search," says Sir WilliamScott, " is clear in practice, whichis uniformanduniversalupon the subject. The many Europeantreatieswhichrefer to this right refer to it as preexisting, and merelyregulatethe exerciseof it. "Allwritersupon the law of nationsunanimouslyacknowledgeit, withoutthe exceptioneven of Hubnerhimself, the great championof neutralprivileges.In short, no man, in the least conversantin subjectsofthis kind, has ever, that I know of, breathedadoubtupon it."-ROBINSON'SAdmiraltyReports, i.60.-TheMaria.(3 ) Two sovereigns may agree, as in some in stances they have agreed by special covenant, that the presence of one of their armed ships along with their merchant ships, is to be held as a sufficient guarantee that nothing is to be found in that con voy of merchant ships inconsistent with amity or neutrality; but no sovereign can, by the common law of nations, legally compel the acceptance of such a security by mere force, or compel the belli gerent to forego the only security known in the law of nations upon this subject, independent of special covenant, the right of personal visitation.(4) Sir William Scott in the Maria. Robinson's Admiralty Reports, i . 359, 363,(5) Ibid. i . 86.(6) The Jouge Margaretta, Ibid . i . 190, 191 .The judgments of Sir William Scott are here referred to with perfect confidence, as explaining not merely the English understanding of the mari time law, but that which for centuries has been recognised and admitted by all the European states." In forming my judgments, " says that great au thority, " I trust it has not for one moment escaped my anxious recollection that the duty of my station calls me to consider myself not as stationed here to deliver occasional and shifting opinons to serve present purposes ofparticular national interest, but to administer with indifference that justice which the law of nations holds out, without distinction, to independent states -some happening to be neutral and some belligerent. The seat ofjudicial authority is indeed locally here in the belligerent country,according to the known lawand practice ofnations;but the law itself has no locality. It is the duty of the person who sits here to determine the question exactly as he would determine it if sitting at Stockholm; to assert no pretension on the part of Great Britain, which he would not allow to Sweden inthe same circumstances, and to impose no duties on1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 227 This law universal in Europe prior toThese rights had never formed any peculiar or exclusive privilege,which the English claimed alone of all other nations. On the con1780. trary, underthe equitable modifications introduced by the commonmaritime law, they had, from the dawn of European civilisation , been universally acknowledged and maintained equally by the courts and the lawyers ofItaly, Spain, Portugal, France, Holland, Sweden, Denmark, and England (1) .Authors there were indeed who contended in their studies for a differentprinciple, and strenuously asserted that the flag should cover the merchandise; but these innovations never received any sanction from the maritimelaw or practice of Europe, or the practice, independent of express treaty, ofbelligerent states; and, accordingly, various treaties were entered into amongdifferent powers, restraining or limiting the right of search between theirrespective subjects (2) , precisely because they knew that but for that specialstipulation the common maritime law would admit it . So strongly was thisfelt by the English lawyers, who, in the House of Commons, espoused thecause of the neutral powers previous to the maritime confederacy in 1800,that they admitted the right of Great Britain to search neutral ships for thegoods of an enemy, and that the northern confederacy contended for a principle which militated against the established law of nations, as laid down withuniversal assent by that great master of the maritime law, Lord Mansfield;and maintained merely that it would be prudent to abate somewhat offormerpretensions in the present disastrous crisis ofpublic affairs (3) .Sweden as a neutral country, which he would not admit to belong to Great Britain in the same cha- racter." [Robinson's Reports, i . 350.] And of the impartiality with which this great duty at this period was exercised bythis distinguished judge,we have the best evidence in the testimony of ano- ther eminent statesman, the warm advocate of neutral rights, and certainly no conceder of unde- served praise to his political opponents. " No- thing," says Lord Chancellor Brougham, " can be more instructive than the decisions of our prize courts on this point ( the right of search ) , and nothing can give us more gratifying views of the purity with which those tribunals administer the law of nations, and their impartiality in trying the delicate questions which come before them , be- tweentheirown sovereign or their own countrymen,and the rulers or the people of other states. It is with pleasure, therefore, that we have to consider how anxiously and rigorously at this period ( 1799 -1800) the principles for which we are contending have been enforced in the High Court of Admiralty under the presidency of Sir William Scott . "-Edin. Review, vol . xix . 298, 299.(1) Sir William Scott. Robinson, i . 360. Lord El- don. Parl. Hist, xxxv. 886.(2) Per Sir W. Grant. Parl. Hist. xxxv. 922.(3 ) See Sir William Grant, Parl. Hist. xxxv. 922;and Dr. Lawrence, 919, 920.The hardihood with which it is constantly as- serted bythe foreign diplomatists and historians,that the principles of maritime law for which Eng- land contends, are a usurpation on her part ,founded on mere power, and unsanctioned, either by the usage of other states, or the principles of maritimejurisprudence, renders it important to lay before the reader a few of the authorities of foreign legal writers on the subject.Eineccius says " Idem statuendum arbitramus,si res hostiles, in navibus amicorum reperiantur.Illas capi posse nemo dubitat, quia hosti in res hostiles omnia liciunt, eatenus ut eas ubicunque repertas sibi possit vindicari ."-De Navibus ob. vict. c. ii.sec. 9."I believe it cannot be doubted, " says PresidentJefferson , " that by the general law of nations, the goods of a friend found in the vessels of an enemy,are free; and the goods of an enemy found in the vessels of a friend are good prize . " -JEFFERSON'S Letter to GENET, 24th July, 1797." The ordinances of the old French marine, under the monarchy, direct that not only shall the enemy's property, found on board a neutral vessel , be con- fiscated, but the neutral ship itself be declared lawful prize. " The practice of England has always been to release all neutral property found on board an enemy's ship; but France always considered it as lawful prize . -Ordonnance de Marine. Art. 7. Valin.284."Les choses qui sont d'un usage particulier pour la guerre , et dont on empêche le transport chez un ennemi , s'appellent marchandises de contrebande.Telles sont les armes, les munitions de guerres , les bois , et tout ce qui sert à la construction et à l'ar- mement des vaisseaux de guerre. "-VATTELL, c. 7,sect. 112."6In their letter to M. Pinckney, January 16, 1797,the American Government expressly declare that,by the law of nations, timber and other naval stores are contraband of war."-See Parl. Hist.xxxvi. 213, note."On ue peut empêcher le transport des effets de contrebande. Si l'on ne visite pas les vaisseaux neu- tres que l'on rencontre en mer, on est donc en droit de les visiter."-VATTELL, c. 3, sec. 114." Tout vaisseau qui refusera d'amener ses voiles après la sommation qui lui en aura été faite par nos vaisseaux ou ceux de nos sujets , armés en guerre,pourra y être contraint par artillerie ou autrement ,et en cas de résistance et de combat, il sera de bonne prise ."-Ordonnance de la Marine de France.-Tit. Procès, Art. 12. The Spanish ordinance of 1718, has an article to the same effect."Othernations, " says Heeren, " advanced similar claims in maritime affairs to the English; but as they had not the same naval power to support them,this was of little consequence. "-Europeen Staats System, ii. 41 .The claims of neutrals for the security of their commerce are stated by Bynkershoch, as limited to228 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP . XXXIII.But these rights were sometimes abated by specialFrom motives of policy, indeed, England had repeatedly waived or abatedthis right of search in favour of particular states by special agreement. ThisDec. 11 , 1671. was done towards Holland in 1674, to detach that power fromFrance, and in the belief that the United States would never be neutral whenEngland was at war; and to France, by the commercial treaty of 1787, underthe influence of the same idea that she would never be neutralwhen Great Britain was in a state of hostility. But in the absenceofsuch express stipulation, these rights were invariably exercised treaty. both by England towards other nations, and other nations towardsEngland; particularly by Lord Chatham during the whole course of the sevenyears, and the ministers ofAnne during the long war of the succession, without any complaint whatever from neutral states ( 1) . And ofthe dispositionof England to submit in her turn to the maritime law which she requiresfrom others, no better instance can be desired than occurred during the Dukeof Wellington's administration, when the English Government declined tointerfere in the capture of a British merchantman trying to elude the blockade ofTerceira, though a few English frigates would have sent the whole Por tuguese navy to the bottom.The obvious disadvantage, however, to which such a maritimecode must occasionally expose neutral states, by sometimes depriving them of a trade at the very time when it is likely to be mostlucrative; and the natural jealousy at the exercise of so invidious a right asthat of search, especially when put in force by the stronger against the weaker power, had long led to complaints against belligerent states . In 1740, theKing of Prussia disputed the right of England to search neutral vessels, thoughwithout following up his protest with actual resistance; and in 1762 the Dutchcontended, that it could not be admitted by their vessels when sailing underconvoy. But nothing serious was done to support these novel pretensions tillthe year 1780, when the Northern Powers, seeing England hard pressed bythe fleets of France and Spain at the close of the American war,deemed the opportunity favourable to establish by force of arms anew code of maritime laws; and, accordingly , entered into the famous confederacy, known by the name of the ARMED NEUTRALITY, which was the firstopen declaration of war by neutral powers against Great Britain and the oldsystem of maritime rights. By this treaty, Russia, Sweden, and Denmarkproclaimed the principles, that free ships make free goods, that the flag covers the merchandise, and that a blockaded port is to be understood only when such a force is stationed at its entrance as renders it dangerous to enter (2).Origin of resistance to these rights.Armed Neutrality.this, that they may continue to trade in war as they did in peace. But this claim, he adds, is limited by the rights of a belligerent. " Quaeritur quid facere aut non facere possunt inter duos hostes; omnia forte inquies quæ potuerunt ansi pax esset inter eos, quos inter nunc est bellum . " -BYNKERSHOCH,Quaest Juris. Pub, i . 9.These principles were fully recognised in various treaties between England and other maritime states.In article 12 of the treaty, 1661 , between Sweden and England, it was provided , " But lest such free dom of navigation and passage ofthe one confederate should be of detriment to the other while engaged in war, by sea or land, with other nations, and lest the goods or merchandises of the enemy should be concealed under the name of a friend and ally, for the avoiding all suspicion and fraud of such sort, it is agreed, that all ships, carriages, wares, and men,belonging to either of the confederates, shall be furnished in their voyages with certificates, specifying the names of the ships , carriages, goods, and masters of the vessels, together with such other descriptions as are expressed in the following form, etc., and if the goods ofan enemy are foundin such ship of the confederate, that part only which belongs to the enemy shall be made prize, and what belongs to the confederate shall be immediately restored." There is a similar clause in article 20 of the treaty between England and Denmark in 1760.See Parl. Hist. xxxvi. 226.(1 ) Per Sir W. Grant. Parl . Hist. xxxv. 922.(2) Anu. Reg. 1780, 205, 348 .The words ofthe proclamation are. 1. That all neutral ships may freely navigate from port to port,and on the coasts of nations at war. 2. That the effects belonging to the subjects of the said war ring powers shall be free in all neutral vessels, ex cept contraband merchandise. 3. That the articles are to be deemed contraband which are mentioned in the 10th and 11th articles of her treaty ofcom1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 229So undisguised an attack upon the ancient code of European law, whichEngland had so decided an interest to maintain, because its abandonmentplaced the defeated in as advantageous circumstances as the victorious power,in fact amounted to a declaration of war against Great Britain; but her Cabinet were compelled to dissemble their resentment at that time, in consequence of the disastrous state of public affairs at the close of the Americancontest . They contented themselves, therefore, with protesting against thesenovel doctrin at the northern capitals, and had influence enough at the courtof the Hague, soon after (1 ) , to procure their abandonment by theUnited States .The Baltic Powers, however, during the continuance of the American war,adhered to the principles of the armed neutrality, although noallusion was made to it in the peace which followed; but they soonfound that it introduced principles so much at variance with thepractice of European warfare, that they were immediately obliged ,when they in their turn became belligerents, to revert to the oldsystem . In particular, when Sweden went to war with Russia in 1787, shetotally abandoned the principles of the armed neutrality, and acted invariably upon the old maritime code. Russia, in the same year, reverted tothe old principles, in her war with the Turks, and in 1793 entered into a maritime treaty with Great Britain , in which she expressly gave up the principles ofthe year 1780, and engaged to use her efforts to prevent neutral powersfrom protecting the commerce of France on the high seas, or in the harboursof that country. Both Denmark and Sweden were bound, by the treaties of1661 and 1670, with England, to admit the right of search, and give up thepretension to carry enemy's property; and by a convention entered into between these two powers in 1794, which was communicated by themto the British Government, they bound themselves " to claim no advantage, which is not clearly and unexceptionably founded on theirrespective treaties with the powers at war, and not to claim, in casesnot specified in their treaties, any advantage which is not foundedon the universal law of nations , hitherto acknowledged and respected by allthe powers and all the sovereigns of Europe, and from which they can aslittle suppose that any of them will depart, as they are incapable of departingfrom it themselves (2) . " Farther, both Russia (3) and Denmark had issuedSubse quently abandoned by the Northern Powers in their own case.Treaties with Rus sia, Swe den, and America,recognising this right to England.merce with Great Britain. 4. That to determine what is meant by a blockaded port, this only is to be understood of one, which is so well kept in by the ships ofthe power which attacks it, and which keep their places, that it is dangerous to enter into it. See Declaration of Russia, 23d April 1780. Ann.Reg. xxxv. 348 State Papers. It is worthy of obser vation, as Sir William Scott observes, that even in this manifesto no denial of the right of search is to be found, at least to the effect of determining whether or not the neutral has contraband articles on board. See ROBINSON'S Reports, i . 360. - The Maria.(1 ) Ibid. 206, 207.(2) Convention, 27th March, 1794. Ann . Reg.1794, 238.(3) In 1793, the Empress of Russia herself pro posed and concluded a treaty with Great Britain in which she expressly engaged to unite with his Britannic Majesty " all her efforts to prevent other powers not implicated in this war from giving any protection whatever, directly or indirectly, in con sequence of their neutrality, to the commerce and property of the French on the sea, or in the ports of France;" and, in execution of this treaty, she sent a fleet into the Baltic and North seas, with ex press orders to seize and capture all the shipsbearing the pretended French flag, or any other flags which they may dare to hoist; and to stop also and to compel all neutral vessels bound to orfreighted for France, according as they shall deem it most expedient either to sail back or enter some neutral harbour."-Note, 30th July, 1793, by the Russian Ambassador to the High Chancellor ofSweden, Ann.Reg. 1793, p. 175 , State Papers. A similar note was presented to the Court of Denmark at the same date,and both Denmark and Sweden, in their treaty with each other, on July 6, 1794, Prussia in her treaty with America in 1797, Russia in her war with the Turks in 1787, and Sweden in her war with Russia in 1789, promulgated and acted upon these prin ciples, diametrically opposite to the doctrines ofthe armed neutrality. [ Parl. Hist . xxxvi . 203.] With such ardour was this system acted upon by the Emperor Paul, that he threatened the Danes with immediate hostilities in 1799, on acccunt "of their supplying assistance and protection to the trade of France, under the neutral colours of the Danish flag " and he was only prevented from carrying these threats into immediate execution by the amicable interference of Great Britain:seasonable interposition , which Denmark repeated ly acknowledged with becoming gratitude. -Ann.Reg. 1800, p. 91. In the following year the sameA230 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII .trals sufferinedicts, at the commencement of the war, in which they prohibited theirsubjects from taking on board contraband articles ( 1 ); while America, in thesame year, had entered into a maritime treaty with England, in which theright of search was expressly admitted ( 2) . Both by the common maritimelaw, and by the force of recent and subsisting treaties, therefore the right ofsearch, claimed by Great Britain , was founded on an unquestionable basis .But neu- But this pacific state of matters was totally altered by the resulted severely of the maritime war, and especially the decisive battle of the Nile.of the war. These great events, by entirely sweeping the French flag from theocean, left them dependent on other powers for the supplies necessary fortheir navy; and the Republican Government saw the necessity of relaxingthe rigour of their former proceedings against neutrals , in order, throughtheir intervention, to acquire the means of restoring their marine. The intemperate conduct of the Directory, and the arbitrary doctrines which theyenforced in regard to neutrals , had all but involved the Republic in openhostilities with America, Denmark, and Sweden; and on the accession of thefirst consul, he found an embargo laid on all the ships of these powers in theFrench harbours ( 5) . The arrêts of the Directory of 18th January, and 29thOctober, 1798, were, to the last degree, injurious to neutral commerce, forthey deemed every vessel good prize which had on board any quantity, however small, of British merchandise; and in virtue of that law, numbers ofAmerican vessels were seized and condemned in the French harbours. Addinginsult to injury, the Directory, in themidst ofthese piratical proceedings, gravely proposed to the Americans that they should lend them 48,000,000 francs;insinuating at the same time, that the loan should be accompanied with thesum of1,200,000 francs ( L.48,000) , to be divided between Barras and Talleyrand. These extravagances so irritated the Americans, that , by an act ofJuly 7 , 1798. the Legislature, they declared the United States " liberated from Excessive the stipulations in the treaty 1778 with France, and authorizedthe president to arm vessels of war to defend their commerceagainst the French cruisers; " grounding these extreme measuresupon the narrative that the French had confiscated the cargoes ofgreat numbers of American vessels having enemy's property on board, while it wasexpressly stipulated , by the treaty 1778, that the flag should cover the cargo;had equipped privateers in the ports of the Union contrary to the rights ofneutrality, and treated American seamen found on board enemy's ships, aspirates . This led , in its turn, to an embargo in the French harbour, on allAmerican vessels ( 4) , and nothing but the Atlantic which rolled betweenviolence of the Direc tory against America.system was farther acted on. In 1794 the Empress notified to the Swedish Court, that " the Empress of Russia hasthought proper to fit out a fleet of twenty five sail of the line, with frigates proportional, to cruise in the North Seas, for the purpose ( in conjunction with the English maritime forces) of pre venting the sending of any provisions or ammuni tion to France; the Empress therefore requests the King of Sweden not to permit his ships of warto take any Swedish merchantmen laden with any such commodities under their convoy. Her ImperialMajesty farther orders all merchant ships which her squadron may meet in those seas to be searched, to see iftheir cargoes consist of any such goods. " Asimilar declaration was made by the Court of Russia to that of Denmark , both dated August 6, 1794. Ann. Reg. 1794, p. 241 , State Papers.( 1 ) We, Christian VII, King of Denmark, order,that " should any vessel bound to a neutral harbour take in such goods or merchandise as, ifthey were consigned to any harbour ofthe belligerent powers,would be contraband, and as such stipulated in the treaties between those powers and us, and mentioned in our orders and proclamations of 22d and 25th February, 1793, besides the oath ofthe master and freighter of the ships, there shall be made a special declaration conformable to the invoice and bills of lading," to shew the destination of the said ship. Ibid, p. 240-241 .(2) In the event of vessels being captured, or detained on suspicion of having enemy's property on board, such property alone is to be taken out,and the vessels are to be permitted to proceed to sea with the remainder of their cargo. "-Art . 17,Treaty between Great Britain and America, 19th May, 1795.-Art. 18 , specifies what articles are to be deemed contraband. —Ann. Reg. 1795, p. 296 297, State Papers.(3) Bignon's Hist, de France, i . 260.(4) Nap. i . 109. ii . 110, 111. iii. 112. Biga. i.275, 276.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 231them, and the British cruisers which prevented them reaching each other,prevented these two democratic states from engaging in fierce hostility with each other.Napoléon terminates the differ ences of France with Ame rica.But this state of mutual hostility was soon terminated after the accessionof the first consul to the helm. He at once perceived the extreme impolicyof irritating, by additional acts of spoliation , a power recently at warwith Great Britain , and still labouring under a strong feeling of hostilitytowards that state; the firm ally in better times of France , and one ofthemost important in the maritime league which he already contemplatedFeb. 9, 1800. against the English naval power. He received therefore with distinguished honour the American envoys who were despatched from New York,in the end of 1799, to make a last effort to adjust the difference between thetwo countries; and published a warm eulogium on the great Washington ,when intelligence arrived in France, early in the spring following, of thedeath of that spotless patriot. At the same time the embargo on Americanvessels was taken off in the French harbours, and every possiblefacility given to the commencement of negotiations between thetwo powers. Prospective arrangements were readily agreed on,both parties having an equal interest to establish the new maritimecode of the armed neutrality; but it was not found so easy a matter to adjustthe injuries that were past, or reconcile the consular Government to thoseindemnities which the Americans so loudly demanded for the acts of piracylong exercised upon their commerce. At length it was agreed to leave thesedifficult points to ulterior arrangement in a separate convention, and conclude a treaty for the regulation of neutral rights in future times. By thisSept. 30, 1800, treaty , signed at Morfontaine on the 30th September, 1800, the new Maritime code was fully established . It was stipulated , 1st, That the flagshould cover the merchandise. 2d, That contraband of war shouldbe understood only of warlike stores, cannon, muskets, and other arms. 3d,That the right of search to ascertain the flag and examine whether there wereany contraband articles on board should be carried into effect, out ofcannonshot of the visiting vessel , by a boat containing two or three men only; thatevery neutral ship should have on board a certificate, setting forth to whatcountry it belonged, and that that certificate should be held as good evidenceof its contents; that if contraband articles were found on board they onlyshould be confiscated, and not the ship or remainder of the cargo; that novessels under convoy should be subject to search , but the declaration of thecommander of the convoy be received instead; that those harbours onlyshould be understood to be blockaded where a sufficient force was stationedat their mouth to render it evidently dangerous to attempt to enter; and thatenemy's property on board neutral vessels should be covered by their flag,in the same manner as neutral goods found on board enemy's vessels. So farthe French influence prevailed in this convention; but they failed in theirattempt to get the Americans openly to renounce the treaty concluded in 1794with Great Britain , which could not have been done without at once embroiling them with the British Cabinet ( 1) . A similar convention had previouslybeen entered into on the same principles between the United States and the Prussian Government ( 2) .treaty with America.Circumstances at this period were singularly favourable to the revivalof the principles of the armed neutrality. A recurrence ofthe same political(1) Treaty Articles 18 , 19. Ann. Reg. 1800, 288, (2) On July 11, 1799, See State Papers, Ann .289. Nap. ii . 122, 123. Big. i. 277, 278. Dum. Reg. 1800, 294, 295. Articles 13, 14, 15.vi . 96.232 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.the princi ples of the armed neu trality.Revival of relations had restored both the grievances and the ambition which,at the close of the American war, had led to that formidable confederacy. Neutral vessels, endeavouring to slide into the lucrative tradewhich the destruction of the French marine opened up with that country,found themselves perpetually exposed to inquisition from the British cruisers;and numerous condemnations had taken place in the English courts, which,though perfectly agreeable to the law of nations and existing treaties, werenaturally felt as exceedingly hard by the sufferers under them, and renewedthe ancient and inextinguishable jealousy of their respective governments atthe British naval power. In December, 1799, an altercation took place in thestraits of Gibraltar between some English frigates and a Danish ship, theHausenan, in which the Dane refused to submit to a search of the convoyunder his command; but the conduct of the captain in this instance wasformally disavowed by his government, and the amicable relations of the twocountries continued unchanged. But the next collision of the same kindwhich took place occasioned more serious consequences. On 25th July, 1800,the commander of the Danish frigate , Freya, refused to allow his convoy tobe searched, but, agreeably to the recent stipulations in the treaties betweenFrance and America, offered to show his certificates to the British officer;intimating, at the same time, that if a boat was sent to make a search it wouldbe fired upon. The British captain upon this laid his vessel alongside the Dane,and resistance being still persisted in , gave her a broadside, and, after a shortaction, brought her into the Downs ( 1 ) .The English Cabinet at this time had received intelligence of thehostile negotiations which were going on in the northern courtsrelative to neutral rights , and deeming it probable that this eventwould be made the signal for openly declaring their intentions,they wisely resolved to anticipate an attack. For this purpose, Lord Whitworth was sent on a special message to Copenhagen; and to give the greaterweight to his representations, a squadron of nine sail of the line, four bombs,and five frigates , was despatched to the Sound , under the command ofAdmiralDickson. They found four Danish line-of-battle ships moored across thatstrait, from Cronberg castle to the Swedish shore; but the English fleet passedwithout any hostilities being committed on either side, and cast anchor offtheharbour of Copenhagen. The Danes were busily employed instrengthening their fortifications; batteries were erected on advantageous situations near the coast, and three floating bulwarksmoored across the mouth of the harbour; but their preparations were not yetcomplete, and the strength of the British squadron precluded the hope ofsuccessful resistance. An accommodation was therefore entered into , theprincipal conditions of which were, " that the frigate and convoy carried into the Downs should be repaired at the expense of the British Government; thequestion as to the right of search was to be adjourned for farther consideration to London. Until this point was settled , the Danish ships were tosail with convoy only in the Mediterranean, for the purpose of protectionfrom the Barbary cruisers, and in the mean time their other vessels were tobe liable to be searched as heretofore (2). "Aug. 29.Situated as Great Britain was, this treaty was a real triumph to her arms,and reflected no small credit on the vigour and ability of the Governmentby which this delicate matter had been brought to so favourable a conclusion.Lord Whit worth is sent to Co penhagen Aug. 23.1800.And enters into an ac commoda tion.(1) Ann. Reg. 1800, 94, 95. Nap. ii . 117, 118.Bign. i. 292. Hard. vii . 444, 445.(2) Ann. Reg. 1800, 93, 97. Nap. i , 117, 119.Big. i. 292.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 233Growing irritation of the Empe ror Paul at the Allies.It might have been adjusted without any further effusion of blood, had itnot been for a train of circumstances which, about the same time, alienatedthe vehement and capricious Emperor of Russia from the British alliance.The northern autocrat had been exceedingly irritated at the ill success ofthecombined operations both in Switzerland and Holland; the first of which heascribed to the ill conduct of the German, the latter of the British auxiliaries .This feeling was increased by the impolitic refusal of the British Governmentto include Russian prisoners with English in the exchange withFrench; a proposal which, considering that they had fought sideby side in the Dutch campaign, in which English interests weremainly involved, it was perhaps imprudent to have declined , although thedubious conduct of Paul, in having withdrawn his troops from the Germanalliance, and broken with Austria, gave him no title to demand such an act ofPolitic con- generosity. Napoléon, as already observed, instantly and adroitly poléon. availed himself of this circumstance to appease the Czar. He professed the utmost indignation that the gallant Russians should remain in captivity from the refusal of the British Government to agree to their liberationfor French prisoners; set them at liberty without exchange, and not only sentthem back to their own country, but restored to them the arms and standardswhich they had lost, and clothed them anew from head to foot in the uniformof their respective regiments. These courteous proceedings produced thegreatest impression on the Czar, the more so as they were contrasted withthe imprudent refusal of the English Government to include them in theirexchange; they led to an interchange of good offices between the two courts,which was soon ripened into an alliance of the strictest kind, in consequenceof the impetuous character of the Emperor, and the unbounded admirationwhich he had conceived for the first consul (1) .duct of Naabout Differences Another circumstance at the same time occurred, which contriMalta. buted not a little to widen the breach between the Cabinets ofSt.-Petersburg and London . Disengaged from his war with France, and ardently desirous of warlike renown, the Emperor had revived the idea of thearmed neutrality of 1780 , and made proposals, in May and June, 1800, to theCabinets ofStockholm and Copenhagen to that effect, which had produced thesudden change in the Danish instructions to their armed vessels to resist thesearch of the British cruisers . The island of Malta, it was foreseen, wouldsoon surrender to the British squadron , and it was easy to anticipate that theEnglish Cabinet would not readily part with that important fortress; whilethe Emperor conceived that, as Grand Master of the order of St. -John of Jerusalem, to which it had formerly belonged, he was bound to stipulate itsrestoration to that celebrated order ( 2) .Aug 28,J800.Violent proceedagainst England.Nov. 5.Matters were in this uncertain state at the court of St. - Petersburg,when the arrival of the British squadron in the Sound brought themings of Paul to a crisis. The Czar, with that vehemence which formed the leading feature of his character, instantly ordered an embargo on all1800. the British ships in the Russian harbours; and in consequencenearly three hundred vessels, most of them with valuable cargoes on board,were forcibly detained till the frost had set in, and the Baltic had becomeimpassable. Nor was this all . Their crews were, with Asiatic barbarity, indefiance of all the usages of civilized states, marched off into prisons in theinterior, many of them above a thousand miles from the coast; while the(1 ) Bign. i . 287, 289. Jom. xiv. 234. Nap . ii . (2) Bign. i. 287, 290. Hard . vi . 446.128.234 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.Nov. 21.whole English property on shore was put under sequestration . Several British vessels at Narva weighed anchor and escaped the embargo; this so enraged the autocrat, that he ordered the remaining ships in the harbour to beburnt; and in the official gazette , published a declaration that the embargoshould not be taken off till Malta was given up to Russia. This demand was rested on the allegation, that the restitution of that island to theOrder of Jerusalem was agreed upon in the convention, December,1798, between Great Britain and Russia, whereas that treaty contained no such stipulation . These proceedings on the part of theEmperor Paul were in a peculiar manner arbitrary and oppressive, notmerely as contrary to the general practice of civilized states, which never authorizes such severity against the crews of merchant ships or goods on shore,but as directly in the face of an express article in the existing treaty, 1793,between Great Britain and Russia, in which it was stipulated that , “ in theevent of a rupture between the two powers, there should be no embargolaid on vessels in the harbours of either, but the merchants on both sideshave a year to convey away or dispose of their effects ( 1) .Denmark,He is joined Nothing more than the support of Russia was necessary to makeBy the northern powers, who derived such benefits from the lucrativeand Prussia. neutral trade which had recently fallen into their hands, combinefor the purpose of enforcing a new maritime code, which might extend itsadvantages to the whole commerce of the belligerent states. The King ofSweden, young and high-spirited, entered, from the very first, warmly andreadily into the views of the Emperor; but Denmark, which, during thelong continuance of the war, had obtained a large share of the carrying trade,and whose capital lay exposed to the first strokes of the English navy, wasmore reserved in her movements. The arrogance with which an immediateaccession to their views was urged upon the Court of Copenhagen by the Cabinets of St. -Petersburg and Stockholm, for some time defeated its own object, and Denmark even hesitated whether she should not throw herself intothe arms of England , to resist the dictation of her imperious neighbours, andpreserve the lucrative trade from which her subjects were deriving such immense advantages. But the Russians soon found means to assail her in themost vulnerable quarter. Prussia had lately become a considerable maritimepower, and from the effect of the same interests, she had warmly embracedthe views of the northern confederacy . Her influence with Denmark was paramount, for the most valuable continental possessions of that power lay exposed, without defence, to the Prussian troops. In the beginning of October,a Prussian vessel, the Triton , belonging to Emden, laden with naval stores, and bound for the Texel, was taken and carried into Cuxhaven, aport belonging to Hamburg, by a British cruiser. The Prussian Governmenteagerly took advantage of that circumstance to manifest their resolution;they marched a body of two thousand men into the neutral territory, andtook possession of Cuxhaven; and although the senate of Hamburgh purchased the vessel from the English captain and restored it to the owners, andLord Carysfort , the British ambassador at Berlin , warmly protested againstthe occupation of the neutral territory after that restitution, the Prussiantroops were not withdrawn. A month before, a more unjustifiable act hadbeen committed by the British cruisers off Barcelona, who took possession of Sept. 4. a Swedish brig, and under its neutral colours sailed into the harOct. 4.Malta sur rendered to England on Sept. 15, 1800.( 1 ) Big. i . 296, 297. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 237, 99. State papers. Dum. vi . 127.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 235bour of that town, and captured by that means two frigates which the King of Spain had built for the Batavian republic ( 1) .His warm advances to Though every thing was thus conspiring to forward the views ofNapoléon. France, and augment the jealousy of the maritime powers of GreatBritain, the course of events by no means kept pace with the impatient disposition of the Czar. He suspected Prussia of insincerity, and openly chargedDenmark with irresolution , because they did not embark headlong in theprojects which he himself had so recently adopted . Impatient of delay, hewrote in person to the first consul in these terms: -" Citizen first consul—I do not write to you to open any discussion on the rights of men or of citizens; every country chooses what form of government it thinks fit . WhereverI see at the head of affairs a man who knows how to conquer and rule mankind, my heart warms towards him. I write to you to let you know the displeasure which I feel towards England, which violates the law of nations , andis never governed but by selfish considerations . I wish to unite with you toput bounds to the injustice of that government (2) . " At the same time, withthat candour and vehemence which distinguished his character, he publisheda declaration in the St. -Petersburg Gazette, in which he stated: -" Beingdisappointed in his expectations of the protection of commerce by the perfidious enterprises of a great power which had sought to enchain the liberty ofthe seas by capturing Danish convoys, the independence of the northernpowers appeared to him to be openly menaced: he consequently consideredit to be a measure of necessity to have recourse to an armed neutrality, thesuccess of which was acknowledged in the time of the American war." AndOct. 29, 1800. shortly after he published a ukase, in which he directed , that allthe English effects seized in his states, either by the sequestration of goods onland or the embargo on goods afloat, should be sold, and their produce diNov. 17 , 1800. vided among all Russians having claims on English subjects! Napoléon was not slow in turning to the best account such an unlooked-for turn ofDec. 4 , 1800. fortune in his favour, and redoubled his efforts with the neutralpowers to induce them to join the maritime confederacy against Great Britain. To give the greater éclat to the union of France and Russia, an ambassador, Count Kalitchef, was despatched from St. -Petersburg to Paris, and received there with a degree of magnificence well calculated to captivate theOriental ideas of the Scythian autocrat ( 3) .maritimeon Dec. 16,General Pressed by Russia on the one side and France on the other, andconfede- sufficiently disposed already to regard with a jealous eye the marinine, time preponderance of Great Britain, the fears and irresolution of1800. the northern powers at length gave way. On the 16th December amaritime confederacy was signed by Russia, Sweden, and Denmark, andon the 19th of the same month by Prussia as an acceding party. The principles of this league were in substance the same as those of the armedneutrality in 1780, with a slight variation in favour of belligerent powers.A minute specification was given of what should be deemed contraband articles, which included only arms of all sorts, with saddles and bridles , “ allother articles not herein enumerated shall not be considered as war or navalstores, and shall not be subject to confiscation , but shall pass free and without restraint. " It was stipulated , " that the effects which belong to the subjects ofbelligerent powers in neutral ships, with the exception of contrabandgoods, shall be free; " that no harbour shall be deemed blockaded unless the(1 ) Dum. vi . 88. Bign. 1. 298.(2) Nap. ii . 129.(3) Dum. vi. 121 , 123. Ann. Reg. 1801, 98, and 1800, 260. State papers.236 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP.XXXIII.disposition and number of ships ofthe power by which it is invested shall besuch as to render it apparently hazardous to enter; that the declaration ofthe captains of ships ofwar having convoy, that the convoy has no contrabandgoods, shall be deemed sufficient; that " the contracting parties, if disquietedor attacked for this convention, shall make common cause to defend eachother," and that " these principles shall apply to every maritime war by whichEurope may unhappily be disquieted ( 1 ) . "Its threatsequencesThis convention was naturally regarded with the utmost jealousy ening con- by the British Government. Under cover of a regard for the rightsto England . of humanity and the principles of justice, it evidently went to introduce a system hitherto unheard of in naval warfare, eminently favourable to the weaker maritime power, and calculated to render naval success to anystate oflittle avail, by enabling the vanquished party, under neutral colours,securely to repair all its losses. It was evident that, if this new code of maritime law were introduced , all the victories of the British navy would go for nothing; France, in neutral vessels, would securely regain her whole commerce;under neutral flags she would import all the materials for the constructionof a navy, and in neutral ships safely exercise the seamen requisite to navigate them. At the close of a long and bloody war, waged for her very existence, and attended with unexampled naval success , England would see allthe fruits of her exertions torn from her, and witness the restoration of herantagonist's maritime strength, by the intervention of the powers for whosebehoof, as well as her own, she had taken up arms.Measures of retalia England at this period was not, as at the close of the Americantion of Mr. War, obliged to dissemble her indignation at a proceeding which Pitt. was evidently prejudicial to her national interests, and the firststroke levelled by continental jealousy at her national independence. Thestatesman who still held the helm was a man who disdained all temporary shifts or momentary expedients; who, fully appreciating the measureof national danger, boldly looked it in the face; who knew that from humiliation to subjugation in nations is but a step; and that the more perilous a struggle is, the more necessary is it to engage in it while yet thepublic resources are undiminished, and the popular spirit is not depressedby the appearances of vacillation on the part of government. On these prudent not less than resolute principles , Mr. Pitt was no sooner informed ofthe signature of the armed neutrality, than he took the most decisive stepsfor letting the northern powers feel the disposition of the nation they hadJan. 14 , 1801. thought fit to provoke. On the 14th January, 1801 , the BritishGovernment issued an order for a general embargo on all vessels belonging to any of the confederated powers, Prussia alone excepted , of whoseaccession to the league intelligence had not as yet been received . Lettersof marque were at the same time issued for the capture of the numerous vessels belonging to these states who were working to the Baltic; and withsuch vigour were these proceedings followed up, that nearly the one- half ofthe merchant-ships belonging to the northern powers at sea found their wayinto the British harbours (2) .These hostile proceedings led to a warm debate between the British ambassadors and those of the neutral powers, which was conducted with greatability on both sides. That between Lord Carysfort, the English ambassadoat Berlin, and Count Haugwitz, the minister for foreign affairs at that capital,embraced the principal arguments urged in this important controversy.(1) Convention, Dec. 16, 1800. Ann. Reg. 1800, (2) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 103.266, 270. State papers.1800.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 237Diplomatic debates with the neutral powers.It was stated by the British Government, " That a solemn treatyhad been entered into between Russia and Great Britain calculatedcompletely to secure their trade, in which it was stipulated that,in case of a rupture, not only no embargo should be laid on , but the subjectson both sides should have a year to carry away their effects; that in violation of these sacred stipulations the ships of British merchants had beenseized, their crews sent to prison in the interior, and their property sequestrated and sold by Russia; that these acts of violence, as well as the conclusion of a hostile confederacy, which the Emperor of Russia has formed forthe express and avowed purpose of introducing those innovations into themaritime code which England has ever opposed, have led to an open warbetween Great Britain and Russia; that these measures openly disclose anintention to prescribe to the British empire, on a subject of the greatest importance, a new code of laws, to which she never will submit, that the confederacy recently signed by the Baltic powers, had for its object the establishment of these novel principles of maritime law, which never had beenrecognised by the tribunals of Europe, which the Russian Court, since 1780,had not only abandoned, but, by a treaty still in force, she had becomebound to oppose, and which were equally repugnant to the express stipulations of the treaties which subsist between the courts of Stockholm and Denmark and the British empire; that in addition to this, the parties to the confederacy were pursuing warlike preparations with the utmost activity , and one of them had engaged in actual hostilities with Great Britain . In these circumstances, nothing remained to the British Government but to secure somepledge against the hostile attacks which were meditated against their rights,and therefore they had laid an embargo on the vessels of the Baltic powers,but under such restraints as would guard to the utmost against loss andinjury to individuals; that the King of Great Britain would never submit topretensions which were irreconcilable to the true principles of maritimelaw, and strike at the foundation of the greatness and maritime power of hiskingdoms; and that being perfectly convinced that his conduct towards neutral states was conformable to the recognised principles of law and justice,and the decisions of the admiralty courts of all the powers of Europe, hewould allow of no measures which had for their object to introduce innovations on the maritime law now in force, but defend that system in everyevent, and maintain its entire execution as it subsisted in all the courts ofEurope before the confederacy of 1780 (1) ."On the other hand it was answered by Prussia and the neutral powers, -"The British Government has in the present, more than any former war,usurped the sovereignty of the seas , and by arbitrarily framing a naval code,which it would be difficult to unite with the true principles of the law ofnations, it exercises over the other friendly and neutral powers a usurped jurisdiction, the legality of which it maintains, and which it considers as an imprescriptible right, sanctioned by all the tribunals of Europe. The neutralsovereigns have never conceded to England the privilege of calling their subjects before its tribunals, and of subjecting them to its laws, but in cases inwhich the abuse of power has got the better of equity, which, alas! are buttoo frequent. The neutral powers have always taken the precaution to addressto its cabinet the most energetic remonstrances and protests; but experiencehas ever proved them to be entirely fruitless; and it is not surprising if, afterso many repeated acts of oppression, they have resolved to find a remedy.(1) Lord Carysfort's notes, Jan. 27 and Feb. 1 , 1801. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 229, 237. State papers.238 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.against it, and for that purpose to establish a well-arranged convention ,which fixes their rights, and places them on a proper level with the powersat war. The naval alliance, in the manner in which it has just been consolidated, was intended to lead to this salutary end; and the King hesitates not todeclare , that he recognises in its own principles; that he is fully convinced of its necessity and utility; that he has formally acceded to theconvention of the 16th December, and has bound himself not only to takea direct share in all the events which interest the cause of the neutralpowers, but, in virtue of his engagements, to maintain that connexionby such powerful measures as the impulse of circumstances may require.It is not true that the confederated powers have for their object to introduce a new code of maritime rights hostile to the interests of Great Britain; the measures of the Danish Government are purely defensive, and itcannot be considered as surprising that they should have adopted them,when it is recollected what menacing demonstrations that court had experienced from Great Britain, on occasion of the affair of the Freya frigate (1) ."The Prussian Government concluded by urging the English Government totake off the embargo on the Danish and Swedish vessels, as the first and necessary step to an amicable settlement of the difficult question, without making any such stipulation in regard to that laid on Russian ships, and therebyin effect admitting the justice of the measure of retaliation adopted inregardto the latter power (2) .invaded by Hanover is These hostile declarations were soon followed up by measuresPrussia. which demonstrated that Prussia was not inclined to be merely apassive spectator of this great debate. On the 30th March a declaration wasissued by the King of Prussia to the Government of Hanover, in which hestated that he was to take possession provisionally of the English dominionsin Germany; and the Hanoverian States being in no condition to resist suchApril 3 , 1801. an invasion, they submitted, and the Prussian troops entered thecountry, laid an embargo on British shipping, and closed the Elbe and theWeser against the English flag . At the same time a body of Danish troopstook possession of Hamburgh, and extended the embargo to that great commercial emporium, while Denmark and Sweden had a short time before alsolaid an embargo on all the ports of their dominions . Thus the British flag was excluded from every harbour, from the North Cape to the straitsof Gibraltar; and England, which a year before led on the coalition againstFrance, found herself compelled to make head against the hostility of combined Europe(3) , with an exhausted treasury and a population suffering underthe accumulated pressure of famine and pestilence (4) .March 25.Meeting of Parlia Never did a British Parliament meet under more depressing circumstances than that which commenced its sittings in February Perilous 1801. After ten years of a war, costly and burdensome beyond ment.situation of England. example, the power of France was so far from being weakened,(1 ) Baron Haugwitz's answer. Ann. Reg. 1801 ,241. State papers.( 2) Baron Haugwitz's answer. Ann. Reg. 1801,241. State papers. Nap. ii . 133.(3) Ann. Reg. 1800 , 107.(4) It deserves to be recorded to the credit of Prussia in this transaction , that being well aware how severely Great Britain was suffering at this time under an uncommon scarcity of provisions,she permitted the vessels having grain on board to proceed to the places of their destination, notwith standingthe embargo-a humane indulgence, which forms a striking contrast to the violent and cruelproceedings ofthe Emperor Paul on the same occa sion. The conduct ofthe neutrals, with the excep tion of Russia, in this distressing contest, was dis tinguished by a moderation and firmness worthy of states contending for the introduction of a great general principle. That of the Cabinet of St.- Pe tersburg was widely different; but it would be unjust to visit upon that gallant people the sins of their chief, who about that period began to give symptoms of that irritability of disposition and mental alienation, which so soon brought about the bloody catastrophe which terminated his reigu.[ Dum. vi, 167. Ann. Reg. 1800, 107.]1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 239that she had extended her sway over all the south of Europe. The strengthofAustria was, to appearance at least, irrecoverably broken; Italy and Switzer land crouched beneath her yoke, Spain openly followed her banners, andHolland was indissolubly united with her fortunes . Great Britain , it is true,had been uniformly, and to an unparalleled extent, victorious at sea , and the naval forces ofher adversary were almost destroyed; but the northern confederation had suddenly and alarmingly altered this auspicious state of things ,and not only were all the harbours of Europe closed against her merchantvessels , but a fleet of above a hundred ships of the line in the Baltic was preparing to assert principles subversive of her naval power. To crown thewhole, the excessive rains of the two preceding autumns had essentially injured two successive crops; the price of all sorts ofgrain had reached an unprecedented height ( 1) , and the people, at the time when their industry waschecked by the cessation of commercial intercourse with all Europe, werecompelled to struggle with famine of unusual severity (2) .Arguments on the subliament.This subject of the northern coalition was fully discussed in thejectin Par parliamentary debates which took place on the King's speech at theopening of the session . It was urged by Mr. Grey and the Opposition, " That although without doubt the Emperor of Russia had been guiltyof the grossest violence and injustice towards Great Britain in the confiscation of the property of its merchants, yet it did not follow that ministerswere free of blame. He accuses them of having violated a convention inregard to the surrender of Malta to him as a reward for his co-operationagainst France: did such a convention exist? The northern powers have,along with Russia, subscribed a covenant, the professed object of which isto secure their commerce against the vexations to which they have hithertobeen subject; and it is impossible to discover any thing either in the law ofnations or practice of states, any law or practice universally acknowledged ,the denial ofwhich is tantamount to a declaration of war against this country.It is a mistake to assert that the principles of the armed neutrality werenever heard of till they were advanced in the American war. In 1740 theKing of Prussia disputed the pretensions of this country on the same groundsas the armed neutrality; and in 1762 the Dutch resisted the claim of rightto search vessels under convoy. In 1780 these objections assumed a greaterdegree of consistency, from their principles being publicly announced by allthe powers in Europe."There is one principle which should ever be considered as the leadingrule by which all questions ofthis sort should be determined, and that is themaxim ofjustice. Can, then, the pretensions of Great Britain bear the test ofthis criterion? Our naval ascendency, indeed, should ever be carefully preserved, as the source of our glory and the bulwark of our safety;but sorryshould I be, if, to preserve the rights and interests of the British nation, weshould be compelled to abandon the rules and maxims of justice , in whichalone are to be found true and permanent greatness, true and permanentsecurity."Even supposing the pretensions ofEngland to bejust, are they expedient?Its maritime superiority is of inestimable value, but is this claim, so odious to our neighbours, essential to its existence? Let the advantage, nay, thenecessity, ofthe privilege be clearly demonstrated before we engage in a uni(1 ) In the winter 1800-1801, wheat rose to L. 1,4s. the bushel; being more than quadruple what it had been at the commencement of the war; and all other species offood were high inproportion. Largequantities of maize and rice were imported, and contributed essentially to relieve the public distress .(2) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 117.240 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.versal war for its defence and purchase it at the price of blood. Admittingeven that the right was just and useful, circumstances may occur which justify and warrant a relaxation in its rigour . Supposing even the concession ofthe claim of the northern powers would have enabled them to supply Francewith many articles necessary for their navy, what would have been the inconvenience thence arising? France, destitute of seamen, her fleets withoutdiscipline, what the better would she be of all the naval stores of the northof Europe? What, on the other hand , is the consequence of our dispute withthe northern powers? Do we not in a moment double her marine, and supply her with experienced sailors? Do not the navies of Europe now outflankus on every side; and has not France, therefore, gained the inestimableadvantage of acquiring the seamen from the Baltic, which could not otherwisebe obtained, and is not that the real object which she requires? And if ourcommerce is excluded from every harbour in Europe, if every market is shutagainst us, what is to become of the invaluable sources of our splendour andsecurity? Independently of naval stores can we forget how important it is,in the present distressed and starving situation of the country, that the supply from the Baltic should not be lost . A little moderation in the instructionsto our naval officers would have avoided all these dangers. Lord North wasnever arraigned as a traitor to his country, because he did not drive mattersto extremities in 1780; and in the peace of 1783 the questions of the armedneutrality was wholly omitted. In subsequent commercial treaties with different countries, the question of neutral rights has been settled on the principles of the armed neutrality; and there is at least as much reason for moderation now as there was at the close of the American war."To these arguments Mr. Pitt and Sir William Grant replied: " It has onlybeen stated as doubtful whether the marine code contended for by GreatBritain is founded in justice; but can there be the smallest hesitation on asubject which has been acknowledged and acted upon by the whole courts,not only of this country, but of Europe, and on which all the wars, not of thisisland merely, but of every belligerent state in Europe, have been constantlyconducted? The advocates for the neutral powers constantly fall into theerror of supposing that every exception from the general law by a particulartreaty proves the law to be as stated in that treaty; whereas the very circumstance of making an exception by treaty, proves that the general law ofnations would be the reverse but for that exception. We made a concessionof this description to France, in the commercial treaty of 1787, because it wassupposed that that power would never be neutral when we were at war; but was it ever for one moment imagined, that by so doing, we could be understood to have relinquished our maritime rights with reference to other states?"With respect to the Baltic powers, the case of the neutral advocates ispeculiarly untenable. Nobody here has to learn , that the treaties of1661 and1670 are in full force with respect to Sweden and Denmark, and in those treaties the right ofcarrying enemy's property is expressly given up. With respectto Russia, the right of search was never abandoned. On the contrary, in theconvention signed between this country and that power, at the commencement of the present war, the latter bound herself not merely to observe this principle herself, but to use her efforts to prevent neutral powers from protecting the commerce of France on the seas or in its harbours . Even, therefore, ifthe general principles of the maritime law were as adverse, as in realitythey are favourable to Great Britain , still the treaties with the Baltic powersare in full force, and how can they now contend for a code of laws againstEngland, in opposition to that to which they are expressly bound with her?1801. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 241" Denmark, in August last, with her fleets and her arsenals at our mercy,entered into a solemn pledge, not again to send vessels with convoy until theprinciple was settled; and yet she has recently bound herself by another treaty, founded upon the principles of 1780, one of the engagements ofwhich treaty is , that its stipulations are to be maintained by force of arms.Is this, or is it not, war? When all these circumstances are accompanied byarmaments, prepared at a period ofthe year when they think they have timefor preparation without being exposed to our navy, can there be the slightestdoubt, that in justice we are bound to take up arms in our own defence?"As to the question of expenditure, the matter is if possible , still less doubtful. The question is, whether we are to permit the navy of our enemyto be supplied and recruited; whether we are to suffer blockaded forts to be furnished with warlike stores and provisions; whether we are to allow neutralnations, by hoisting a flag upon a sloop or a fishing- boat, to convey the treasures of South America to the harbours of Spain, or the naval stores ofthe Baltic to Brest or Toulon? The honourable gentleman talks of the destruction of the naval power of France; but does he imagine that her marine would have decreased to the degree which it actually has, if, during thewhole of the war, this very principle had not been acted upon? And ifthecommerce of France had not been destroyed, does he believe , that if the fraudulent system of neutrals had not been prevented, her navy would notnow have been in a very different situation from what it actually is? Does henot know, that the naval preponderance which we have by this meansacquired, has since given security to this country amidst the wreck of all ourhopes onthe Continent? If it were once gone, the spirit of the country wouldgo with it . If in 1780, we were not in a condition to assert the right of thiscountry to a code of maritime law, which for centuries has been acted uponindiscriminately by all the European states, we have not now, happily, the same reason for not persisting in our rights; and the question now is,whether, with increased proofs of the necessity of acting uponthat principle,and increased means of supporting it , we are for ever to give it up (1)? "The House ofCommons supported ministers, by a majority of245 to 63 (2).The union of Ireland with England, from which such importantresults were anticipated , proved a source of weakness rather than strength to the empire at this important crisis. By a series oflic claims . concessions, which commenced soon after, and continued throughthe whole reign of George III , the Irish Catholics had been nearly placed on a level with their Protestant fellow subjects , and they were now excludedonly from sitting in Parliament, and holding about thirty of the principal offices in the state. When Mr. Pitt, however, carried through the great measure of the Union, he gave the Catholics reason to expect that a complete removal of all disabilities would follow the Union, not indeed as a matterof right, but of grace and favour. This understood pledge, when the timearrived, he found himself unable to redeem . The complete removal of Ca tholic disabilities, it was soon found, involved many fundamental questionsin the constitution; in particular, the Bill of Rights, the Test and Corporation Acts, and, in general, the stability of the whole Protestant Church establishment; and for that reason it might be expected to meet with a formidableopposition from the aristocratic party in both houses; and in addition to this,it was discovered , when the measure was brought forward in the Cabinet,that the King entertained scruples of conscience on the subject, in conseMr. Pitt resigns in conse.quence que of(1) Parl. Hist. xxxv. 895, 915. (2) Ibid . 931 ,IV.16242 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.quence of his oath at the coronation " to maintain the Protestant religionestablished by law," which the known firmness and integrity of his characterrendered it extremely improbable he would ever be brought to abandon . Inthese circumstances, Mr. Pitt stated that he had no alternative but to resignFeb. 10. his official situations. On the 10th February, it was announced inParliament that ministers only held the seals till their successors were appointed, and shortly after Mr. Pitt, Lord Grenville, Earl Spenser, Mr. Dundas,and Mr. Windham resigned , and were succeeded by Mr. Addington, thenSpeaker of the House of Commons, as First Lord of the Treasury, Lord Hawkesbury, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and a new Ministry, taken, however,entirely from the Tory party (1) .was only the ostensiBut this It has long been the practice of the Administration of GreatBritain, not to resign upon the real question which occasions theirble ground . retirement, but select some minor point, which is held forth tothe public as the ostensible ground of the change; and this custom is attendedwith the great advantage of not implicating the Crown or the Governmentopenly in a collision with either House of Parliament. From the circumstanceof Mr. Pitt having so prominently held forth the Catholic question as thereason for his retirement, it is more than probable that this was not the realground of the change; or, that if it was, he readily caught at the impossibilityof carrying through any farther concessions to the Catholics of Ireland as amotive for resignation , to prevent the approach to other and more importantquestions which remained behind . There was no necessity for bringing forward the Catholic claims at that moment, nor any reason for breaking up anAdministration at a period of unparalleled public difficulty, merely becausethe scruples in the Royal breast prevented them from being at that timeconceded. But the question of peace or war stood in a very different situation . Mr. Pitt could not disguise from himself that the country was now involved in a contest, apparently endless, if the principles on which it had solong been conducted were rigidly adhered to; that the dissolution of thecontinental coalition, and the formation of the northern confederacy hadimmensely diminished the chances, not merely of success, but of salvationduring its future continuance. As it was possible, therefore, perhaps probable, that England might be driven to an accommodation at no distantperiod, and the principles he had so long maintained might prove an obstacleto such a necessary measure, Mr. Pitt took the part of retiring with the leading members of his Cabinet, and was succeeded by other inferior adherentsof his party, who, without departing from his principles altogether, mightfeel themselves more at liberty to mould them according to the pressure ofexternal circumstances. In doing this, the English minister acted the part of(1 ) Parl. Hist . xxxv. 966. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 117,121.In a paper circulated at this period, in Mr. Pitt's name, it was stated, " The leading part of his Ma jesty's ministers finding innumerable obstacles to the bringing forward measures of concession to the Catholic body while in office, have felt it impossible to continue in office under their inability to pro pose it, with the circumstances necessary to carry the measure with all its advantages; and they have retired from his Majesty's service, considering this line of conduct as most likely to contribute to its ultimate success . The Catholic body may with confidence rely on the zealous support of all those who retire, and of many who remain in office, where it can be given with a prospect of success. They may be assured that Mr. Pitt will do his utmost to establish their cause in the publicfavour, and prepare the way fortheir finally attaining their objects. " In his place in the House of Commons on February 16, Mr. Pitt said, " With respect to the resignation of myself and some ofmy friends, I have no wish to disguise from the House that we did feel it an incumbent duty upon us to propose a measure on the part of Government,which, under the circumstances of the Union so happily effected between the two countries, we thought of great public importance, and necessary to complete the benefits likely to result from that measure; we felt this opinion so strongly, that when we met with circumstances which rendered it impossible for us to propose it as a measure of Government, we equally felt it inconsistent with our duty and our honour any longer to remain apart of that Government. "-See Parl. Hist. xxxv.966, 970.1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 243a true patriot. "He sacrificed himself," says the chosen historian of Napoléon, "to the good of his country and a general peace. He showed himselfmore than a great statesman, a good citizen (1 ) . ”Vigoroushis successsecute the war.But though Mr. Pitt retired, he left his mantle to his successors;measures of neither timidity nor vacillation appeared in the measures of Goors to pro- vernment towards foreign states . For both the land and sea-forcesa larger allowance was provided than in any previous year sincethe commencement of the war. For the navy there was voted 139,000 seamenand marines, and 120 ships of the line were put in commission . The landtroops altogether amounted to 500,000 men ( 2); and the navy, in serviceand ordinary, amounted to the prodigious force of above 200 ships of theline and 250 frigates ( 3) . Mr. Pitt, on February 18th, brought forward thebudget immediately before he surrendered the seals to his successors . Thecharges of the army and navy were each of them above L.15,000,000; andthe total expenditure to be provided for by the United Kingdom amountedto L.42,000,000, besides above L.20,000,000 as the interest of the debt.To provide for these prodigious charges, war-supplies to the amount ofL.17,000,000 existed; and to make up the difference he contracted a loanof L.25,500,000 for Great Britain; while Ireland , according to the agreementat the Union, was to provide 2-17ths of the whole expense , or L.4,500,000 .To provide for the interest of the loan, and the sinking fund applicable toits reduction, new taxes, chiefly in the excise and customs, were imposedto the amount of L.1,794,000. These additional taxes, according to theadmirable system of that great financier, were almost all laid on in theindirect form , being intended to be a permanent burden on the nation tillthe principal was paid off; and a sinking-fund of L.100,000 a-year wasprovided for this purpose in the excess of the additional taxes above theinterest of the debt (4) .state of Prosperous Notwithstanding the unexampled difficulties which had beset theGreat Bri- British empire in the years 1799 and 1800, from the extremeperiod. severity of the scarcity during that period, and the vast expenditure which the campaigns of these two years had occasioned, the conditiontain at this(1) Bign, i . 406. Ann . Reg. 1800, 119, 120 .(2) Viz-Regular Forces,Militia,Fencibles,.Total,Sugar, Malt, and Tobacco,Lottery,. Income Tax,Surplus ofthe Consolidated Fund,Irish Taxes and Loan,L.2,750,000 300.000 4,260,000 1,250,000 3,300,000 4,324,000 500,000 60,000193,000 · 78,000 31,000 Duty on Exports and Imports.302,000The expense ofmaintaining which was estimated at L. 12.940,000 . The total forces, both of land and sea, in 1792, was not 120,000; a signal proof what much greater efforts than she was generally sup- posed capable of, England could really make, and of the overwhelming force with which, at the com- mencement of the war, she might, by a proper exer- tion of her strength, have overwhelmed the revolu- tionary volcano. -See Ann. Reg. 1800, p . 142, and JOMINI, xiv . 251 .(3) Ships of the line, in commission andNavy,Balance not issued for Subsidies,Surplus of Grants,Loan, ·L.16,744,000 25,500,000Ways and Means,Charges.. L 42,244,000Army and Extraordinary,Ordnance,L.15,800,000 15,902,000 1,938,000 ordinary,Building,Fifty-gun ships,Frigates,Brigs and sloops ,Total,205 Miscellaneous, 757,000 36 Unforeseen Emergencies, 800,000 27 Permanent charges of Ireland, 390,000 257 Deficiency of Income-Tax, . 1,000,000 312 Discount on Loan, 200,000 Deficiency of Malt Duty, 400 000 837 Deficiency of Assessed Taxes,Deficiency of Consolidated Fund,350,000 150,000 -SeeJAMES'S Naval Hist, iii . Table ix; and JoMINI, Exchequer Bills of 1779,xiv . 252.(4) Parl. Deb. xxxv. 974, 978.Mr. Pitt stated the War Revenue of the Nation,for the year 1801, as follows:-3,800,000 Sinking Fund,200,000 Interest of Exchequer Bills, 460,000Charges, • L.42,147,000244 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.of the empire in 1801 was, to an unprecedented degree, wealthy and prosperous. The great loan of twenty-five millions of that year was borrowedat a rate of interest under six per cent. , although loans to the amount ofabove two hundred millions had been contracted in the eight precedingyears; the exports, as compared with what they were at the commencementof the war, had tripled , and the imports more than tripled , in addition tothe vast sums of money which the nation required for its loans to foreignpowers, and payments on account of its own forces in foreign parts. Nearlya fourth had been added to the tonnage of the shipping and the seamenemployed in it during the same period; while the national expenditure hadrisen to above sixty-eight millions, of which nearly forty millions wereprovided from permanent or war-taxes (1 ) . Contrary to all former prece-(1 ) Mr. Chancellor Addington, on June 29 , 1801,brought forward a series of finance resolutions,which, as fully explainingthe situation of the British empire at that period, are well deserving of atten- tion. Their material parts are as follow:-1. Expenditure for 1801.Interest of debt and sinking fund, .Additional interest on loans of 1801 .Civil list, share of Great Britain,Civil government pensions, charges ,etc , in Scotland,Charges of Collection ,L.20,144,000 1,812,000 1,376,000635,000 1,851,000 Great Britain's share of the war char- ges of 1801 ,. 39,338,000 Advances to Ireland from England,Interest on Imperial loans,. 2,500,000 497,000Total charges, L.68,153,0002. Incomefor 1801.Loan for Ireland,Exchequer bills charged on supplies 2,500,000of 1802,2,000,000 Additional produce of taxes deficient in 1800. 1,100,000 Unpaid part of German loan, • 560,000 62,000Total income, L.67,963,0003. Public Debt.Redeemed land - tax, .Public debt on the 5th January,1793, • •Annuities at same period,. Public debt created from 5th Jan. 1793 to 1st Feb. 1801 .. Annuities created since the same pe- riod,Debt redeemed from 1793 to 1801,. Drawn hy land tax redeemed,L.227,000,000 1,293,000• 214,661,000302,000 52,281,000 16,083,000400,709,000 1,540,000• 10,325,00010,395,000Total public debt on 1st February,1801 ,Annuities existing then,L.27,419,000 1,000,000 5,822,000 • 1,200.000 800,000 25,500,0004. Sinking Fund.Permanent Revenue, as in 1800, •Produce of first quarter's taxes, 1801 ,Income tax ,Exports and Imports,Loan,Repayments from Grenada,.•Amount of sinking fund in 1786,Annual charge of debt incurred be- fore 1793, with sinking fund,Annual charge of debt incurred since 1793, with do,in 1793,... in 1801,5. Produce of Taxes.Years.Ending 5th Jan. 1793, . ·1794,1795,1796,1797,L.1,000,000, or 1-238 of debt.1,427,000, or 1-160 of do.5,300,000, or 1-76 of do.Years.1798,1799,1800, .1801 ,•Permanent Taxes.L.13,332,000 14.275.000...Permanent Taxes.L.14,284,000 13,941,000 13,858,000 13,557,000 14,292,00015,743,000 14,194,000War Taxes of 1801 , L.8.079,000.6. Imports and Exports.Average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1784, • •1793, .1801,•• •Real value of imports in 1801,Average of six years ending 5th Jan. 1784,Foreign Goods Exported.L. 4,263,080 1796, 5,468,000 1801, 17,166,000 Real value of exports in 1801, 16,300,000 7. Shipping.Registered vessels. Tonnage.1788,1792,1800,13,827 1,363,000 16,079 1,540,000 18,877 1,905,0005Imports.L. 13,122,000 18,685 000 25,259,000 54,500,000 British Manufac- tures Exported.L. 8,616,000 14,771,000 20,085,000 39,500,000Seamen.107,500 118,000 143,000 The vast increase of exports, imports, and shipping, between 1793 and 1800, and especially since the Bank Restriction Act in 1797, is particularly worthy of observation.- See Parl. Hist. xxxv. 1561 , 1567.1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 245Its income,dent, the country had eminently prospered during this long and arduousstruggle . Notwithstanding the weight of its taxation , and theexpenditure, immense sums which had been squandered in foreign loans or imports. services, and of course lost to the productive powers of GreatBritain , the industry of the nation in all its branches had prodigiously increased, and capital was to be had in abundance for all the innumerableundertakings, both public and private, which were going forward . Agriculture had advanced in a still greater degree than population; the dependence of the nation on foreign supplies was rapidly diminishing; and yetthe united kingdom, which had added nearly a sixth to its inhabitantssince 1791 , numbered above fifteen million of souls in the British isles ( 1 ) .The divisions and disaffection which prevailed during the earlier years ofthe war had almost entirely disappeared; the atrocities of the French Re-´volution had weaned all but a few inveterate democrats from Jacobinicalprinciples; the imminence of the public danger had united the great bodyof the peoplein a strong attachment to the national colours; the young andactive party of the population had risen into manhood since the commencement of the contest, and imbibed with their mother's milk the enthusiasticfeelings it was calculated to awaken; while the incessant progress andalarming conquests of France had generally diffused the belief that no security for the national independence was to be found but in a steady resistance to its ambition. A nation animated with such feelings and possessedof such resources, was not unreasonably confident in itself when it badedefiance to Europe in arms.Navalconfede racy.England, however, had need of all its energies, for the forces of forces of the maritime league were extremely formidable . Russia hadeighty-two sail of the line and forty frigates in her harbours, ofwhich forty-seven line-of-battle ships were in the Baltic and at Archangel,but of these not more than fifteen were in a state ready for active service;and the crews were extremely deficient in nautical skill. Sweden hadeighteen ships of the line and fourteen frigates , besides a great quantity ofsmall craft, in much better condition, and far better served, than theRussian navy; while a numerous flotilla , with ten thousand men on board,was prepared to defend its shores, and twenty thousand troops, stationedin camps in the interior, were ready to fly to any menaced point. Denmarkhad twenty-three ships of the line and fourteen large frigates, which thebrave and energetic population of Zealand had made the utmost efforts toequip and man, to resist the attack which was shortly anticipated from theBritish arms. Could the three powers have united their forces, they hadtwenty-four ships of the line ready for sea, which might in a few monthshave been raised with ease to fifty, besides twenty-five frigates , a forcewhich, combined with the fleet of Holland, might have raised the blockadeof the French harbours, and enabled the confederated powers to ride triumphant in the British Channel (2) .Energetic In these circumstances every thing depended on England striking measures of a decisive blow in the outset, and anticipating by the celerity ofGovernment. her movements that combination of force which otherwise mightthe British(1) Population in 1801:England,Wales,Scotland,Ireland,Army and navy,8,331,000 541,000 1,599,000 4,500,000 470,00015,441,000-See PEBRER'S Tables, 332, and Population Re turns.(2) Ann. Reg. 1801, 109. Dum, vi . 169, 172. Nap.ii. 137 , 138. Southey's Life of Nelson, ii . 94.246 HISTORY Of Europe. [CHAP. XXXIII.Nelson ap.pointed se cond in command of the fleet destined for the Baltic.prove so threatening to her national independence. Fortunately the Government were fully aware of the necessity of acting vigorously at the commencement, and by great exertions a powerful squadron was assembled atYarmouth in the beginning of March. It consisted of eighteen ships of theline, four frigates, and a number of bomb vessels, in all fifty-two sail.This powerful force was placed under the command of Sir HydeParker, with Nelson for his second in command. The hero of theNile had good reason to be dissatisfied at finding himself placedunder the command of an officer who, though respectable, andhis superior in rank, was comparatively unknown in the annals of navalglory; but he was not a man to allow any personal feelings to interferewith his duty to his country. Though sensible of the slight , therefore, hecheerfully accepted the subordinate command. When he arrived at Yarmouth he " found the admiral a little nervous about dark nights and fieldsof ice; but we must brave up, ” said he, “ these are not times for nervoussystems. I hope we shall give our northern enemies that hail- storm ofbullets which gives our dear country the dominion of the sea. All the devilsin the north cannot take it from us, if our wooden walls have fair play (1). ”The British fleet sailed from Yarmouth on the 12th March; butsoon after putting to sea, it sustained a serious loss in the wreck Downs. of the Invincible, which struck on one of the sand banks in thatdangerous coast, and shortly sunk with a large part of the crew. Mr. Vansittart accompanied the squadron in the capacity of plenipotentiary, to endeavour to arrange the differences by negotiation , which unfortunately provedtotally impossible. It arrived on the 27th off Zealand , and Sir Hyde immediately despatched a letter to the governor of Cronenberg castle , to inquirewhether the fleet would be allowed without molestation to pass the Sound.The governor having replied that he could not allow a force, whose intentions were unknown, to approach the guns ofhis fortress, the British admiraldeclared that he took this as a declaration of war. By the earnest adviceof Nelson it was determined immediately to attempt the passage;the Sound. a resolution which, in the state of the northern powers, was notonly the most gallant but the most prudent that could have been adopted ( 2) .On the 30th March the British fleet entered the Sound , with a fair wind fromthe northwest; and spreading all sail, proudly and gallantly bore up towards the harbour of Copenhagen ( 3) .And passesMarch 12.British fleet sails from theSplendid appearance The scene which opened upon the British fleet when it entered thisof the Sound. celebrated passage was every way worthy of the cause in which itwas engaged, and the memorable events of which it was soon to become thetheatre. Nothing in the north of Europe can be compared to the prospectafforded by the channel which lies between the opposite shores of Swedenand Denmark. On the left, the coast of Scandinavia exhibits a beautiful assemblage of corn lands, pastures and copses , rising into picturesque andvaried hills; while on the right , the shores of Zealand present a continuedsuccession ofrich plains , woods, meadows, orchards, villas and all the accom .paniments of long established civilization . The isles of Huen, Saltholm, and(1 ) Southey, ii . 95.( 2 ) Nelson on this occasion addressed Sir Hyde as follows . " The more I have reflected , the more I am confirmed in my opinion, that not a moment should be lost in attacking the enemy. They will every day be stronger and stronger; we shall never be so good a match for them as at the present mo ment. Here you are with almost all the safety, certainly all the honour of England, more intrusted to you than ever yet fell to the lot of a British officer.On your decision depends whether cur country shall be degraded in the eyes of Europe, or rear her head higherthan ever. " -See SOUTHEY, ii . 98, 99.(3) Southey, ii . 100, 104. Ann, Reg. 1801 , 109,110.1801. ] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 247Amack appear in the widening channel; the former celebrated as bearing theobservatory of the great Tycho Brahe, and where most of his discoveries weremade, the latter nearly opposite to Copenhagen. At the foot ofthe slope, onthe Swedish side, is situated the old city of Helsinborg, with its picturesquebattlements and mouldering towers; while on the south, the castle ofCronenberg and city of Elsinore rise in frowning majesty to assert the dominion of Denmark over the straits. Both are associated with poetic and his torical recollections . Elsinore is familiar to every reader of Hamlet, and hasrecently been celebrated in thrilling strains by the greatest of modern lyricpoets (1 ); while Cronenberg castle was the scene of a still deeper tragedy.There Queen Matilda was confined , the victim of a base court intrigue , andenlivened the dreary hours of captivity in nursing her infant; there she wasseparated from that, the last link that bound her to existence; and on thesetowers her eyes were fixed , as the vessel bore her from her country, till theirhighest pinnacle had sunk beneath the waves, and her aching sight restedonly on the waste of waters (2) .To one approaching from the German ocean, the fortresses of Helsingborg,Elsinore, and Cronenberg seem to unite and form a vast castellated barrieron the north-east of an inland lake; but as he advances the vista opens, theBaltic is seen, and the city of Copenhagen, with its Gothic spires and statelyedifices, appears crowding down to the water's edge. Its harbour, studdedwith masts; its arsenals, bulwarks, and batteries; its lofty towers and decorated buildings, render it one of the most striking cities in the north of Europe. During summer, the Sound exhibits an unusually gay and animatedspectacle; hardly a day elapses in which an hundred vessels do not pass thestraits, and pay toll to Denmark at Elsinore; and in the course of the season,upwards often thousand ships, of different nations, yield a willing tribute inthis manner to the keeper ofthe beacons which warn the mariner from thedangerous shoals of the Cattegat . But never had so busy or brilliant a spectacle been exhibited there as on this day, when the British fleet prepared toforce a passage where till now all ships had lowered their topsails to the flagof Denmark. Fifty vessels, of which seventeen were of the line, spread theirsails before a favourable wind, and pressing forward under a brilliant sun,soon came abreast of Cronenberg castle. The splendour of the scene, theundefined nature of the danger which awaited them, the honour and safetyof their country intrusted to their arms, the multitude who crowded everyheadland on the opposite shores, conspired to awaken the most thrillingemotions in the minds of the British seamen . Fear had no place in thosedauntless breasts; yet was their patriotic ardour not altogether unmixed withpainful feelings. The Danes were of the same lineage, and once spoke thesame language as the English; the two nations had for centuries been unitedin the bonds of friendship; and numbers who now appeared in arms againstthem were sprung from the same ancestors as their gallant opponents. Theeffect of this common descent has survived all the divisions of kingdoms andpolitical interest; alone , of all the continental states, an Englishman findshimself at home in that part of Jutland from whence the Angles originallysprung (3); and even the British historian, in recounting the events in thismelancholy contest, feels himself distracted by emotions akin to those of civil(1 ) Now joy, old England, raise!For the tidings of thy might,By the festal cities' blaze,While the wine cup shines in light;And yet amidst that joy and uproar,Let us think of them that sleep,Full many a fathom deep,By thy wild and stormy steep ,Elsinore!CAMPBELL'S Battle of the Baltic.(2) Southey, i. 108, 109. Ann, Reg. 1801 , 111 .(3) Clarke's Travels, i . 284.248 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXIII.warfare, and dwells with nearly the same exultation on the heroism of thevanquished as the prowess of the victors ( 1 ) .Und unted spirit of Though they had enjoyed profound peace for nearly a century,the Danes. and during that time had been ruled by a government in formabsolute, the Danes had lost none of the courage or patriotism by which theirancestors, in the days of Canute and the Sea-kings, had been distinguished .Never was the public spirit of the country evinced with more lustre than inthe preparations for, and during the perils of, this sanguinary struggle. Allclasses made the utmost exertions to put their marine in a respectable condition; the nobles, the clergy, the burghers, and the peasant vied with eachother in their endeavours to complete the preparations for defence. ThePrince Royal set the example by presiding at the labours of his subjects;workmen presented themselves in crowds to take a share in the undertakings; children even concealed their age in order to be permitted to joinin the patriotic exertion; the university furnished a corps of twelve hundredyouths, the flower of Denmark; the merchants, including those whose fortunes were at stake from the English embargo, came forward with liberal offers; the peasants flocked from the country to man the arsenals; the workmen in the dock-yards refused to leave their station , and continued labouringby torch-light during the whole night, with relays merely of rest, as in aman-of-war. Battalions were hastily formed; batteries manned with inexperienced hands; muskets made, and all kinds of warlike stores providedwith astonishing celerity (2) . History has not a more touching example ofpatriotic ardour to commemorate, nor one in which a more perfect harmonyprevailed between a sovereign and his subjects for the defence of rightsnaturally dear to them all.Passage of From a praiseworthy, but ill-timed desire to avoid coming tothe Sound. extremities, the British armament had given a long delay to theDanes, which was turned to good account by their indefatigable citizens, andoccasioned in the end an unnecessary effusion of blood. They had arrived inthe Cattegat the 20th March, and on the same day, Mr. Vansittart proceededashore, with a view to settle matters without having recourse to extremities;but nevertheless it was not till the 30th that the passage of the Sound wasattempted. In the interval, the Danes had powerfully strengthened theirmeans of defence; the shore was lined with batteries, and Cronenberg castleopened a heavy fire , from above a hundred pieces of cannon, upon the leading ships of the squadron when they came within range. Nelson's division led thevan, Sir Hyde's followed in the centre , while Admiral Graves brought up therear. At first, they steered through the middle of the channel, expecting tobe assailed by a destructive fire from both sides; but finding as they advanced ,that the batteries of Helsingborg did not open upon the squadron, they inclined to the Swedish shore, and were thus enabled to pass almost withoutthe reach of the Danish guns. The cannon balls and shells fell short oftheline-of-battle ships, and did little injury even to the smaller craft, whichwere placed nearer the Danish coast, affording no small merriment to thesailors , whose minds were in an unusual state of excitement, from the noveland perilous enterprise on which they had entered . The passage lasted fourhours, and about noonday the fleet came to anchor opposite the harbour ofCopenhagen (3).(1) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 111. Southey, ii . 103.(2) Dum. vi . 172. Jom , xiv. 252, 253. Southey, Dum. vi , 183, 184. Jom, xiv. 252, 253.i. 115 , 130.(3) Aun. Reg. 1801, 110. Southey, ii , 109, 111 ,1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 249Prepara.tions of the The garrison of this city consisted of ten thousand men, besides Danes. the battalions of volunteers, who were still more numerous . Allpossible precautions had been taken to strengthen the sea defences; and thearray of forts, ramparts, ships of the line, fire- ships , gun-boats, and floatingbatteries, was such as would have deterred any other assailant but the heroof the Nile. Six line-of- battle ships, and eleven floating batteries, besides agreat number of smaller vessels, were moored in an external line to protectthe entrance to the harbour, flanked on either side by two islands , called theCrowns, on the smaller of which fifty- six, while on the larger, sixty-eightheavy cannon were mounted. To support these, four other sail of the linewere moored within across the harbour mouth; and a fort, mounting thirtysix heavy cannon, had been constructed in a shoal , supported on piles. The fire ofthese formidable works crossed with that of the batteries on the islandof Amack and the citadel of Copenhagen; it seemed hardly possible that anyships could endure, for a length of time, so heavy and concentric a discharge.But tremendous as these dangers appeared, they were neither the only northe greatest with which the British fleet had to contend. The channel bywhich alone the harbour could be approached, was little known, and extremely intricate; all the buoys had been removed , and the sea on eitherside abounded with shoals and sand-banks, on which, if any of the vesselsgrounded, they would instantly be torn to pieces by the fire from the Danishbatteries . The Danes considered this obstacle insurmountable, deeming thenarrow and winding channel impracticable for a large fleet in such circumstances . Nelson was fully aware ofthe difficulty of the attempt; and a day anda night were occupied by the boats of the fleet in making the necessarysoundings, and laying down new buoys in lieu of those which had been takenaway. He himself personally assisted in the whole of this laborious and important duty, taking no rest night or day till it was accomplished . "It hadworn him down, " he said, " and was infinitely more grievous than anyresistance he could experience from the enemy (1) . ”plan of Nelson's No sooner werethe soundings completed than Nelson, in a councilattack. ofwar, suggested the plan of operations, which was, to approachfrom the south and make the attack on the right flank of the enemy. The approach of the Danish exterior line was covered by a large shoal, called theMiddle Ground, exactly in front of the harbour, at about three quarters of amile distant, which extended along the whole sea front of the town. As thissand bank was impassable for ships of any magnitude, he proposed to followwhat is called the King's channel, lying between it and the town, and thusinterpose, as at Aboukir, between the Danish line and the entrance of theharbour. On the morning of the 1st April the whole fleet anchored within twoleagues ofthe town, off the north-west end of the Middle Ground , and Nelson,having completed his last examination, hoisted the signal to weigh anchor.It was received with a loud shout from his whole division of the fleet, whichconsisted of twelve sail of the line, besides some smaller vessels . The remainder, under Sir Hyde Parker, were to menace the Crown batteries on theother side, threaten the four ships of the line at the entrance of the harbour ,and lend their aid to such of the attacking squadron as might come disabledout of action. The small craft, headed by Captain Riou , led the way, mostaccurately threading their dangerous and winding course between the islandof Saltholm and the Middle Ground; the whole squadron followed with a fairwind, coasting along the outer edge of the shoal, doubled its farther extremity,(1) Southey, ii. 112, 113. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112 , 113. Dum. vi , 186, 187. Jom. xiv. 256, 257.250 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.and cast anchor, just as darkness closed , off Draco Point, not more than twomiles from the right of the enemy's line. The signal to prepare for actionhad been made early in the evening, and the seamen passed the night inanxious expectation of the dawn which was to usher in the eventfulmorrow (1).This was a night of anxiety and trepidation , but not of unmanly alarm , inCopenhagen. The citizens saw evidently that the attack would be made onthe following day, and, amidst the tears of their mothers and children,bravely repaired to their appointed stations . Few eyelids were closed, saveamong those about to combat, in all its peopled quarters, so strongly was thesolemnity of the occasion , and the coming dangers to all they held dear, impressed on the minds of the citizens. Nelson sat down to supper with a largeparty of his officers . He was, as he was ever wont to be on the eve of a battle,in high spirits; the mortal fatigue of the preceding days seemed forgotten,and he drank to a leading wind, and the success of the morrow. After supper,Captain Hardy went forward in a boat to examine the channel between themand the enemy. He approached so near as to sound round theirleading ship with a pole, lest the noise of throwing the lead shouldalarm its crew, and returned about four with a valuable report tothe admiral. Meanwhile Nelson, though he lay down, was too anxious tosleep . He dictated his orders till past one, and during the remainder of thenight incessantly enquired whether the wind was south . At daybreak it wasannounced that it had become perfectly fair; the order was given for all thecaptains to come on board, and when they had received their final instructionshe made the signal for action ( 2) .The pilots who were to conduct the fleet soon showed by their indecisionthat, in the absence of the buoys to which they had been accustomed to look,they hardly knew what course to follow; and Nelson experienced the utmostagony of mind from their failure, as the wind was fair , and there was not amoment to lose. At length the master of the Bellona declared he was prepared to lead the fleet, and put himself at its head accordingly. CaptainMurray in the Edgar led the line-of-battle ships . The Agamemnon was nextin order; but, in attempting to weather the shoal , she struck aground, andbecame immovable, at the time her services were most required . The Bellona and Russell soon after grounded also , but in a situation which enabledthem to take a part, though not the one assigned them , in the battle. Thewant of these three ships at their appointed stations was severely felt in theaction, as they were intended to have silenced the Crown batteries, and wouldhave thereby prevented a heavy loss on board the Defiance and Monarch,who were exposed to their fire without the possibility of making any return.In advancing to take up their ground, each ship had been ordered to pass herleader on the starboard, because the water was supposed to get shallower onthat side . Nelson, while advancing in the Elephant after these two shipswhich had struck on the sand bank, made a signal to them to close with theenemy, not knowing that they were aground; but when he perceived theydid not obey the signal, he ordered the Elephant's helm to starboard , andpassed within these ill -fated vessels. By this happy act of presence of mindhe saved the whole fleet from destruction, for the other ships followed theadmiral's track, and thereby keeping in deep water, arrived opposite to theirGreat diffi culty expe rienced by the pilots.(1 ) Southey, ii . 113, 115. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112.Dum. vi. 187. Jom . xiv. 257 , 258. James iii . 99,(2) Southey, ii. 117, 119. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112.James iii. 99, 100.100.1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 251appointed stations, anchored by the stern, and presented their broadsides,at the distance of half a cable's length from the Danes (1 ) .Battle of The action began at five minutes past ten, and was general byeleven. Nine only of the line-of-battle ships could reach the station allotted to them; only one of the gun-brigs could stem the current soas to get into action; and only two of the bomb-vessels were enabled to takeup their appointed position on the Middle Ground . Captain Riou, with hissquadron of frigates, undertook the perilous task offronting the Crown batteries—a duty to which the three standard ships of the line would have beenhardly adequate-and in the discharge of which that gallant and lamentedofficer lost his life . Nelson's agitation was extreme when, at the commencement of the action , he found himself deprived of three of his best ships oftheline; but no sooner had he reached the scene of danger, where his squadronwas assailed with the fire of above a thousand guns, than his countenancebrightened, and he became animated and joyous . The cannonade soon became tremendous; above two thousand pieces of cannon on the two sidespoured forth death within a space not exceeding a mile and a halfin breadth;from the city on the one side, and the remainder of the squadron, under SirHyde, on the other , the hostile fleets seem wrapped in one dazzling conflagration. For three hours the fire continued without any appearance of diminution on either side; and Sir Hyde, seeing three ships aground under theiron tempest of the Crown batteries, and being unable, from the wind andcurrent, to render any assistance, made the signal of recall; generously supposing that, if Nelson was in a situation to continue the contest, he woulddisobey the order; but that if he was not, his reputation would be saved bythe signal for retreat having been made by his superior officer ( 2) .66In the midst of this terrific cannonade Nelson was rapidly walking thequarter deck. A shot through the mainmast scattered splinters around; heobserved to one of his officers with a smile, " This is warm work; and thisday may be the last to any of us in a moment; but mark me, I would not beelsewhere for thousands. " About this time the signal-lieutenant called outthat the signal for discontinuing the action had been thrown out by the commander-in-chief, and asked if he should repeat it . " No," he replied; acknowledge it . " He then continued walking about in great emotion; andmeeting Captain Foley, said , " What think you, Foley, the admiral has hungout No. 39 (3) . You know I have only one eye; I have a right to be blindsometimes " and then putting the glass to his blind eye, he exclaimed, “ Ireally don't see the signal . Keep mine for closer battle still flying. That's theway I answer such signals. Nail mine to the mast. " Admiral Graves and theother ships , looking only to Nelson, continued the combat with unabatedvigour; but the order to retire was seen in time to save Riou's little squadron, though not to preserve its gallant commander. " What will Nelsonthink of us, " was that brave man's mournful exclamation , as with a heavyheart he gave orders to draw off. His clerk was soon after killed by his side ,and several marines swept away, by a discharge from the Crown batteries ." Come then, my boys, let us all die together, " said Riou; and just as thewords were uttered , he was cut in two by a chain-shot (4) .Copen hagen.(1) Southey, ii . 119, 123. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112.Duin. vi. 189. James, iii . 101 .(2) Southey, ii . 125. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112. Dum.vi. 189, 190. Jom. xiv. 259. James. iii , 101 , 104."The fire, " he said , " is too hot for Nelson to oppose; a retreat must be made. I am aware ofthe consequences to my own personal reputation, but itwould be cowardly in me to leave Nelson to bear the whole shame ofthe failure, if shame it should be deemed."-See SO THEY, ii . 125.(3) The signal for discontinuing action.(4) Southey, ii. 126 , 129. Jom, xiv. 259. Ann.Reg. 1801 , 112. James, iii . 104, 107 .It is needless to say from whom the chief inci252 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXIII.But it was not on the English side alone that heroic deeds wereperformed; the Danes in that trying hour sustained the ancientreputation of the conquerors of the north. From the prince royal, who, placedon one of the principal batteries, was the witness of the glorious resistanceofhis subjects, to the humblest citizen , one heroic mind and purpose seemedto animate the whole population. As fast as the crews of the guard- shipswere mowed down by the English fire, fresh bands of undaunted citizenscrowded on board, and, unappalled by the dreadful spectacle, calmly tooktheir station on decks choked by the dying and flooded with blood . CaptainLassen, in the Provensten, continued to fight till he had only two piecesstanding on their carriages, and a few men to work them; he then spikedthese guns, and throwing himself into the sea , swam at the head of his bravefollowers towards the isle of Amack. Captain Thura, in the Indosforetten,fell early in the action; her colours were shot away; and a boat was despatched to the prince royal to inform him of her situation , " Gentlemen, ” saidhe, " Thura is killed, which of you will take the command?” —“ I will,”exclaimed Schroedersee , a captain who had recently resigned on account ofextreme ill health , and instantly hastened on board . No sooner had he arrived on the deck than he was struck on the breast by a ball and perished; alieutenant, who had accompanied him, then took the command, and foughtthe ship to the last extremity. The Dannebrog sustained for two hours withgreat constancy the terrible fire of Nelson's ship; at length, after two successive captains and three- fourths of the crew had been swept away, she tookfire, and the gallant survivors precipitating themselves into the sea , left thevessel to its fate, which soon after blew up with a tremendous explosion ( 1 ) .But all these efforts, how heroic soever, were of no avail; the rapidity andprecision ofthe British fire were irresistible; at one o'clock the cannonade ofthe Danish fleet began to slacken; loud cheers from the English sailors announced every successive vessel which struck; and before two the wholefront line, consisting of six sail of the line and eleven huge floating batteries,was all either taken, sunk, burnt, or destroyed ( 2) .In this desperate battle the loss on board the British fleet was very severe,amounting to no less than 1200; a greater proportion to the number of seamen engaged than in any other general action during the whole war. On boardthe Monarch, there were 210 killed and wounded; she had to support the united fire of the Holstein and Zealand , besides being raked by the Crownbattery (3) . But the situation of the crews of the Danish vessels was still more deplorable. Their loss in killed and wounded had been above doublethat of the British; including the prisoners , it amounted to 6000; and theline had completely ceased firing; but the shot from the Crown batteries andthe isle of Amack still continued to fall upon both fleets, doing as much injury to their friends as enemies; while the English boats sent to take possesHeroic deeds on both side.dents in the actions of Nelson are taken. Mr. South ey's incomparable life is so deservedly popular, that its descriptions have become almost as firmly rooted in the public memory as the events they describe,and deviation from the one is as unpardonable as from the other.(1 ) The gallant Welinoes, a stripling of seventeen,stationed himself on a small raft, carrying six guns,with twenty-four men, right under the bows of Nelson's ship; and though severely galled by the musketry ofthe English inarines , continued, knee .deep in dead, to keep up his fire to the close of the heroic conflict. Nelson embraced him at the repast which followed in the palace ashore; and said to thecrown prince he should make him an admiral. " If,my lord," replied the prince, " I were to make all my brave officers admirals, I should have no cap tains or lieutenants in my service ." -Naval Chroni cle, xiv. 308.(2) Jom. xiv. 259, 260. Southey, ii. 130 , 131 .Dum. vi. 190. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 112. James, iii . 105,111.(3) A singular piece of coolness occurred onboard this vessel. Afour-and- twenty pounder from the Crown battery struck the kettle and dashed the peas and pork about; the sailors picked up the fragments and ate while they were working the guns.-SOUTHEY, ii . 130.1801.]HISTORY OF EUROPE.253sion of the prizes were fired on by the Danish batteries, and were unable toextricate them from destruction . In this extremity, Nelson retired into thestern gallery, and wrote to the crown prince in these terms: " Lord Nelsonhas been commanded to spare Denmark when she no longer resists.The line of defence which covered her shores has struck to the British flag; but if the firing is continued on the part of Denmark, hemust set fire to all the prizes he has taken, without having the power ofsaving the men who have so nobly defended them . The brave Danes are the brothers, and should never be the enemies, of the English . " A wafer was broughthim; he ordered a candle from the cockpit, and sealed the letter deliberately with wax. " This is no time," said he, " to appear hurried and informal. ”At the sametime the Ramillies and Defence, from Sir Hyde's squadron, workedup near enough to silence the remainder of the Danish line to the eastwardof the Trekroner battery; but that tremendous bulwark was comparativelyuninjured, and to the close of the action continued to exert with unabatedvigour its giant strength (1).In halfan hour the flag oftruce returned; the Crown batteries ceased to fire;and the action closed after four hours' continuance. The Crown prince enquiredwhatwasthe English admiral's motive for proposing a suspension ofhostilities . Lord Nelson replied-" Lord Nelson's object in sending the flag oftrucewas humanity; he therefore consents that hostilities shall cease, and that thewoundedDanes may be taken ashore. And Lord Nelson will take his prisonersoutofthe vessels, and burn or carry offthe prizes as he shall think fit . Lord Nelson will consider this the greatest victory he has ever gained, if it shall be themeans ofre-establishing a good understanding between his own Sovereign andthe King of Denmark. " The Danish prince made a reply, which was forwardedto the commander-in-chief; and Nelson, skilfully availing himself of thebreathing time thus afforded, made the signal for the squadron to weighanchor in succession . The Monarch led the way, and touched in roundingtheshoal, but was got off by being taken in tow by two other ships; but Nelson'sown ship, the Elephant, and the Defiance, grounded about a mile from theCrown batteries, and remained fast, notwithstanding the utmost efforts oftheir wearied crews. With these two exceptions , however, the whole fleetgot clear off from the perilous shoals , and rejoined Sir Hyde's squadron inthe middle of the straits; a fact which demonstrates that, though some of theBritish ships might have been lost if the action had continued, it could havemade no difference on the ultimate result after the Danish line of defencehad been destroyed (2).Nelson's proposal for an ar mistice.choly ap Melan- The scene which now presented itself was heart- rending in thepearance of highest degree. The sky, heretofore so brilliant, became suddenlyovercast; white flags were flying from the mast- heads ofthe Danes;the Danes after the battle. guns of distress were occasionally discharged from those scenes ofwoe; while the burning vessels which had floated to a distance threw an awful and lurid light over the melancholy scene ( 3) . The English boats, withgenerous but not undeserved humanity, covered the sea, rendering all theassistance in their power to the Danes who had escaped from the flamingwrecks; and the wounded men, as fast as the ships could be evacuated, were(1) Southey, ii . 135 , 137. Ann. Reg. 1801. 113.Jom. xiv . 260. Dum. vi . 191 , 192. James, iii . 109,111.(2) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 113. Southey, ii . 140, 141.Jom. xiv. 261. James, iii. 115.(3) Again, again , again,And the havoc did not slack,Till a feeble cheer the Dane To our cheering sent us back:Their shots along the deep slowly boom: --- Then ceas'd and all is wail,As they strike the shattered sail,Or, in conflagration pale,Light the gloom.CAMPBELL'S Battle of the Baltic.254 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXIII .sent ashore; but great numbers perished , for such had been the unpreparedardour of the enemy that hardly any surgeons were provided to stanch thewounds of the numerous victims to patriotic duty. At daybreak on the following morning, the Elephant, to the infinite joy of Nelson, was got afloat;and the boats of the fleet being all manned, the prizes were brought away,including the Zealand of seventy-four guns, from under the cannon oftheredoubted Trekroner battery . Thus terminated this murderous battle, oneof the most obstinately contested ever fought by the British navy. Nelson said," he had been in above a hundred engagements, but that of Copenhagen wasthe most terrible of them all ( 1 ) ."Next day was Good Friday; but all distinctions were forgotten in the universal grief which prevailed in the capital of Denmark. Every house wasfilled with mourners; the streets were occupied with the weeping crowdswhich attended the dead to their long home, or the still more distractedbands, which bore the wounded back to the hearths which they had so noblydefended. At mid- day, Nelson landed, attended by Captains Hardy and Freemantle; he walked slowly up from the quay through the crowded and agitated streets . The behaviour of the people was such as became a gallant nation , depressed, but not subdued by misfortune. " They did not," says theDanish chronicler, " either disgrace themselves by acclamations, nor degrade themselves by murmurs; the admiral was received as one brave enemyever should receive another; he was received with respect. " During the repast which followed , the particulars of the convention, which ultimatelytook place, were arranged . Nelson told the prince the French fought bravely,but they could not have stood for one hour the fight which the Danes hadsupported for four. Melancholy tributes were paid by the people of Copenhagen to the brave men who had fallen in the conflict; a public mausoleumwas erected on the spot where the slain had been interred; a monumentraised in the principal church, surmounted by the Danish colours; youngmaidens, clothed in white, stood round its base, with the widows or the orphans of those who had fallen; while a funeral sermon was delivered, andsuitable patriotic strains were heard . The people were in that state of mingled grief and exultation , when the bitterness of individual loss is almost forgotten in the sympathy of general distress, or the pride of heroic achievement (2) .Armistice agreed on for fourteenOf all these vessels taken, the Holstein, of sixty-four guns, wasalone brought to England; the remainder being rendered un- weeks. serviceable by the fire , were sunk or burnt in the roads of Copenhagen. The negotiation which followed was attended with considerable difficulty, and Nelson was obliged to threaten to renew hostilities that verynight unless the armistice was concluded. The Danes candidly stated theirfears of Russia; and the English admiral avowed, that his object in wishingto make the armistice as long as possible, was, that he might have time to goto Cronstadt before returning to Copenhagen. At length it was agreed that itshould last for fourteen weeks, and not be broken without a fortnight'sprevious notice; that the armed ships of Denmark should remain, duringits continuance, in statu quo; that the principles of the armed neutralityshould, in the mean time, be suspended as to Danish vessels; that theBritish fleet should obtain supplies of every sort from the island of Zealand ( 3 ); and that the prisoners and wounded should be sent ashore, to becarried to the credit of England , in the event ofhostilities being renewed.(1 ) Southey, ii . 143, 147. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 113.(2) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 114. Southey, ii . 146, 147.(3) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 114. Southey, ii . 149, 153 .Dum , vi . 193, 194.1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 255Hanover On the same day on which the English fleet forced the passage ofPrussia overrun. by the Sound, the Prussian Cabinet made a formal demand on the March 25.regency ofHanover, to permit the occupation of the electorate, anddisband a part of their forces , and supported the proposition by an army oftwenty thousand men. The Hanoverian Government, being in no conditionto withstand an invasion from such a force, was compelled to submit, andHanover, Bremen, and Hameln were immediately occupied by the Prussiantroops. At the same time, the Danes took possession of Hamburgh and Lubeck, so as to close the mouth of the Elbe against the English commerce,while, on the other hand, a British squadron , under Admiral Duckworth ,reduced all the Swedish and Danish islands in the West Indies ( 1 ) .Paul Designs of During the brief period the alliance between Paul and NapoléonNapoléon lasted, they had made great progress in maturing the favourite British In- project of both these powers, for the overthrow of the British dia. power in India. A formal agreement for this purpose had beenmade between the two Cabinets; thirty-five thousand French, under Masséna, were to have embarked at Ulm, on the Danube, and to have been joinedby as many Russian troops, and fifty thousand Cossacks. The King of Persiahad agreed to give them a passage through his dominions; and they were tohave proceeded by land, or embarked in the Persian gulf according to cir cumstances. Whether this plan would have succeeded , if attempted entirelywith land forces, must always be considered extremely doubtful, when it is recollected what formidable deserts and mountains must have been overcome, which have never been attempted by an army encumbered with the artillery and caissons necessary for modern warfare; but that it was perfectly practicable, if accomplished by embarking in the Persian gulf, is selfevident; and it is extremely doubtful, whether, if the northern confederacy had not been dissolved, Great Britain could have relied upon maintaining apermanent naval superiority in the Indian seas (2) .(1 ) Jom. xiv. 261 , 262. Ann. Reg. 1801 , 114.Southey, ii . 151 , 153.( 2) Nap in O'Mea . i 381. Hard. vii . 479.The plan agreed on was in these terms:Feb. 28, 1801. " A French army, 35,000 strong,with light artillery, under the command of Masséna,shall be moved from France to Ulm, from whence,with the consent of Austria, it shall descend the Danube to the Black Sea." Arrived there, a Russian fleet will transport it to Taganrok, from whence it shall move to Taritzin ,on the Volga, where it shall find boats to convey it to Astrakan." There it will find a Russian army of 35,000 men, composed of 15,000 infantry, 10,000 cavalry,and 10,000 Cossacks, amply provided with artillery and the horses necessary for its conveyance." The combined army shall be transported by the Caspian Sea, from Astrakan to Astrabat, where ma gazines of all sorts shall be established for its use." This march from the frontiers of France to As trabat will be made in eighty days; fifty more will be requisite to bring the army to the banks of the Indus, by the rout of Heral, Ferah, and Candahar."Paul afterwards agreed to increase the Cossacks to 50,000 . See HARDENBERG, vii . 497.In forming an opinion on the probable result of such an expedition, no conclusion can be drawn from thesuccessful irruptions ofAlexander, Timour,Gengis Khan, or Nadir Shah, because their armies were unincumbered with the artillery and ammuni tion waggons indispensable to modern warfare. It appears from Colonel Connolly's Travels over this country, that for ten days' journey the army mustsubsist only on chopped straw, carried with itself,and that in that desert there is little or no water,and no road for wheel carriages . Still the diffi culties ofthe transit, according to him, are great rather than insuperable. [ Connolly, ii . adfin.] The point is most ahly discussed in a learned article in the United Service Journal, where all the authorities and historical facts bearing on the subject are accu mulated, and the conclusions drawn apparently equally just and irresistible. [ United Service Jour nal, No 52. ] In considering the probable success of Russia in such an undertaking, it is worthy of no tice, that she never brought more than 35,000 men into the field at any one point in the late war with Turkey nor so many as 10 000 in that with Persia;facts singularly illustrative of the difficulty of push ing forward any considerable force to such distant regions by overland passage. On the other hand,the red- coats, natives and Europeans, assembled for the siege of Bhurtpore, were as numerous as those which fought at Waterloo ( 36,000 men ) , and 188 cannons were planted in the trenches, and that too during the hottest of the struggle in the Burmese empire. Still, as the population of Russia is doub ling every half century, and she will soon have the force of Persia at her command, the British govern ment cannot too soon take measures, by alliance and otherwise, to guard against such a danger. Per haps, however, the real peril lies nearer home, and our splendid Indian empire is destined to be dis solved by domestic rather than foreign causes. Con sidering the slender tenure which we have of that magnificient dominion, and its direct exposure,since the dissolution of the India Company, to.256 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [CHAP. XXXIII.Paul.Death of But while every thing thus announced the commencement ofa desperate and bloody war between England and the northern powers,an event took place within the palace of St. - Petersburg, which at once dissolved the northern confederacy, defeated the sanguine hopes of Napoléon,and changed the face of the world . This was the death ofthe Emperol Paul,which took place on the night of the 23d March, and led immediately to theaccession of his son ALEXANDER, and a total change of policy on the part oftheCabinet of St. - Petersburg.Napoléon announced this important event to the French in these words," Paul I died on the night of the 23d March. The English fleet passed theSound on the 30th. History will unveil the connexion which may have existed between these events. " In truth there was a connexion, and an intimateone between them, though not in the way insinuated by the first consul . Theconnexion was that between flagrant misgovernment and Oriental revolution (1) .that catas Causes of In every country, how despotic soever, there is some restraint ontrophe, the power of government. When oppression or tyranny havereached a certain height, a spirit of resistance is inevitably generated, whichleads to convulsion , and this is the case equally in Oriental as European monarchy; in the age of Nero as that ofJames II . It is the highest glory and chiefbenefit of representative governments, to have given a regular and constitutional direction to this necessary element in the social system, to have converted a casual and transitory burst of revenge into a regular and pacificorgan of improvement; and instead of the revolutions of the seraglio , introduced the steady Opposition of the British Parliament.ritation at the Czar.General ir- In Russia, this important element was unknown . No regular oruseful check upon the authority of government existed; the willof the Czar was omnipotent. Measures the most hurtful might emanate fromthe palace without any constitutional means of redress existing, and if theconduct of the Emperor had risen to a certain degree of extravagance, nomeans of arresting it existed but his destruction . Many concurring causeshad conspired to irritate the Russian noblesse at the Emperor Paul, and yetthe vehemence of his character precluded all hope of a return to more rationalprinciples of administration . The suspension of the commercial intercoursewith England, by cutting off the great market for their rude produce, hadinjured the vital interests of the Russian landed proprietors; the embargo onEnglish shipping, laid on in defiance of all the laws of war as well as the usagesofhumanity, had inflicted as deep a wound on their mercantile classes . Thearistocracy of the country beheld with undisguised apprehension all thefixed principles of Russian policy abandoned , and a close alliance formed witha formidable revolutionary continental state, to the exclusion of the maritime power on whom they depended for the sale of almost all the producewhich constituted their wealth, while the merchants felt it to be impossibleto enter into any safe speculation, when the conduct of the Czar was so variable, and equal vehemence was exhibited in conducting war against an oldally, as in forming peace with a deadly foe . The internal administration ofthe empire was, in many respects, tyrannical and capricious; and althoughthat might not by itself have led to a revolt in a country so habituated to submission as Muscovy, yet, combined with other and deeper causes ofirritation,British Legislation, in an assembly where its inte rests are neither directly nor indirectly represented ,it is impossible to contemplate without alarm the probable effect upon its future destinies of the deinocratic influence which has recently received sogreat an increase.(1) Dum. vi. 193. Jom, xiv. 263. Ann. Reg.1801, 115. Bign. i. 47.1801.] HISTORY OF EUROPE. 257it produced a powerful effect. The French dress had been rigidly proscribedat the capital; the form of a coat might bring the wearer into peril of a visit to Siberia; and the Czar had renewed the ancient custom, which the goodsense of preceding sovereigns had suffered to fall into disuetude, of compelling the noblesse, of whatever rank or sex , to stop their carriages and alightwhen they met any ofthe Imperial family. These causes, affecting equallythe interests , the habits, and the vanity of the most powerful classes, had produced that general feeling of irritation at the Government, which in freestates leads to a change of ministers , in despotic, to a dethronement of thesovereign (1) .in conSymptoms Latterly, the conduct of the Emperor had been so extravagant, asofinstantly to have given rise to a very general belief that he laboured under duct. a certain degree of insanity. This was confirmed, not less by hisprivate than his public conduct. The state papers and articles in the St. -Petersburg Gazette, which avowedly issued from his hand, or were preparedunder his direction, bore evident marks of aberration . When despatches ofimportance were presented to him from the British Government, containingterms of conciliation , he returned them unopened, after piercing them withhis penknife. In the Court Gazette of December 30, 1800, he published aninvitation to all the sovereigns of Europe to come to St.-Petersburg, and settletheir disputes by a combat in a champs clos, with their ministers, Pitt, Thugut, Bernstorff, and Talleyrand , for esquires (2) . He was so much enraged atPrussia for not instantly falling into his vehement hostility towards GreatBritain, that he threatened some months before to put a stop to all intercourse between his subjects and the north of Germany, and immediately before his death entertained seriously the project of closing all the harbours inEurope against the British commerce, and overwhelming her Indian possessions by a cloud ofTartars and Kalmucks (3).amongthehis de throne ment.Conspiracy Alarmed at this perilous crisis of public affairs, several ofthe leadnobles for ing nobles in Russia entered into a conspiracy, the object of which,at first, was to dethrone the Czar merely, without depriving himoflife; but experience in every age has confirmed the adage, thatfrom the prisons to the grave of princes is but a step. The governor of St.Petersburg, Count Pahlen, a minister high in the confidence ofthe Emperor,was deeply implicated in the conspiracy; and General Bennigsen, who afterwards bore a distinguished part in the war against France, is supposed tohave taken a leading share in carrying it into execution . The plot was communicated to Paul's two sons , the Grand Duke Alexander, and Constantine,though without any insinuation that it would be attended with danger totheir father's life, it being merely held out that the safety of the empire in dispensably required that the Emperor's insanity should be prevented fromdoing any farther detriment to the public interests. The apprehension of private danger induced the young princes to lend a more willing ear thantheymight otherwise have doneto these proposals; for, independent, of the naturalviolence of their father's temperament, with which theywere well acquainted,they were aware that he had become lately prejudiced against his nearest relations, and had dropped hints to the Princess Gagarin, the object of his chivalrousdevotion, ofhis intention of sending Alexander to Siberia, immuring Constantine in afortress , and the empress-mother in a cloister. But notwithstanding thisdanger, it was with great difficulty that the young princes could be brought to" (1 ) Bign. i. 430, 433. Nap . ii . 152, 153. (3) Ann. Reg. 1801 , 114, 115. Jom. xiv. 265.(2) " Latterly, said Napoléon, " I think Paul Hard. vii. 41.was mad. "-O'MEARA, 380.JV. 17258 HISTORY OF EUROPE. [ CHAP. XXXIII.nation. Itsgive their consent to the conspiracy; and Alexander in particular, the eldestson, only yielded on condition that his father's life should be spared (1) .His assassi- On the evening before his death , Paul received a note, when atparticulars Supper with his mistress, warning him of the danger with whichhe was threatened . He put it in his pocket, saying he would read it on themorrow (2) . He reti ed to bed at twelve. At two in the morning PrinceSubof, whose situation and credit in the palace gave him access at all timesto the imperial chambers, presented himself with the other conspirators atthe door. A hussar, who refused admission, was cut down on the spot, andthe whole party entered , and found the royal apartments empty. Paul, hearing the noise, had got up, and hid himself in a press. "He has escaped,"said some of the conspirators. " That he has not, " return Bennigsen. " Noweakness, or I will put you all to death. " At the same time Pahlen, whonever lost his presence of mind, put his hand on the bed-clothes, and feeling them warm , observed that the Emperor could not be far off, and hewas soon discovered , and dragged from his retreat . They presented to theEmperor his abdication to sign . Paul refused . A contest arose, and in thestruggle an officer's sash was passed round the neck of the unhappy monarch, and he was strangled after a desperate resistance (5) . The two granddukes were in the room below. Alexander eagerly inquired , the moment itwas over, whether they had'saved his father's life . Pahlen's silence told tooplainly the melancholy tale, and the young prince tore his hair in an agonyofgrief, and broke out into sincere and passionate exclamations of sorrow atthe catastrophe which had prepared the way for his ascent to the throne. Thedespair of the empress and the Grand Duke Constantine was equally vehement; but Pahlen, calm and collected , represented that the empire indispensably required a change of policy, and that nothing now remained butfor Alexander to assume the reins of government (4) .The evident symptoms of insanity which this ill -fated monarch evincedtowards the close of his reign, his fickleness of conduct, tyrannical usage ofBritish seamen, and general extravagance of demeanour, must not throw intothe shade the good qualities which at an earlier period he displayed , and the important ameliorations which he effected in his country. He first esta- blished the hereditary succession to the crown; a matter of infinite importance in a government partaking so largely of the Oriental character . Hisimprovements in the administration of the army were immense, and laid the foundation of the rapid strides which it made under his more fortunate successor. His prodigalities even contributed to the circulation of wealth, andsensibly augmented the public improvement. He was vehement, inconstant,and capricious, but not without a large intermixture of generous feeling, andoccasionally capable of heroic actions (5).The influence of the causes which had occasioned this violent and frightfulrevolution speedily appeared in the measures which the young Emperor pursued on his accession to the throne. The conspirators were invested with thechief offices of state, and the Czar was compelled to take counsel from those(1) Bign. i . 434, 435. Hard. viii.(2) Prince Mechercki wrote a letter to Paul in the early part of that day to warn him of his danger,and reveal the names of the conspirators. He deli- vered the letter into the hands of Koutaitsoff,another courtier, who put it in his coat pocket, and forgot it there when he changed his dress to dine with the emperor. He returned to get it; but Paul growing impatient, sent for him in a hurry, and thetrembling courtier came back without the epistle on which so much depended . -HARD. viii . 6.( 3) The dress of Ouvaroff, one of the conspira- tors, caused him to be mistaken bythe Emperor for his son Constantine; and the last words which the unhappy monarch uttered were, " And you too, my Constantine! "(4) Bign. i . 438, 439. O'Mea. i , 380. Hard. viii.86, 87.(5) Hard. viii. 91 .1801. ] 259 HISTORY OF EUROPE.immediatean accom modationland .whose hands had recently been imbrued in his father's blood, inevery thing connected with the government of the empire (1 ) .approach to The new Emperor, on the day succeeding his elevation to thethrone, issued a proclamation declaring his resolution to governwith Eng- according to the maxims and system of his august grandmother,Catherine; and one of the first acts of his reign was to give orders that theBritish sailors and captains , who had been taken from the ships laid undersequestration , and marched into the interior, should be set at liberty, andcarefully conducted, at the public expense, to the ports from which they hadbeen severally taken. Atthe same time all prohibitions against the export ofcorn were removed; a measure of no small importance to the famishing population of the British isles, and hardly less material to the gorged proprietors ofRussian produce. The young Emperor shortly after wrote a letter withhis own hand to the King of England, expressing in the warmest terms hisdesire to re-establish the amicable relations of the two empires; a declarationwhich was received with equal shouts ofjoy in London as St. - Petersburg (2) .Perhaps no sovereign since the days of the Antonines ever wascalled to higher destinies, or more worthily filled an importantplace in the theatre of the world than the Emperor Alexander. Placed at thehead ofthe most powerful and rising empire in existence, stationed midwaybetween ancient civilisation and barbaric vigour, he was called to take thelead in the great struggle for European freedom; to combat, with the energyand enthusiasm of the desert, the superiority of advanced information , andmeet the condensed military force of a revolution , which had beat down allthe strength of continental power, with the dauntless resolution and enduringfortitude which arise in the earlier ages of social existence . Well and noblyhe fulfilled his destiny. -Repeatedly defeated , never subdued, he took counsel , like his great predecessor, from misfortune, and prepared in silence thoseinvincible bands which, in the day of trial , hurled back the most terriblearray which ambition had ever marshalled against the liberties of mankind.A majestic figure , a benevolent expression of countenance, gave him thatsway over the multitude which ever belongs to physical advantages in youthful princes; while the qualities of his understanding and the feelings of hisheart secured the admiration of all whose talents fitted them to judge oftheaffairs of nations . Misunderstood by those who formed their opinion onlyfrom the ease and occasional levity of his manner, he was early formed togreat determinations, and evinced in the most trying circumstances, duringthe French invasion and the Congress of Vienna, a solidity of judgment equalled only by the strength of his resolution . A disposition naturally generousand philanthropic, moulded by the precepts of La Harpe,